請用此 Handle URI 來引用此文件: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/95778
標題: 台灣與菌蠹蟲相關酵母菌之多樣性
Diversity of yeasts associated with ambrosia beetles in Taiwan
作者: 宋昭鴻
Chao-Hung Sung
關鍵字: 酵母菌
菌蠹蟲
共生
Yeasts
ambrosia beetles
symbiosis
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摘要: 酵母菌 (yeast) 是指生活史無性繁殖以出芽或斷生方式為主的真菌。酵母菌分布很廣,在土壤、海洋、河流、植物基質以及動物身上都可以發現酵母菌的蹤跡,還有一些酵母菌是與昆蟲共生。菌蠹蟲 (ambrosia beetle) 是一類會在樹木鑽鑿建立取食道的昆蟲屬於鞘翅目象鼻蟲科,這類昆蟲會攜帶並培養共生之ophiostomatoid類真菌於取食道中,利用ophiostomatoid類真菌作為營養來源,然而ophiostomatoid類真菌可能造成植物萎凋,菌蠹蟲被認為是植物病原的傳播媒介,在日本、中國、美國等地都有菌蠹蟲危害森林或果樹的報導;除了ophiostomatoid類真菌還有許多種類之酵母菌報導與菌蠹蟲共生。與昆蟲共生之酵母菌被認為參與其寄主昆蟲之費洛蒙生合成、營養消化作用以及解毒作用,讓其寄主昆蟲在生存上更具優勢。目前菌蠹蟲共生之ophiostomatoid類真菌相關的研究極為豐富,而菌蠹蟲共生之酵母菌卻相當缺乏,在如此特殊之寄主上必定仍有很多種類尚未被發現,值得我們深入研究探討。本研究幾種台灣常見之菌蠹蟲,酵母菌菌株分離自取食道表面、取食木屑、蟲體表面、整隻蟲體磨碎、儲菌器及腸道,以26S D1/D2序列比對結合形態特性鑑定物種,探討不同分離來源酵母菌種類,歸納推論其與菌蠹蟲共生之關係;本研究於台灣6個不同的採樣地點收集菌蠹蟲,共分離161株酵母菌,共計15屬30種,其中5種為已知物種,17種為台灣地區新紀錄種,1種同時為新紀錄種及新組合 (combinatio novum),以及7個新種,顯示與菌蠹蟲共生之酵母菌高度多樣性。未來這些酵母菌可應用於開發菌蠹蟲誘引物質,誘捕並防治菌蠹蟲,而一些具有特殊代謝能力之種類可以應用於生質能源。
Yeasts are fungi that reproduce asexually by budding and fission. However, the term “yeasts” has no taxonomic standing. Yeasts can be ascomycetes or basidiomyctes. Yeasts have ubiquitous distribution, and occur in diverse habitats, including soil, ocean, river, alive or dead plants and animals. Some yeast species are adapted and symbiotic with insects. Ambrosia beetles, belong to Coleoptera, Curculionidae, are insects that can tunnel into the wood and inoculate ophiostomatoid fungi carryed in the beetle’s specialized structures, mycangia. Ambrosia beetles use the ophiostomatoid fungi as their nutrition. Some ambrosia beetles can transmit plant pathogens. Cases have been reported worldwide. In addition to ophiostomatoid fungi, ambrosia beetles may have yeast associates. Yeasts symbiotic with insects are reported to be involved in the pheromone synthesis, nutrient digestion and detoxification of insects, adapting insects to their habitats. In comparison with ophiostomatoid fungi, yeasts associated with ambrosia beetles are poorly studied. In such special niche, it is supposed to have numerous unknown species to be discovered. The aim of this study was to survey the diversity of yeasts associated with ambrosia beetles. Isolations were made from beetle galleries, frass, beetle surfaces, whole beetle bodies, and digestive tracts. Identification was made by sequence blasting of 26S D1/D2 in combination with morphological features. There are 161 isolates obtained in this study, and they can be assigned to 30 species and 15 genera. Among them 7 are new species, 17 are new records, and 1 are new combination. It suggests that yeasts associated with ambrosia beetles are highly diverse and there are numerous unknown species awaiting to be discovered. The yeasts associated with ambrosia beetles have potential to develop lure to attract and then control ambrosia beetles, and may have special metabolic routes which can be applied to produce biomass energy.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/95778
文章公開時間: 2019-08-30
顯示於類別:植物病理學系

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