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Sous-vide combine sodium hydrogen carbonate marinade on meat quality and storage properties of spent hen
Sodium hydrogen carbonate
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|摘要:||本研究以碳酸氫鈉(Sodium hydrogen carbonate, NaHCO3)作為醃漬液配方，配合真空調理方式嫩化寡產雞之雞骨腿，並探討不同濃度及時間之碳酸氫鈉醃漬液對寡產雞之肉質風味與儲藏期限之影響。試驗一，選用寡產雞之馬鞍腿修整並去除多餘脂肪後分切成骨腿，配製0%、1%、2%、3%之碳酸氫鈉醃漬液進行醃漬，(1)浸泡醃漬：靜置於醃漬液中進行一般冷藏浸泡浸漬；(2)真空調理：連同醃漬液一同真空包裝封口進行冷藏醃漬，於4±2℃冷藏溫度下連續醃漬6、9、12、15小時後再真空包裝，並以100℃連續加熱20分鐘。過程中測量並計算醃漬後增重率、蒸煮失重率，取得醃漬後醃漬液進行可溶性蛋白含量分析，蒸煮後進行SDS-PAGE電泳分析、pH值、保水性、截切值與質地剖析。試驗二，選取試驗一之最佳處理(碳酸氫鈉醃漬液3%真空調理醃漬15小時)，醃漬完成後將樣品真空包裝以100℃連續加熱20分鐘蒸煮後，儲藏於4±2℃環境，於儲藏第0、1、2、3、4、6、8、10、12週進行儲藏試驗，包含色澤變化測定、2-硫巴比妥酸值(2-thiobarbituric acid, TBA)、揮發性鹽基態氮(Volatile basic nitrogen, VBN)、pH值、保水性、總生菌數、厭氧菌數、截切值及質地剖析並於儲藏第0週至第6週進行感官品評。
結果顯示，試驗一，醃漬增重、烹煮失重、產率及可溶性蛋白均以碳酸氫鈉3%有最佳表現；醃漬前與蒸煮後pH值變化量，以醃漬濃度3%有最大之差異；保水力於醃漬6-15小時中，以醃漬濃度2%與3%具最佳表現；截切值對兩醃漬處理於6、9、12小時中呈現上下波動之現象，醃漬15小時，真空醃漬組則隨濃度呈穩定下降的現象；質地剖析以真空調理方式配合3%碳酸氫鈉溶液醃漬15小時具最佳之表現；在SDS-PAGE中，可看出經3%醃漬有更小分子的band出現。試驗二，以真空調理方式配合3%碳酸氫鈉溶液醃漬15小時作為處理組，0%碳酸氫鈉溶液為對照組，儲存於4±2℃冷藏，色澤對整體儲藏期間無顯著差異，TBA值醃漬濃度0%皆高於3%；VBN與酸鹼值變化均以醃漬濃度3%均顯著較0%高(p<0.05)；保水性無顯著差異；總生菌數直至第12週方達4 log CFU/g，厭氧菌數均未超過2 log CFU/g；截切值對中醃漬濃度3%均顯著低於0%(p<0.05)，質地剖析於醃漬濃度3%較0%有較佳的表現，感官品評方面以醃漬濃度3%顯著較0%高，綜觀上述，使用3％碳酸氫鈉真空醃製15小時對寡產雞肉質有良好的改善，且於在4℃的真空條件下保存可達12週以上，未來若添加調味料改善由碳酸氫鈉引起的異味可能會產生更好的整體接受度。|
In this study, using Sodium hydrogen carbonate (NaHCO3) as the marinade liquid formula and cooperating with sous-vide to tender the meat of quarters of spent hen to evaluate its cooked meat quality, sensory and shelf life in different marinade conditions within different marinade concentration, sodium hydrogen carbonate 0%, 1%, 2% and 3%, conbined with different marinade time, 6hr, 9hr, 12hr, 15hr. Experiment 1, selecting the leg part of spent hen then cut it into two quarters then trim and remove those excess fat. Before the marination get ready to prepare 0%, 1%, 2%, 3% sodium hydrogen carbonate marinade liquid. There are two kinds of procedure of marination. First, soaking: put the chicken quarter into the clip bag contain marinating liquid and zip it under normal atmosphere. Second, sous-vide: put the chicken quarter into the vacuum packaging bag contain marinating liquid and sealed under vacuum pressure. The cold marinate at a refrigerator of 4±2°C conbined the marinade time 6, 9, 12 and 15 hr. Afer finish the marination procedure then vacuum package those marinaded chicken quarters. Sample are heated continuously at 100°C for 20 minutes. Operating those analysis after heat. During the process, the weight gaain rate, cooking loss and yield are measured and analyzed. The content of soluble protein in the marinade liquid is analyzed. Select the central meat of chicken quarter to analyze SDS-PAGE, shear force and texture profile analysis. Experiment 2, select the best treatment of experiment 1, 3% sodium hydrogen carbonate liquid conbine with sous-vide marinade 15 hr. Perform vacuum package after marinatrion process is finished. Then heat continuously at 100°C for 20 minutes after vacuum package. Final storage