請用此 Handle URI 來引用此文件: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/95620
標題: 論柯慈《屈辱》中後殖民情境的倫理關係與女性
Ethical Relations and Women in the Postcolonial Context in J. M. Coetzee’s Disgrace
作者: 賴褕芯
Yu-Hsin Lai
關鍵字: 《屈辱》
後殖民主義
列維那斯
倫理
女性

Disgrace
postcolonialism
Lévinas
ethics
woman
dwelling
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摘要: 《屈辱》出版於1999年,是南非小說家柯慈的作品。雖然《屈辱》甫出版即引來諸多評論,但也替柯慈贏得第二個布克獎。《屈辱》的故事背景發生在種族隔離政策結束後不久的南非,描述一名邁入中老年的白人教授大衛•魯睿(David Lurie)如何在這樣的時代裡生存。除了大衛,書中還有其他女性角色,在在都揭露了生存在後殖民情境中人們的掙扎與困境。《屈辱》呈現的不僅是男主角的失意和失敗,更展現出後殖民情境對人們的深遠影響。男主角雖然沒有喪失自我主體,卻因為時代的轉變而進退維谷,徘徊在新舊時代的裂縫中,既無法放棄過去的榮耀和權力,又無法追上新時代的狀態。而女性角色們在這樣的情境下也備受煎熬,雖然遭遇各種困境,但仍努力在守護自我主體的過程中求生。 做為開端,在此論文中我首先分析後殖民情境。如巴巴(Bhabha)所言,被殖民地的模擬(mimicry)讓被殖民者變得不是原本的自我,但也不會成為殖民者的模樣。接著,透過列維那斯(Lévinas)的倫理,重新定義「我(“I”)」和「他者(the Other)」的關係。「我」並非一段關係中的唯一主體,「他者」的面容是我必須回應的存在。從中,我發現主角的缺失,他將自身的無所適從轉化成對女性的欲望,沉醉其中。而與主角相遇的女性們還有主角的女兒露西(Lucy),在這後殖民環境中並非如字裡行間所見那般沉默。女性本身與家(dwelling)之間的關聯密切,在這當中她們靜靜地守護著自己的主體。雖然在《屈辱》的結局裡,男主角和他的女兒似乎都做了不盡如人意的選擇,但是藉由列維那斯的倫理,我認為他們能找尋更多可能性,在扭曲的後殖民情境裡好好生存。
Disgrace is a novel published in 1999, written by South African novelist J. M. Coetzee. Although there were many comments on it when the novel was released, it still won Coetzee his second Booker Prize. Disgrace sets it background in the post-apartheid South Africa, describing an aged White professor David Lurie’s life. Except the male protagonist, there are still other female characters who disclose the struggles and dilemmas of life in the postcolonial context. Disgrace displays not only David’s frustration and loss; it also displays the effects of colonialism on the people. David does not lose his subjectivity, but wanders in the gap of past and now. He cannot give away the past glory of dominance, yet he cannot catch up to the trend now. Female characters encounter different struggles and dilemmas but they are striving for their own subjectivities. To begin interpreting the novel, I approach postcolonialism mainly from Bhabha’s mimicry, which renders the colonized people distorted figures neither of their original form nor the colonizer’s form. Then, I introduce Lévinas’s ethics of the relation between “I” and the other. Lévinas’s subversive ethical relation redefines the relation of “I” and the other; “I” am not the center of a relation but “I” have to respond to the existence of the other’s face. In this, I find that David turns his sense of loss into a desire for the other, for women in order to compensate for his loss. The other female characters and David’s daughter Lucy are not that silent in the novel as the novel apparently shows. Woman is intimately related to the dwelling; in this relation they assert their subjectivities without words. Despite the unfavorable ending, the characters advance on possibilities by Lévinas’s ethics in the postcolonial context.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/95620
文章公開時間: 2020-02-09
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