Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/96521
標題: 台灣畫眉之外觀特徵和族群遺傳結構探討
Characteristics and population genetic structure of Hwamei in Taiwan
作者: 林晨娟
Chen-Jyuan Lin
關鍵字: 畫眉鳥
野外調查
族群遺傳結構
Hwamei
field study
population genetic structure
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摘要: 畫眉鳥廣泛分布於中國南部、中南半島北部、海南島與台灣。過去由地域分為三個亞種,分別為中國畫眉(Garrulax c. canorus)、海南島畫眉(G. c. owstoni)和台灣畫眉(G. c. taewanus)。外觀上台灣畫眉和其他兩種畫眉最大的差異在於台灣畫眉沒有白色的眼圈與眉線。在2006 年台灣畫眉已正式獨立為一個種別,並在2007 年由Garrulax 屬移至Leucodioptron, 因此目前台灣畫眉學名為Leucodioptron taewanum。台灣曾經走私與進口中國畫眉以作為籠飼鳴鳥。民眾在飼養途中飛失或惡意棄養造成野外出現了台灣畫眉與中國畫眉的雜交種,台灣畫眉的基因獨特性正受到侵害。為了瞭解目前台灣野外畫眉鳥的族群基因受漸滲雜交(introgression)的情況,本研究於全台各地野外紀錄了194 隻畫眉鳥的外觀特徵,並且採集了血液樣本。外觀特徵包括體長、自然翼長、尾長、全頭長、嘴長、皮膚上嘴長、皮膚下嘴長、嘴基寬、嘴厚、附蹠長、附蹠寬、足墊長、指球、體重和眼線或眉線有無這16 種特徵。由於畫眉當場釋回原地,樣本的血液所能萃取的DNA 有限,故以全基因複製作為PCR 的模板股。分析粒線體上的5 個基因與體染色體上的17 個片段。部分定序為次世代基因定序,部分以傳統Sanger 定序。在外觀特徵上自然翼長、最大翼長、尾長、全頭長、附蹠長、指球在性別間有顯著差異,體長、嘴長、皮膚上嘴長和體重則是在性別間有差異。從粒線體DNA 上的CYTB、ATP6、ATP8、COII 和ND2 基因的核苷酸多態性(Nucleotide diversity, Pi)與遺傳多態性(Geneticdiversity, θw)皆較過去台灣畫眉資料所顯示為高,推測所分析的樣本可能有被中國畫眉漸滲。以各個個體CYTB 基因建構Neighbor-joining (NJ)系統發生樹,並且加入中國畫眉之序列做為比較。NJ 樹可以明顯地將樣本分為兩群,而五個樣本在演化上是較接近中國畫眉的。在NJ 樹中並無明顯的因為形態特徵的有無而歸類為演化較為相似的群體,亦無因地緣關係而演化相似的群體。其他體染色體序列片段亦無明顯分群。因此推測台灣野外畫眉已受中國畫眉漸滲,但是因分化時間不夠久,目前以基因層次觀察並不明顯。若欲保存台灣畫眉特殊外觀,則選擇移除野外有眼圈和眉線之個體為可行之方法。
Hwamei birds are distributed over the south of China, northern Indochina, Hainan and Taiwan. The Hwameis were described as three subspecies. Hwamei in Taiwan (Garrulax. canorus taewanus) is distinct from the other two subspecies (G. c. canorus and G. c. owstoni) because of lacking the white eye ring and eyebrow. Taiwan Hwamei has been recognized as an independent species in 2006. Later, the other two Hwamei subspecies as well as Taiwan Hwamei have been assigned to a new genus called Leucodioptron. The legal trade and illegal smuggling of Chinese Hwamei (L. canorus) into Taiwan may have caused the occurrence of hybridization between Taiwan Hwamei and L. canorus in the field. We recorded the morphological characteristics and collected the blood sample from wild Hwamei populations in different locations of Taiwan. A total of 16 morphological characteristics were recorded: the length of body, length of wing, maxima of wing length, length of tail feather, whole head length, length of bill, width of bill, length of tarsus, width of tarsus, length of digit 1 to digit 3, width of digit 1, the body mass, and in particular, the existence of eye ring or eyebrow. Due to the limited blood samples, we performed whole genome amplification (WGA) on all genomic DNA samples and then used these WGA products as templates for our polymerase chain reactions (PCRs). We amplified the 5 mitochondrial genes (CYTB, ATP6, ATP8, COII and ND2) and 17 ['autosomal regions, and subsequently the next generation sequencing (NGS) and Sanger sequencing were used to generate their sequences. Our results of morphological analyses showed the significant differences of the length of wing, maxima of wing length, length of tail feather, whole head length, length of tarsus and width of digit 1 between males and females. Based on the sequence analyses, we found that the estimates of nucleotide diversity (π) and genetic diversity (θw) for each of mitochondrial genes in our Hwamei populations were higher than those in the Chinese Hwamei or Taiwan Hwamei species investigated in the past studies. These results suggested that the individuals from our Hwamei populations collected from different locations in Taiwan might be an outcome of the introgression caused by Chinese Hwamei. We further constructed the neighbor-joining (NJ) tree to reveal the genetic relationship among the individuals from different locations. In this study, we were unable to find the clear correlation between our NJ tree result and morphological characteristics or locations, suggesting that this uncertainty might result from the possible hybridization occurring between endemic Taiwan Hwamei and invasive Chinese Hwamei. Moreover, we would suggest that the removal of individuals with eye ring or eyebrow might be applicable to preserve the unique appearance of Taiwan Hwamei.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/96521
文章公開時間: 2020-08-14
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