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標題: 紫梗羅勒與迷迭香萃取物之添加對豬肝醬於4±2oC儲存期間其品質的影響
Effects of Taiwan basil and rosemary extracts on the quality of pork liver pâté during storage at 4±2oC
作者: 蔡宇宣
Yu-Shiuan Tsai
關鍵字: 紫梗羅勒萃取物
Taiwan basil extract
rosemary extract
pork liver pâté.
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摘要: 肝醬具較高鐵質及脂肪含量,易於儲藏期間受到氧化之影響,故常需添加抗氧化劑以延長保存期限。紫梗羅勒 (Ocimum basilicum L.) 與迷迭香 (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) 各為東西方常用於肉品之香草植物,許多研究指出兩者皆具高抗氧化活性,具有作為抗氧化劑之潛力。故本研究旨於探討 (1) 不同溫度 (30、40及50oC) 與不同時間 (15、30、45、60、75及90分鐘) 之超音波萃取對紫梗羅勒及迷迭香萃取物之總酚與類黃酮含量之影響,(2) 添加0.1、0.2及0.3%紫梗羅勒或迷迭香萃取物於豬肝醬中對其感官品評之影響,(3) 添加0.3%紫梗羅勒或迷迭香萃取物對豬肝醬於4oC儲藏期間之品質影響。 試驗一結果顯示:紫梗羅勒以30oC超音波萃取45分鐘有顯著最高總酚含量 (3297.83 μg/mL) (P<0.05),以40oC超音波萃取90分鐘有顯著最高之類黃酮含量 (793.17 μg/mL) (P<0.05);迷迭香則以50oC超音波萃取75分鐘有最高總酚及類黃酮含量 (10259.38 μg/mL, 2769.76 μg/mL) (P<0.05)。試驗二結果顯示,隨著紫梗羅勒或迷迭香萃取物添加劑量之增加色澤有下降之趨勢。然而,添加紫梗羅勒或迷迭香萃取物可升豬肝醬之風味及氣味,並有降低豬肝味之表現,其中以0.3%萃取物添加組有較低之豬肝味表現。試驗三則以0.3%紫梗羅勒及迷迭香萃取物添加於豬肝醬中進行儲藏試驗,結果顯示:色澤方面,對照組於儲藏後期之亮度值較所有處理組顯著高 (P<0.05),紅色度則顯著較低 (P<0.05)。脂肪氧化方面,對照組於儲藏期間均較添加合成或自然抗氧化劑各組有顯著較高之氧化程度 (P<0.05)。微生物品質方面,添加紫梗羅勒或迷迭香萃取物組於儲藏後期有較高之總生菌及乳酸菌菌數。總酚殘留量方面,則以迷迭香萃取物添加組有顯著最高之總酚殘留量 (P<0.05),對照組則顯著最低 (P<0.05)。物性方面,對照組之硬度有顯著上升之趨勢 (P<0.05),添加合成或自然抗氧化劑各組間則無顯著差異,而各組之凝膠強度及黏性則隨儲藏時間增加有下降之趨勢,而各組間則無顯著差異。感官品評部分,添加紫梗羅勒或迷迭香萃取物組有較低之豬肝味,而隨儲藏時間之增加各組於各品評項目皆無顯著之變化。綜觀上述,0.3%之紫梗羅勒或迷迭香萃取物是可用於取代BHT/BHA,且有助於延緩豬肝醬於儲藏過程之氧化變化,且不會對豬肝醬造成負面之感官影響。
Liver pâté is a traditional European product and is usually eaten with bread or cracker. However, liver pâté has a high content of iron and fat and is susceptible to oxidation during storage. Therefore, antioxidants are often added to extend the shelf life. Both Taiwan basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) and rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) are herbs commonly used in meat products in the East and the West of world. Many studies have shown that both herbs have high antioxidative activity and have potential as antioxidants. Thus, the purposes of this study was to investigate (1) the optimal ultrasonic extracting conditions (temperature and time) for extracts of Taiwan basil and rosemary, and (2) the optimum amount of herb extract in pork liver pâté, (3) the effects of herb extracts on the quality of pork liver pâté stored at 4oC for 8 weeks. In the first experiment, Taiwan basil extract had the highest total phenolic contents by ultrasonic extraction at 30oC for 45 min; rosemary extract had the highest total phenolic contents at 50oC for 75 min. In the second experiment, the Taiwan basil and rosemary extract were respectively added to pork liver pâté at 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3%, and the optimum amount of herb extractst was set up by sensory panel. Based on the overall sensory score, there were no significant differences among the treatments, but 0.3% Taiwan basil or rosemary extract had the lowest score in pork liver flavor. In the third experiment, pork liver pâté was prepared with 0.3% Taiwan basil or rosemary extract, individually and 200 ppm BHT/BHA was used as a commercial control then stored at 4oC for 8 weeks. The results showed that the use of natural herb extracts or artificial antioxidants were significantly to delay the lipid oxidation of pork liver pâté (P<0.05), and also to maintain the color of the products (P<0.05) during storage, furthmore, no significant differences in sensory evaluation were found. However, the use of natural antioxidants in pork liver pâté had higher total plate count and lactic acid bacteria than the comerical control. In conclusion, 0.3% Taiwan basil or rosemary extract were not only to replace BHT/BHA as an antioxidant to delay the oxidation of pork liver pâté during storage, but also remarkably decreased pork liver flavor of pork liver pâté in this research.
文章公開時間: 2021-08-02
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