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|標題:||Variations in the efficacy of resistant maltodextrin formula on body fat reduction in rats fed different high-fat models|
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第一部分的結果發現，23%及40%高脂飲食組添加煉乳後，總攝取熱量及體重增加量皆顯著增加，顯示飼料中加入煉乳，能提升高油脂飼料的適口性；此外，給予大鼠難消化性麥芽糊精的試驗中，由總體脂肪來看，23%脂肪加煉乳組(23 M-C)相較於高脂飲食控制組(HF)，低及高劑量難消化性麥芽糊精都有顯著降低體脂肪的效果，但在40%脂肪加煉乳組(40 M-C)效果並不顯著，因此將選擇23%脂肪加煉乳組為誘發動物高脂之最適脂肪比例組合，並進行第二部份的實驗。
第二部分的研究中，分別利用難消化性麥芽糊精(F)、菊糖(I)及多甲氧基類黃酮(P)依不同比例搭配成FI、FP及F2P三組纖維配方，分別為F+I (1:1, w/w)、F+P (1:1, w/w)及F+2P (1:2, w/w)，經餵食動物後，FI、FP及F2P各組的總體脂肪量及肝臟三酸甘油酯含量皆較HF組有明顯(p < 0.05)下降趨勢，FI組的糞脂量略高於FP組與F2P組，經綜合評估後推定FI組為較佳組合配方，進入第三部份實驗，並參考衛福部不易形成體脂肪之保健功效評估方法進行商業配方可行性之評估。
第三部分選擇FI組為較適配方組合，以低(HF1X)、中(HF2X)及高(HF3X)三種劑量的實驗組，進行不易形成體脂肪保健功效評估。在體重變化上，各飼料組的最終體重及體重變化量皆高於控制組，再次證明以23% (w/w)油脂加煉乳之高脂肪、高熱量飲食誘導大鼠肥胖之動物模式建立成功。在食物利用率方面，HF2X、HF3X組顯著較HF組為低，表示樣品在減緩體重上的能力較佳，其中以HF3X組有較佳的效果。臟器脂肪方面，HF2X和HF3X相較於HF組有明顯的減少，且具有劑量效應(p < 0.05)。而在總體脂肪的部分，HF2X及HF3X組皆顯著低於HF組，降幅分別約為9.3%及13.7%，下降幅度與劑量呈負相關性。最後觀察各組動物之肝臟脂質濃度及糞便粗脂肪含量，發現前者之HF2X、HF3X相較於HF組有明顯(p < 0.05)的下降趨勢，HF2X、HF3X皆較HF組有較高的糞便粗脂肪排出量，推測樣品能夠減緩飲食中油脂的吸收並藉由糞便排出，進而減少體脂肪的生成。
The prevalence of obesity in the world has been increasing along with an improvement in the living quality of general public. Obesity may increase the risk of many chronic diseases. Many scientists dedicated themselves to the study of body fat-lowering effect. However, the types of high-fat diet used to induce obesity in animal models are highly variable. Little is known about the effects of fat content in diet on high-fat diet-induced obesity in animal models. For this reason, this study was divided into three parts. In part I, rats were fed diets with different fat contents (23% and 40%) with or without condensed milk in order to compare different formula combinations to induce obesity in animal models. In part II, the body fat-lowering effects of several fiber formulations were evaluated. In part III, the body fat-lowering effects of the comparatively effective fiber formulation in different dosages were evaluated. These experiments were conducted to determine the most appropriate fat content in the diet to induce obesity in animal models, and also to evaluate the body fat-lowering effects of water-soluble dietary fiber in this model. In part I, total energy intake and body weight gain were increased significantly in both groups (23% and 40% fat contents) with condensed milk addition. This result showed that adding condensed milk into diets could increase the palatability of the diets. The presence of resistant maltodextrin in the diet, either in low dose or high dose, could significantly lower total crude body fats in the group fed 23% fat diet with condensed milk addition (23 M-C) as compared with high-fat control group (HF). However, the body fat-lowering effects were not noticeable in the group fed 40% fat diet with condensed milk addition (40 M-C). It was concluded that 23 M-C was the most appropriate fat content of high-fat diet to induce obesity, and therefore it was applied in part II. In part II, resistant maltodextrin (F), inulin (I), and polymethoxylated flavones (F) were combined in different ratios to develop three formulations: FI (F+I with a 1 to 1 ratio, w/w), FP (F+P with a 1 to 1 ratio, w/w), and F2P (F+2P with a 1 to 2 ratio, w/w). The total crude body fats and hepatic triglycerides of rats in groups FI, FP, and F2P were significantly (p < 0.05) decreased compared with those in group HF. From the results, FI was considered as the best formulation among the three groups. Part III was conducted according to the evaluation method of body fat-lowering effects announced by Ministry of Health and Welfare with formulation FI as the sample. In part III, formulation FI was further divided into three dosages: low (HF1X), medium (HF2X), and high (HF3X), then evaluation was done to determine their body-fat lowering effects. Group HF and experimental groups had higher final weights and weight gains than control group, once again proving that 23% fat diet had successfully induced obesity in rats. The feed efficiency of groups HF2X and HF3X were significantly lower than that of HF group, showing that the samples have a better capacity for suppressing body weight gain, with group HF3X demonstrating the best effect among the three groups. Compared with group HF, the visceral fat in groups HF2X and HF3X decreased significantly (p < 0.05) in a dose-dependent manner. Total crude body fats of groups HF2X and HF3X were significantly lower by 9.3% and 13.7%, respectively, compared with that of group HF. Moreover, a negative correlation was observed between dosage and degree of reduction. The lipid concentrations of liver in animals fed HF2X and HF3X diets were lower than those with HF diet significantly (p < 0.05). Fecal fat excretions in groups HF2X and HF3X were also found to be higher than that in group HF. It was inferred that the sample might assist fat excretion through feces so that body fat generation was reduced. In conclusion, diets containing 23% fat and condensed milk could be used as an experimental model to induce obesity in rats. This study demonstrated that this model could be an effective way to evaluate the potential ability of water-soluble dietary fiber formula in body fat reduction.
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