at 4±2°C for storage test on 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 weeks. Analyzing including color, 2-thiobarbituric acid (TBA), volatile basic nitrogen (VBN), pH value, water holding capacity, total plate counts, anaerobic plate counts, shear force and texture profile analysis. The Sensory evaluation is performed from the 0th to 6th week of storage. The results show in experiment 1 that weight gaining rate, cooking loss, yield and soluble protein which are best in 3% sodium hydrogen carbonate liquid. The pH change between before marinade and after cook as the longer marinade time the larger change in pH value, especially in 3% NaHCO3. Water holding capacity for marinade time from 6 to 15 dominated first in 2% and 3% NaHCO3. Along with the concentration higher shear force value shows irregular fluctuations in 6 to 12 hr. In 15 hr decreases steadily with the higher sodium hydrogen concentration espeally in sous-vide group. The effect of marinade time and concentration of the texture profile analysis which is comprehensive of hardness, springiness, cohesiveness, gumminess and chewiness. Sous-vide with 3% s NaHCO3 marinade for 15hr shows best in texture profile analysis. In SDS-PAGE, comparing the band between 0% and 3% NaHCO3, there are smaller band can be seen in the 3% NaHCO3. In experiment 2, Sous-vide with 3% NaHCO3 marinade for 15hr as a treatment and 0% as a control. Both groups in shelf experiment storage at 4±2°C for 12 weeks.Color shows no significant difference for whole storage time. TBA shows significant difference in 0 and 10 week (p<0.05) and 0% value is higher than 3% for whole storage time. VBN shows slowly increasing for whole storage time (p<0.05) and 3% is the higher one. 3% is higher than 0% in the change of pH value for whole storage time. The water holding capacity shows no significant difference between 3% and 0% for whole storage time. The changing of total plate counts only shows 4 log CFU/g in 12 week. The anaerobic plate counts are below 2 log CFU/g in whole storage time. Shear force value shows no significant difference in 1, 3, 6 week and for others 3% is significantly lower than 0% (p<0.05). To sum up the texture profile analysis has no significant change and 3% shows better. To sensory evaluation that appearance and flavor have no significant change in storage time. Off-flavor shows 3% higher than 0% (p<0.05) except third week. Except the 2nd week, the texture is significantly higher than 3% (p<0.05). Tenderness is significantly higher than that of 0% with the concentration of 3% (p<0.05). The juiciness is significantly higher than the 0% in the concentration except for the 6th week (p<0.05). Overall acceptance shows higher in 3% than 0% except 1, 6 week. In conclusion, using sous-vide with 3% sodium hydrogen carbonate liquid marinade for 15hr improves spent hen meat quality. And it could be conserved more than 12 weeks at 4°C. Further adding seasoning might change the off-flavor caused by sodium hydrogen carbonate might promote overall acceptance.
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