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標題: The 'Omniscience' discourse in the life insights of Wang Yan's Records of Obscure Mystic
作者: Huang Tung-Yang
關鍵字: 王琰
Wang Yan
Records of Obscure Mystic
omniscient person
weird navel
miracle tales in Buddhism
出版社: 東吳大學中文系
摘要: 「博識」是六朝志怪習見的敘寫方式和態度,以近乎全知全能的記敘口吻、甚而擬設具解說權威的「博識人物」來記敘異聞,以收證成所錄故事屬乎真實的果效。此志怪小說的敘事手法,亦見於佛教應驗錄王琰的《冥祥記》中,用以說明佛理足能辯明人生的萬事、指出其他信仰主張的錯謬,更可證明信徒經歷靈驗的真實。就論證的方式言,乃分別就不信者和信徒予以表述:其一、對不信或未知佛法者,可辨識並指出其妄知生成的原委,因為王琰相信「至心」亦即對佛教的絕對信從,便得智慧足以發現人間法及視其為真者的錯謬和盲點;其二、對於已入佛門的信徒,能就修行成果排序出深淺有別的智慧圖譜,在其中信眾可查檢自我修行的階段而得惕勵,且在信心的基礎上,信賴並接受已超越時空限制修佛有成者的信仰見解和經歷,藉此擴展自我的視野,期許至終得以轉識成智。《冥祥記》「博識」的敘寫傾向,反映含括宗教應驗錄在內的當時志怪,在造作時意欲以理服人的撰述立場;自許已深悟人生至理的王琰,亦依循當時的撰述氛圍,在書中引用冥界官方、更好援用具神異色彩的博識人物的權威話語,申言佛教教義乃顛撲不破的唯一真理,貶斥毀佛和教外一切的信仰主張。就此,可用以理解六朝志怪近於史體又好用博識立場敘寫的心理成因,以及佛教應驗記為因應時代風氣而採行的敘寫策略。
'Omniscience' was the common narration style and attitude in weird navels of the Six Dynasties. It used almost omniscient and omnipotent narrative tone and even proposed to use 'omniscient persons' with the commentary authority to narrate bizarre rumors, in order to prove that the collected tales were real. This narrative technique of the weird navel was also seen in Wang Yan's Records of Obscure Mystic, one of the miracle tales in Buddhism, in order to explain that Buddhism could sufficiently distinguish everything in life, pointed out the falsities of advocates in other faiths and further proved that the mystical experience of believers was real. The argumentation is from the point of view of a Buddhist. When the believers faced the non-believers or those who did not know Buddhism, the believers could identify and point out the whole story of the formation of false knowledge because Wang Yan believed that wisdom could be acquired through 'the perfect mind', and enough to discover mistake of the human law and the belief that it was the truth. Furthermore, the believers could understand the condition of their practice of Buddhism, thus be vigilant and encouraged. Also based on the confidence, they would trust and accept the faith insights and experience of those who were successful in practicing Buddhism, using this to extend self horizons and expecting they could eventually turn knowledge into wisdom
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