請用此 Handle URI 來引用此文件: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/93186
標題: 胡錦濤時期中國對非洲維和外交之研究:從理性決策與官僚政治模型探討
China's Peacekeeping Diplomacy towards Africa in Hu Jintao Era: Viewed from the Perspectives of the Rational Actor and Bureaucratic Politics Models
作者: 何芳林
Fanie Herman
關鍵字: 中國
維和行動
決策
動機
理性決策模型
官僚政治模式
China
Peacekeeping Operations
Decision making
Motivations
Rational Actor Model
Bureaucratic Politics Model
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摘要: The importance of the study is expressed in the view that peacekeeping intervention is a tool that strengthens or fulfills China's policy goals in the United Nations Mission in Liberia (UNMIL), the UN Stabilization Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (MONUSCO), and the UN Mission in Darfur (UNAMID). China has considerable interests at stake in Africa, in terms of promoting economic cooperation or gaining access to natural resources. In order to maintain these efforts, it is imperative that a secure and stable environment is created, not only to maintain diplomatic relations with its African partners, but also to express the harmonious worldview and peaceful development concepts, which rose to prominence under the presidency of Hu Jintao. The purpose of this study is therefore to examine the extent to which peacekeeping intervention contributes to China's relations with these countries. Two models are employed to shed light on this thesis. The rational actor model (RAM) developed by Graham Allison is used in the first instance to explain the goals for each country, the options considered to reach the goals, the consequences or outcomes of choice that will ensure whether a particular option is chosen, and then selecting the option that has the consequences that rank the highest in the leadership's payoff function. The bureaucratic politics model (BPM) is used in the second instance to show the bargaining, competing and compromising positions of the bureaucracy that produces results in decisionmaking. The main finding of the RAM is that the same set of explanatory tools produces different results in each country which makes the model situation specific. In Liberia peacekeeping reinforces economic diplomacy, in the DRC peacekeeping impacts the Sino-DRC strategic and military relationship, and in Sudan peacekeeping builds a foundation for mutual economic development. The main findings of the BPM are: Ambassadors from the MFA and officers from the PLA influenced peacekeeping decisionmaking through departmental positions. The MFA advanced departmental interests by taking credit for the actions performed by the peacekeepers. The special representative for African Affairs used his bargaining skills to promote personal interests, and the PLA and MFA had competing preferences on the goals and missions of PKOs. These findings show mixed results in the countries analyzed.
就國際維和行動而言,中國在胡錦濤時期累積了豐碩的成果,成為當今非洲維和行動的主要貢獻國之一。本研究視「維和行動」為一種工具性的手段。透過維和行動,聯合國得以在賴比瑞亞、剛果和達富爾等地落實和平的目標。無論是促進經濟合作或是取得自然資源,中國在非洲擁有相當大的利益。為了維護在非洲的利益,中國的當務之急是建立一個安全和穩定的國際環境。藉由與非洲友邦的良好互動,中國得以在世界舞台上發揚「和諧世界觀」以及「和平發展」等理念;胡錦濤時期所重視的。有鑑於此,本研究的目的在於理解維和行動是否有助於增進中國與非洲地區的關係,而其發揮的影響力又有多高。作者透過艾利森的理性行為模型( RAM )和官僚政治模型( BPM )觀察中國在非洲的維和行動。理性行為模型可用於推論和解釋單一國家的目標,為達到目標而可以採取的措施,以及採用一項措施的成效和後果。官僚政治模型則可說明官僚體系的協商和議價過程。理性選擇模式(RAM)的應用顯示一個重要結果:同一套的解釋工具運用在各國案例而產生不同結果,使此模型適用性應依據具體情況而定。賴比瑞亞的維和行動強化經濟外交,而剛果的維和行動影響中國與剛果的戰略與軍事關係,蘇丹的維和行動則奠定相互經濟發展的基礎。官僚政治模式(BPM)有四大發現:一,外交部大使及解放軍官員因各自部門不同利益影響維和行動的決策;二,外交部將維和行動之成果作為自己的功勞來擴大部門利益;三,負責非洲事務的特別代表使用其談判技巧以提升個人聲望;四,不同的官僚機構之間為避免內部對抗和競爭而達成妥協。這些發現顯示官僚政治模式因被分析國家不同而產生不同結果。
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/93186
文章公開時間: 2014-01-23
顯示於類別:國際政治研究所

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