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標題: Effects of carbonized soils as an amendment on Cd bioavailability in a contaminated soil.
作者: Yung-Wen Ko
關鍵字: 炭化

continuous extraction
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摘要: 表面燃燒所產生的熱能會直接或間接地傳遞至表土中,而塑造出一個炭化的環境進而改變土壤的組成,如無機礦物與有機質的結構,當這些土壤組成受熱改變後,會影響進入土壤中的污染物之遷移及宿命。由於鎘為台灣地區常見的重金屬污染物,且容易被植物所吸收利用,並透過食物鏈傳輸至人體中,對人體造成危害,故本研究將在鎘污染之土壤中添加炭化土壤,模擬表面燃燒造成土壤的炭化反應對於蕹菜鎘的生物有效性之影響。本試驗採集陽明山土壤進行不同溫度(25、200、400、600°C)的炭化,炭化後利用光譜分析觀察有機物的化學組成,再將炭化土壤以四種比例(0、1、3、5 %)添加至不同鎘濃度(0、1、3、7 mg kg-1)處理的土壤中,種植蕹菜一個月後,觀察植體生長情形、植體中吸收的鎘、種植前後土壤中的鎘含量與鎘物種的轉變,來探討富含有機質炭化土壤的添加對於鎘污染土壤生物有效性的影響。 經由傅立葉紅外線光譜分析下發現,經炭化處理有機質中脂肪族及含氧官能基如羧基會逐漸減弱,而相對提升芳香性的比例,表示炭化超過400°C,土壤其有機組成會逐漸轉變為非極性的芳香性碳結構,因此,對於鎘的吸附能力以未經炭化處理具較高含氧官能基的陽明山土為最佳,且隨著炭化溫度的增加對鎘的吸附則有逐漸下降的趨勢。不同濃度鎘處理、炭化溫度及添加比例,對於蕹菜的植株高度與地下部總長度並沒有明顯的影響,當添加無炭化的陽明山土壤與200°C炭化處理的土壤,所種植蕹菜乾重大部份皆比400°C及600°C炭化處理土壤的添加來得顯著,此因陽明山土壤中有機質含量高,且在炭化溫度為200°C時因炭化不完全,表面的官能基如羧基、氨基等含量較高,可供植體吸收利用。而無論是地下部或地上部,在植體中鎘的含量,均隨著鎘添加濃度的增加而上升,且地下部的總累積鎘量高於地上部。盆栽試驗前後土壤鎘分析結果顯示,在較低鎘濃度(1 mg kg-1)的處理相較於種植前,土壤中鎘含量因作物吸收而下降,但在較高鎘濃度(即3與7 mg kg-1)處理的土壤,土壤中鎘濃度變化差異並不顯著。連續萃取結果發現,當鎘添加量增加時,鎘主要分佈在可交換、碳酸鹽與鐵錳結合態上,由於分佈在容易被植體所吸收的交換態鎘量隨鎘添加濃度的增加有顯著的上升,故高濃度鎘的添加處理其植體吸收量亦隨之升高。而在添加未經炭化的陽明山土壤與炭化溫度200°C處理的炭化土壤時,其有機物質鍵結態皆有上升的趨勢,主要是由於陽明山土壤中富含相當多的有機物質,因此當未經炭化的土壤或炭化200°C後之土壤仍含有有機官能基,其會與重金屬產生錯合或鉗合,使得此型態的比例增加;而隨著炭化溫度的增加,其土壤中有機質及官能基含量會逐漸下降,因此,在較高炭化溫度土壤添加下,有機質結合態與控制組比較無明顯的上升。而添加未炭化與不同炭化溫度的炭化土壤時,會依所添加的比例增加,使碳酸鹽鍵結型態有上升的趨勢,此與土壤pH值因炭化土壤添加量的增加導致土壤pH的上升有關,其可以提高對於重金屬的吸附力,使鎘轉變成Cd(CO3)的形式產生沉澱,而固定在土壤中,不易被植物所吸收利用,因此,所添加炭化土壤的溫度與比例對於鎘污染土壤鎘的生物有效性皆會造成影響。
The surface fires will transfer directly or indirectly the heat to the soils, leading to the formations of a carbonized environment, and thus, the inorganic or organic compositions of soils may be changed, affecting the transformations and the fates of soil pollutants. Cadmium was one of the common heavy metal pollutants in the farmlands of Taiwan. It was easily delivered into human bodies through the food chain, causing a great hazard to human health. Therefore, the eliminations of Cd bioavailability in soils may decrease its potential toxicity to humans through the crop consumptions. In the study, the organic-enriched soil was collected from Yangminshan area and were carbonized at different temperatures (25、200、400、600°C). The carbonized Yangminshan soils were added into a Cd-contaminated soil (treated with Cd to obtain the final concentrations of 0, 1, 3, and 7 mg/kg, denoted as NCd, LCd, MCd, and HCd, respectively) with various ratios of 0, 1, 3, and 5%. The Ipomoea aquaticwas then grown in the Cd-contaminated soils for one month and the influences of Cd on plant growths, Cd uptakes, and the changes in Cd concentrations/species in soils were examined, and the alterations in the Cd bioavailability upon the additions of carbonized soils were also evaluated.   The FT-IR analyses of the carbonized soil samples found that the aliphatic and oxygen-containing functional groups, such as carboxylic groups,decreased gradually, accompanied with an increase in the non-polar aromatic groups while increasing the carbonized temperature up to 400°C. The pristine Yangmingshan soils exhibited the best adsorption capacity of Cd; however, the adsorption of Cd decreased with an increase in carbonized temperatures.It was found that the plant height and the length of the roots were slightly affected by the treatments of Cd and the additions of carbonized soils.The roots and dry weight of Ipomoea aquatic were significantly higher when the pristine and 200°C-carbonized Yangminshan soils were added into the Cd-contaminated soil as compared to that with the addition of 400°C and 600°C carbonized soils. The results may be due to the provisions of some nutrients, such as carboxyl and amino groups, from the organic matter of Yangmingshan soil, which was not affected strongly by the low temperature treatments.The Cd contents in the shoots and roots increased with an increase in Cd concentrations, and most of the Cd was accumulated in the roots. The results of pot experiments showed that Cd contents in the LCd soils decreased while the MCd and HCd treated soils remained unchanged after grown the Ipomoea aquatic. The results of sequential extractions showed that the Cd was mainly distributed in the exchangeable, carbonate, and Fe-Mn Oxides factions in Cd-contaminated soils.These Cd species exhibited high bioavailability that may lead to a significant increase in Cd uptake by plants when Cd concentrations in soils were increased. The additions of pristine Yangmingshanand 200°C carbonized soils could increase the proportions of organic bounded Cd because these soils enriched with organic functional groups.On the other hand, the carbonate bounded Cd increased when more carbonized soils or high temperature carbonized soils were added into the Cd-contaminated soils. An increase in soil pH values upon the addition of the carbonized soils may lead to the conversion of Cd species to CdCO3 precipitates, declining Cd uptake by plants. Accordingly,the addition of various ratios of carbonized soils treated with different temperatures would lead to the transformations in the species and bioavailability of Cd in the Cd-contaminated soils.
文章公開時間: 2020-08-02
Appears in Collections:土壤環境科學系



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