Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/95677
標題: 水楊酸甲酯吸引天敵對小黃瓜上棉蚜(Aphis gossypii Glover) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) 族群抑制效果評估
Evaluation the effectiveness of methyl salicylate on attracting natural enemies and reducing pest population: cucumber cotton aphid (Aphis gossypii Glover) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) on cucumber
作者: 董耀仁
Yaw-Jen Dong
關鍵字: 水楊酸甲酯
天敵
棉蚜
生物防治
Methyl salicylate
Natural enemies
Cotton aphid
Biological control
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摘要: 棉蚜 (Aphis gossypii Glover) 是世界性作物害蟲,在台灣棉蚜也是小黃瓜重要害蟲。因為棉蚜對農藥的抗藥性以及農藥殘留的食安問題,有必要發展安全、永續及有效的方法以代替傳統噴施殺蟲劑的防治方法。水楊酸甲酯 (Methyl salicylate) 是一種蟲害誘導揮發性成分 (Herbivore induced plant volatiles) 除了可以影響蚜蟲的行為反應外,田間施用水楊酸甲酯可吸引蚜蟲的天敵並降低蚜蟲的族群數量。因此本論文首先以黃色黏板搭配水楊酸甲酯於農業試驗所試驗田區進行調查可誘捕到的天敵種類,其次於室內及戶外以小黃瓜盆栽試驗探討施用水楊酸甲酯對棉蚜的直接與間接影響,包括有翅型棉蚜到寄主植物、生長發育、族群成長、水楊酸甲酯對棉蚜天敵的最佳誘引濃度、水楊酸甲酯的有效距離、水楊酸甲酯對綿蚜的生物防治效果及比較水楊酸甲酯及棉蚜的存在與否對棉蚜天敵停留於小黃瓜植株的影響。再者本論文亦比較小黃瓜分別施用水楊酸甲酯與棉蚜防治藥劑派滅淨 對棉蚜防治效果的差異。試驗結果顯示搭配水楊酸甲酯的黃色黏板誘捕到束小瓢蟲 (Scymnus Pullus sodalis Weise)、四斑小瓢蟲 (Scymnus Pullus quadrillum Motschulsky)、褐草蛉 (Brown lacewing)、南方小黑花椿象 (Orius strigicollis Poppius)、小鐮花椿象 (Cardiastethus exiguus Poppius) 及中華斑腿盲椿象 (Campylomma chinesis Schuh) 的數量顯著多於對照組;但水楊酸甲酯搭配黃色黏板對上述天敵誘引的效果取決於使用濃度。水楊酸甲酯對棉蚜無直接不利影響,包括有翅型棉蚜到寄主植物、棉蚜的生殖、生長發育及族群成長。有0.1%水楊酸甲酯的小黃瓜植株於遭受棉蚜危害時,可吸引棉蚜天敵束小瓢蟲前來並且有效降低小黃瓜植株上棉蚜的數量。在距離0.1%水楊酸甲酯10公尺距離內,受棉蚜危害小黃瓜植株上棉蚜數量顯著少於對照組,同時小黃瓜植株上束小瓢蟲的數量顯著多於對照組。此外0.1%水楊酸甲酯處理組小黃瓜果實產量與派滅淨處理組間無顯著差異。根據本試驗結果顯示於本試驗條件下施用0.1%水楊酸甲酯處理小黃瓜有潛力可取代殺蟲劑作為對棉蚜的防治方法。然而大面積的田間試驗有必要進行以確認施用水楊酸甲酯對防治小黃瓜棉蚜的有效性且相關保育生物防治措施的配合也需要在未來進一步研究。
The cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii (Glover), is a major pest of many crops worldwide and a major cucumber plant pest in Taiwan. Because cotton aphid rapidly develop insecticide resistance and because of the insecticide residue problem, a safe and sustainable method is required to replace conventional insecticide control methods. Methyl salicylate , a herbivore-induced plant volatile, has been shown to affect aphids’ behavior and attract the natural enemies of aphids for reducing their population. Therefore, methyl salicylate was first field-tested for the effectiveness of attracting natural enemies in Agricultural Research Institute. Then, this study evaluated the direct effects of methyl salicylate on cotton aphids’ settlement, reproduction, nymph developmental time, population development, and attractiveness to natural enemies. The efficiency of using methyl salicylate and the commercial insecticide pymetrozine for reducing the cotton aphid population in laboratory and outdoor cucumber plant pot was also examined. The results showed that yellow sticky paper baited with methyl salicylate significantly attracted more Scymnus Pullus sodalis Weise, Scymnus Pullus quadrillum Motschulsky, brown lacewing, Orius strigicollis Poppius, Cardiastethus exiguus Poppius and Campylomma chinesis Schuh than control and the attractions were different followed by different concentrations. There were no difference in winged aphids’ settlement, reproduction, nymph developmental time and population development between the methyl salicylate treatment and control. Cucumber plants infested with cotton aphid and baited with 0.1% methyl salicylate contained significantly higher numbers of the natural enemy of cotton aphid, namely S. sodalis. Furthermore, methyl salicylate-treated cucumber plants contained a lower number of cotton aphid. Significantly lower cotton aphid numbers were found on cucumber plants within a 10-m distance of methyl salicylate application. In addition, fruit yield showed no difference between the methyl salicylate and pymetrozine treatments. According to our findings, under our tests condition, 0.1% methyl salicylate application can replace insecticides as a cotton aphid control tool. However, large-scale experiments are necessary to confirm its efficiency and related conservation biological control strategies before further use.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/95677
文章公開時間: 2018-01-08
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