請用此 Handle URI 來引用此文件: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/95616
標題: 尼爾•史帝芬森小說《潰雪》中的文化工業與極權傾向
Culture Industry and Authoritarian Tendencies in Neal Stephenson’s Snow Crash
作者: 秦永齡
Yung-Ling Chin
關鍵字: 文化工業
後工業社會
媒體控制
意識形態
culture industry
advanced industrial society
media control
ideology
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摘要: 一個好的作品,往往可以帶給人們對生活的反思,因此具有藝術性。而《潰雪》就是這樣的一個帶有反面烏托邦色彩的作品。人們或許會訝異,為了要建構起烏托邦或反面烏托邦的世界,作者往往花下令人驚異的精力在建構故事中政治與經濟的背景。《潰雪》也是這樣的作品之一。在第二次大戰前後,法蘭克福學派對工具理性造成的社會現象有很多的批判,對他們而言,工具理性會導致無可挽回的集權型態,使法西斯主義能夠得逞,具有相當的危險性。17至18世紀歐洲地區發生的一場哲學及文化運動稱為啟蒙運動,毫無疑問的,其影響延續至今。當時理性被認為可以使人類意識從被傳統權威知識與教條束縛的不成熟的無知和錯誤狀態中解放出來。理性的概念延伸出了相信自由和平等的世界觀。在《潰雪》當中,Neal Stephenson誇張化地描述了理性可能導致的這兩個極端並存的社會: 極權與自由的社會。《潰雪》中的背景是一個自由的無政府資本主義的社會。無政府資本主義經濟學家Murray Rothbard曾說明一個美好的無政府資本主義社會願景,然而Neal Stephenson的《潰雪》中的世界,卻處處充滿極權、工具理性以及深受文化工業帶來的負面影響。本文探討與反思作品中工具理性的議題,以法蘭克福學派的觀點,檢視《潰雪》中的世界,何以是一個帶有極權傾向的資本主義社會,並檢視作品中人們的生活是否不自由不平等,或者,極端自由的政治經濟帶給人們的或許只能是神話。
Before, during and after World War II, a certain amount of the Frankfurt School’s work aimed at criticizing “technological rationality.” For these Frankfurt school philosophers, following the Enlightenment and Industrial Revolution, this instrumental rationality led to irreversible patterns of centralization which developed a trajectory toward totalitarianism, and as a result, the danger of fascism had a chance to be realized. In Europe at the Age of Enlightenment, rationality was seen by some as a power which could emancipate human consciousness from being shackled by traditional authoritative knowledge and dogma and which could liberate humankind from a state of immature ignorance and error. The concept of reason extends the belief in freedom and equality. In Neal Stephenson’s 1992 novel, Snow Crash, he exaggeratedly describes a society, where two extremes, authoritarian tendencies and freedom coexist. Unfortunately, a seemingly free society turns out to be a one-dimensional society with underlying authoritarian tendencies under the influence of culture industry. People who advocate anarcho-capitalism, such as the economist Murray Rothbard, have confidently portrayed and explained a beautiful vision of anarcho-capitalist society. However, the world portrayed in Snow Crash, which realizes almost all the basic principles of a Rothbardian anarcho-capitalist economy, is a world full of negative influences under the shadow of technological rationality and of growing authoritarian power. This thesis aims to examine whether this capitalist society in Snow Crash is a society with authoritarian tendencies or not and discusses whether human happiness, based on such an extremely free society, in both the political and the economic dimensions, is just a reversed myth.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/95616
文章公開時間: 2017-07-26
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