請用此 Handle URI 來引用此文件: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/95723
標題: 利用台灣原生物種開發秋海棠新品種
To create novel Begonia cultivar with the germplasm of Taiwan endemic spp.
作者: 游宏程
Hung-Cheng Yu
關鍵字: 秋海棠
embryo culture
interspecific hybridization
polyploid mutant
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摘要: 本試驗調查不同型態之秋海棠物種開花生理及花粉活力,並與台灣原生蘭嶼秋海棠 (Begonia fenicis) 及溪頭秋海棠 (B. chitoensis) 進行種間雜交,透過胚培養技術藉以提升育種效率及縮短育種時程,創造具台灣秋海棠血緣及新穎性狀之秋海棠雜交種。此外亦使用秋水仙素進行多倍體誘變,恢復具優良性狀但不具花粉稔性之商業品種,以進行後續育種試驗。並利用多倍體化提升作物對環境之適應能力,創造出多樣倍數性之種質資源。 台灣原生秋海棠物種於台中霧峰地區之自然花期,蘭嶼秋海棠為2月至8月;溪頭秋海棠花期為12月至翌年5月。觀葉型秋海棠花期為11月至翌年2月與4月及5月;竹節型秋海棠與四季秋海棠為周年開花,而球根型秋海棠花期則侷限於12月至翌年3月。上述秋海棠物種及品種花粉以Dewitte培養基培養於黑暗環境中1小時,於蔗糖濃度10%溫度25-30℃下有最佳之花粉發芽率。 秋海棠種間雜交試驗中,以溪頭秋海棠與蘭嶼秋海棠作為父本時,於所有組合中均可獲得雜交子代,然而作為母本時僅Begonia chitoensis × B. ''Kagayaki''及B. fenicis分別與B. ''KinKan''、B. ''Poseidon''、B. ''Kagayaki''及B. ''Honoho-no-mai''部分組合可獲得後裔,顯示單向不親合現象可能發生於本試驗中。而種間雜交後代多數植株性狀介於雙親之間。溪頭秋海棠為父本與觀葉秋海棠之組合其植株分櫱性增加且花期增長;於竹節型秋海棠為親本之組合其子代節間縮短分櫱性提升,然而部分植株具有早期落蕾情形;於四季秋海棠為親本之組合其子代植株型態偏向於父本;於球根型秋海棠為親本組合其後代均不具地下塊莖,且分櫱性增加花期延長。以蘭嶼秋海棠為親本與觀葉秋海棠之組合,其子代株型與母本相似且生長勢慢;於竹節型秋海棠為親本之組合其子代莖節不明顯且株高縮短分櫱性提升,部分植株同樣具有早期落蕾情形;於四季秋海棠為親本之組合其子代葉片質地與父本相似;於球根型秋海棠為親本之組合其後代不具地下塊莖,但生長勢弱且葉片容易出現嵌紋。利用流式細胞儀檢測雜交子代之相對DNA含量均介於雙親之間。經RAPD檢測雜交子代皆具備雙親之特異性條帶,證實為真實之雜交種。 利用不同濃度之秋水仙素分別進行瓶外與瓶內誘變,並且在10 g L-1秋水仙素液體配合棉花球處理下於四季秋海棠''Big®-Bronze leaf-Rose''有最高之芽體誘變率,共獲得7株誘變株;於瓶內0.1 g L-1濃度處理下球根型秋海棠B. pearcei有最高之芽體誘變率,共獲得4株誘變株。然而兩物種所獲得之誘變株於葉片厚度兩者皆為增加、葉柄長度皆為減少。經流式細胞儀檢測其相對DNA含量證實有染色體加倍現象。
In the present study, we investigated the flowering physiology and pollen viability in different type of begonia species and applied as the parents to cross with Taiwan endemic species, such as Begonia fenicis and B. chitoensis. To promote breeding efficiency and reduce breeding schedule, the embryo rescue technique was used to create the relative with Taiwan begonia species and novel characteristic of begonia hybrids. In addition, we applied the colchicine treatment to restore the good traits of commercial species without pollen fertility for future breeding work. By poliploidization, we expected to enhance the adptability of crops under the unfavorable enviroments and to creat gerplasm resources with diverse polidy. Taiwan endemic begonia species were grown in the Taichung Wufeng district, and anthesis period were as follows: Begonia fenicis blossomed from February to August, B. chitoensis blossomed form December to May of next year, Rex begonia blossomed from November to February, April and May of next year, Cane-like begonia and semperflorens begonia blossomed all year-round. Tuberous begonia blossomed just limited from December to March of next year. In Dewitte medium, the optimal temperature and sucrose concentration for pollen germination of begonia species were 25-30℃ and 10% respectively by incubation in dark environment for one hour. Using Begonia chitoensis and B. fenicis as pollen donor, all combinations were obtained progenies successfully in the interspecific hybridization experiment. However, when B. chitoensis was used as maternal donor, crossing with B. ''Kagayaki'' can obtain the offspring successfully. When B. fenicis was utilized as maternal donor, crossing with B. ''KinKan'', B. ''Poseidon'', B. ''Kagayaki'' and B. ''Honoho-no-mai'' the partial combination can only partially obtained hybrid offspring. It seems to exhibit unilateral incompatibility in the reciprocal cross between our researches. Most characteristics of the interspecific hybrids were shown in intermediate type to their parents. Progenies crossed by Rex begonia and B. chitoensis had the increase anthesis period and show more tiller of plant type. Progenies crossed by cane-like begonia and B. chitoensis had the reduced plant height and enhanced tiller. Some individual plant had male flower precocious phenomenon. Progenies crossed by B. semperflorens and B. chitoensis had the similar plant type with pollen donor. Progenies crossed by begonia tuberous and B. chitoensis showed were no tuber geophyte, but increased the tiller of plant and period of anthesis. Progenies crossed by Rex begonia and B. fenicis had the similar plant type as maternal donor, but the growth potential were weak. Progenies crossed by cane-like begonia and B. fenicis had inconspicuous internodes, shorter plants, and more tiller. Partially individual plants had male flowers precocious phenomenal. Progenies crossed by B. semperflorens and B. fenicis had similar leaf texture with male parent. Progenies crossed by begonia tuberous and B. fenicis exhibit no tuber geophytel, weak growth potential, and mosaic leaves. The relative DNA content of progenies was found in intermediate value between their parents by flow cytometry. Using RAPD, all the hybrid progenies obtained specific bands from their parents which confirmed the real hybrids. The result of different concentration clochicin treatment in vivo and in vitro, demonstrated that the Begonia semperflorens ''Big®-Bronze leaf-Rose'' had the best muntant efficiency in 10 g L-1 colchicine solution with cotton, and totally 7 polyploidy mutants were obtained. For in vitro treatment of B. pearcei, the best mutant rate was in 0.1 g L-1 colchicine medium, and totally 4 polyploidy mutants were obtained. However, both two mutants had the different outcomes to the internode length and leaf ratio. The thick of leaves were increase in both experiment, and the leight of leaf petiole were decline. The relative DNA content was confirmwd by flow cytometry which the polyploidization mutants were successfully obtained.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/95723
文章公開時間: 2021-07-06

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