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Anti-fatigue activities and sensory characteristics of enzymatic hydrolysate from drip chicken essence by-product
Drip chicken essence
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|摘要:||近年來，滴雞精產品逐漸受到消費者喜愛，隨著滴雞精生產量日益增加，滴雞精萃取副產物也隨之增加。先前之試驗結果顯示，寡產雞滴雞精之製成率約為35%，而剩餘之雞肉渣副產物約佔65%，但雞肉渣副產物至今仍無有效之利用方法。因此，本試驗以研究寡產雞滴雞精副產物之利用為目的，利用酵素水解滴雞精肉渣，探討水解產物對於小鼠之抗疲勞效果，及水解產生之胜肽及梅納反應產物之風味表現，以期有效利用滴雞精副產物並提升其經濟價值。試驗一利用三種蛋白酶(A, B, C)水解滴雞精肉渣，以正交試驗法篩選最適合之水解酵素及條件(1.5% 酵素C、60℃、pH 6.0、水解2小時)，並進行動物試驗分析其抗疲勞效力。動物試驗使用40隻6週齡ICR公鼠，隨機分成5組，分別為控制組(蒸餾水)、肉渣萃取液組(未經酵素水解)及低(0.96 g/kg)、中(1.92 g/kg)、高(4.8 g/kg)劑量水解液組，連續餵給28天，進行力竭游泳等抗疲勞試驗，並分析肝臟肝醣含量及血液生化值，以觀察其抗疲勞之效果。結果顯示，餵給水解液之處理組游泳時間皆顯著較控制組及肉渣萃取液組長，其中又以高濃度組有最佳之表現(P < 0.05)，而30秒肌耐力及前肢拉力試驗也顯示相似之結果。血液生化值方面，游泳後控制組及肉渣萃取液組之血糖顯著低於處理組，水解液處理組能夠有效抑制運動後血乳酸、血尿素氮及磷酸肌酸激酶之累積(P < 0.05)。補充水解液之組別亦有顯著較高之肝臟肝醣儲存量，以避免運動時低血糖引發疲勞(P < 0.05)。由上述結果可知，餵給水解液可顯著減緩疲勞之產生且提升小鼠之運動表現，並且不會對其造成負面影響。試驗二利用三種蛋白酶(D, E, F)水解滴雞精肉渣，並分析各組之製成率、水解率、胜肽含量及可溶性蛋白含量，篩選適合之條件並進行梅納反應，比較其感官品評之表現並分析游離胺基酸成份。結果顯示，酵素水解處理能夠顯著提升製成率及胜肽含量(P < 0.05)，其中以酵素F之製成率及水解率最高。感官品評方面，則是酵素D之水解產物經梅納反應處理後有最佳表現，並且游離胺基酸分析結果顯示，梅納反應有減少苦味胺基酸及增加麩胺酸(Glu)含量之趨勢，減少水解產物之苦味並提升鮮味，適合進一步研發成風味物質使用。綜觀上述結果，可知滴雞精副產物經酵素水解後具有抗疲勞效果，並且其梅納反應產物能有效提升感官品質，未來可進一步開發成抗疲勞健康食品以及風味物質，以提升滴雞精副產物之經濟價值。|
For these past few years, drip chicken essence has been more popular among the consumers. The increased profit gain has also stimulated the production. This has also produced more by-products in account to higher production of drip chicken essence. The previous study shows that the production rate of drip chicken essence from spent hens is about 35 %. In other words, the rest of meat residues account for 65 %.But the industry has yet to find a way to efficiently utilize the meat residues. The aim of the study is to clarify the anti-fatigue effect of drip chicken essence by-product hydrolysate, in hope to increase the value of the by-product of drip chicken essence. In the first study, chicken meat residues were hydrolyzed with three protease (enzyme A, enzyme B, enzyme C). Effects of hydrolysis conditions were studied through orthogonal experiment, and optimization hydrolysis conditions were obtained.The hydrolysate were used to evaluate anti-fatigue eﬀect and probable mechanisms. Forty 6-week-old male ICR mice were randomly divided into five groups of eight mice each: a control group given distilled water, a meat extract group without enzymatic hydrolysis and low-dose(0.96 g/kg), medium-dose(1.92 g/kg), high-dose(4.8 g/kg) meat residue hydrolysate groups. Samples were administered by gastric intubation using a feeding atraumatic needle, once per day for 28 consecutive days. The average swimming time, hepatic glycogen and biochemical parameters were measured. Compared with the control group, all of the meat residue hydrolysate groups, especially the high-dose treatment prolonged the swimming time of mice (P < 0.05). The 30 seconds muscle endurance score and the tensile force test showed the similar result with the swimming test. After swimming, the blood glucose and hepatic glycogen of control group and meat extract group were significantly lower than meat residue hydrolysate groups (P < 0.05).The blood lactic acid, blood urea nitrogen and creatine phosphokinase concentration of control group were significantly higher than meat residue hydrolysate groups (P < 0.05). In the second study, chicken meat residues were hydrolyzed with three protease (enzyme D, enzyme E, enzyme F). The Yield, degree of hydrolysis, peptide concentration, soluble protein concentration and sensory evaluation of meat residue hydrolysate were determined. The optimization hydrolysis conditions were obtained to prepare protein hydrolysate and Maillard reaction products. In summary, protein hydrolysis could remarkably increase the yield and peptide concentration of meat residue (P < 0.05), especially the hydrolysate group of enzyme F. The Maillard reaction exhibited a distinctly enhanced effect on flavor and a greatly reduced bitterness. The sensory evaluation of Maillard reaction products prepared from hydrolysate of enzyme D exhibited the strongest umami tastes . As for overall acceptance, Maillard reaction products of enzyme D hydrolysate was better than other treatments.Conclusively, meat residue hydrolysate could alleviate physical fatigue without negative effects, and the Maillard reaction products could improve the flavor performance.
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