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Effects of dietary supplement of nano-emulsified vitamin E on recovery of post-mastitis mammary gland in Holstein cows
nano-emulsified vitamin E
mammary gland recovery
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|摘要:||乳房炎是乳牛場中感染率最高且影響經濟效應最大的感染性疾病，當牛隻罹患乳房炎會導致牛乳產量下降與支出治療費用等導致經濟上之虧損。維生素E為抗氧化劑，給予牛隻額外添加維生素E具有改善免疫性能、降低乳房炎發生率等功能性。有鑑於國內外尚未有吸收效果穩定、投予簡易之牛用液態維生素E產品，因此本試驗宗旨為評估日糧中額外補充奈米乳化維生素E對於荷蘭乳牛受損乳腺修復之影響。奈米乳化維生素E在口服給予後會經由胃腸道的蠕動與液體形成水包油的奈米級微粒滲透進入胃腸道黏膜層，可更快速進入血液循環中利用。目前尚未有文獻使用奈米乳化維生素E於牛隻，為了確保在不同生理階段牛隻皆可吸收奈米乳化維生素E，因此試驗一使用3頭泌乳牛以及1頭瘤胃開窗女牛，共4頭。以拉丁方格方式分為 (1) 控制組 (Control, CON; 無額外添加維生素E)、(2) 口服奈米乳化維生素E組 (Vitamin E, VE; 3000 IU) 及 (3) 肌肉注射維生素A, D, E組 (Intramuscular injection, IM; 250 IU)，瘤胃開窗女牛則包含CON、VE、IM以及瘤胃投予奈米乳化維生素E組 (Ruminal vitamin E, RUVE; 3000 IU) 與瘤胃投予商業粉末維生素E組 (Ruminal vitamin E powder, RUVP; 3000 IU)，並檢測牛隻血漿中維生素E的變化。結果顯示女牛與泌乳牛隻皆可吸收奈米乳化維生素E進入體循環中被利用 (與控制組相比，上升1.0-1.5 μg/mL)。試驗二使用21頭荷蘭泌乳牛，逢機分為控制組 (Control, CON; 無額外添加維生素E) 與口服奈米乳化維生素E組 (Vitamin E, VE; 3000 IU)。受試牛隻為現場人員判斷牛隻感染乳房炎，接受正常抗生素治療後，口服奈米乳化維生素E組每四天給予口服一劑3000 IU奈米乳化維生素E，控制組則無額外給予維生素E之補充。結果顯示在乳中體細胞、乳酸去氫酶與血漿中非酯化脂肪酸、β-羥基丁酸與總抗氧化能力在兩組之間均無顯著差異，但乳中乳酸去氫酶活性在口服奈米乳化維生素E組下降比例較控制組快 (VE組vs. 控制組，27.85% vs. 36.57%)。整體而言，奈米乳化維生素E可被女牛與泌乳牛吸收至體循環中利用。試驗二中結果均無顯著差異，奈米乳化維生素E的添加使乳中乳酸去氫酶下降百分較控制組迅速，因此其對於乳房炎治療後之乳腺修復或有促進效果，但仍待進一步探討。|
Mastitis is the most economically challenging and the most problematic disease in dairy cow throughout the world. Mastitis does not only cause the temporarily yield loss but also lead to the permanent damage to the udder. There is evidence that vitamin E supplementation is associated with a decreased incidence of mastitis and improved immune response. Due to the lack of information about the efficacy of liquid formulate vitamin E via oral-administration, the aim of this study is to evaluate the absorption rate and its effects on recovering udder health in post-mastitis cattle. In study I, 3 lactating cows were used in a 3×3 Latin squire experiment. Cattle were divided in to 3 groups: (1) control (Control, CON; no additional supply of vitamin E), (2) oral nano-emulsified vitamin E (Vitamin E, VE; 3000 IU) and (3) commercial intramuscle injectable vitamin A, D, E (Intramuscule injection, IM; 250 IU). Moreover, one rumen fistulated heifer was determined if the nano-emulsified vitamin E would be degraded in rumen. All treatments composed of CON, VE, IM, ruminal nano-emulsified vitamin E (Ruminal vitamin E, RUVE; 3000 IU) and ruminal vitamin E powder (Ruminal vitamin E powder, RUVP; 3000IU). The results indicated that both lactating cows and heifer absorb the nano-emulsified vitamin E (1.01-1.5 μg/mL increase compared to CON) and the nano-emulsified vitamin E was not degraded in rumen. The study II was conducted in 3 commercial farms. Cows (n=21) were randomly assigned into two groups: (1) cows received 3000 IU nano-emulsified vitamin E (Vitamin E, VE) per 4 days, or (2) no additional supply of vitamin E (Control, CON) immediately following the end of antibiotics treatment. The results showed no significant difference in somatic cell counts (SCC), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity, nonestesterified fatty acid (NEFA), β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) between CON and VE groups. The percentages of LDH activity were decreased more quickly in VE compared to CON (VE vs. CON, 27.85% vs. 36.57%) suggested an improved mammary recovery. In conclusion, the nano-emulsified vitamin E is well absorbed by both heifer and lactating cows but with limited recovering ability on infected mammary glands post mastitis. Therefore, the effect of nano-emulsified vitamin E to the ability of recovering udder health post mastitis needs further investigation.
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