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Chemical-physical properties and antimicrobial efficacy of neem oil-based waterborne polyurethanes
Waterborne polyurethane resins
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|摘要:||本研究使用異佛爾酮二異氰酸酯（Isophorone diisocyanate，IPDI）與聚四亞甲基醚二醇（Polytetramethylene ether glycol，PTMG）反應製備水性PU樹脂。第一部分為使用界面活性劑聚山梨醇酯80（Tween 80）乳化印楝油（Neem oil），製備微米化印楝油並摻合於水性PU樹脂，探討不同摻合比對樹脂薄膜性質之影響。第二部分以轉酯化反應製備印楝油甘油酯（Neem oil glyceride，NOG）為多元醇原料，取代部分PTMG合成水性PU樹脂，探討不同PTMG/NOG莫耳比對薄膜性質及塗裝性質之影響，且印楝油具備抑菌活性成分，探討樹脂薄膜之抑菌性。試驗結果顯示印楝油/Tween 80重量比1/1條件微米化印楝油之微胞粒徑小、粒徑分布窄且穩定性最佳。相較於傳統水性PU樹脂薄膜，摻合微米化印楝油薄膜之浸水重量保留率、接觸角、拉伸破壞伸長率及材料熱穩定性增加，耐溶劑試驗之重量保留率、拉伸強度、楊氏模數則降低。成功以NOG取代石化多元醇合成水性PU樹脂，NOG比例增加，其樹脂液之pH、黏度及粒徑增加。PTMG/NOG莫耳比為100/0、75/25、50/50及25/75可製備為薄膜，然PTMG/NOG莫耳比0/100之薄膜呈硬脆碎裂狀態。NOG基薄膜之浸水試驗重量保留率可高於94.9%，耐溶劑試驗為88.2%以上。NOG比例增加，其薄膜之拉伸模數及紫外光吸收率增加，破壞伸長率及熱穩定性則降低。塗膜性能結果顯示，不同PTMG/NOG莫耳比之塗膜對杉木木材均有良好之附著性及耐久性，NOG比例增加，塗膜硬度提高，然延性低而耐衝擊強度及耐磨性下降。水性PU樹脂塗膜均對50%乙醇及丙酮之溶劑抵抗性最低。抑菌試驗中，印楝油對E. coli及S. aureus具有抑菌性，不同PTMG/NOG莫耳比之薄膜具有接觸型抑菌能力。以NOG合成之樹脂薄膜摻合2、4及8%微米化印楝油，增加微米化印楝油摻合比則提升抑菌性。|
In this study, waterborne polyurethane (PU) resins were synthesized by reacting isophorone diisocyanate (IPDI) with polytetramethylene ether glycol (PTMG). The micronized emulsion of neem oil was prepared with the surfactant of Tween 80. In the first topic of this thesis, the effects of various neem oil/waterborne PU resins weight ratio on the waterborne PU solutions and films were studied. Secondly, the neem oil glyceride (NOG) was synthesized by a transesterification process. The NOG was used as polyol and replace partial PTMG. The effects of various PTMG/NOG molar ratios on the waterborne PU solutions, films and coatings were evaluated. Furthermore, neem oil was contained various bacteriostatic components and the antimicrobial efficacy of waterborne PU films synthesized with various PTMG/NOG molar ratios was investigated. The results showed that the micronized neem oil was prepared with 1/1 weight ratio of neem oil/Tween 80 had smaller micelles, narrower particle size distribution, and better stability than theirs of other weight ratio. With neem oil/waterborne PU resins weight ratio increasing, the weight retention of water resistance, surface hydrophilicity, elongation at break, and thermal stability of waterborne PU films increase while the weight retention of solvent resistance, tensile strength and Young''s modulus decrease. Waterborne PU resins were successfully synthesized with various PTMG/NOG molar ratios. With the content of NOG increasing, the pH, viscosity, and particle size of waterborne PU solutions increase. The films with PTMG/NOG molar ratio of 75/25, 50/50, and 25/75 were intact. On the other hands, film with PTMG/NOG molar ratio of 0/100 was broken brittle after preparation process. The weight retention of water resistance and solvent resistance of waterborne PU films with NOG was higher than 94.9% and 88.2%, respectively. With the content of NOG increasing, the Young''s modulus and ultraviolet (UV) absorption of waterborne PU films increase. However, the elongation at break and thermal stability decrease. Waterborne PU coating with various PTMG/NOG molar ratios showed good performance of adhesion and durability for wood. With the content of NOG increasing, the hardness of waterborne PU coatings increases. Nevertheless, the impact resistance and abrasion resistance decrease. NOG based waterborne PU coatings exhibited poor chemical resistance to 50% ethanol and acetone. Neem oil showed antimicrobial activity against E. coli and S. aureus. NOG based waterborne PU films exhibited contact killing activity against E. coli and S. aureus. With the content of micronized neem oil increasing, the antimicrobial efficacy of waterborne PU films containing NOG blending with micronized neem oil increases.
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