Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/96548
標題: 蛋殼於個人清潔用品應用性之評估
Evaluation of utilizing eggshell in personal cleaning products
作者: 江惠婷
Hui-Ting Jiang
關鍵字: 蛋殼
柔珠
皂化型洗面乳
動物皮膚模型
eggshell
microbead
saponification-type facial cleanser
animal skin model
引用: 行政院農業委員會。2016。105年農業統計年報。台北市,台灣。 行政院農業委員會。2010。孵化廢棄物再利用 資源回收變黃金。網址: https://www.coa.gov.tw/theme_data.php?theme=news&sub_theme=agri&id=3590。上網日期:2018/01/02。 邱標麟。1993。實用化妝品學。復文書局。台南市,台灣。 邱永慶。2000。用IPM法研製具有不同洗滌能力的香波。日用化妝品科學,23: 51-66. 林志青。2006。洗面乳配方。網址: http://l5047.pixnet.net/blog/post/101513883-%E6%B4%97%E9%9D%A2%E4%B9%B3%E9%85%8D%E6%96%B9。上網日期:2018/01/02。 柳燕。2016。《保養專題》保養品到底要擠多少?倒多少?用多少?網址: http://liubeauty.pixnet.net/blog/post/73010823-%E3%80%8A%E4%BF%9D%E9 %A4%8A%E5%B0%88%E9%A1%8C%E3%80%8B%E4%BF%9D%E9%A4%8 A%E5%93%81%E5%88%B0%E5%BA%95%E8%A6%81-%E6%93%A0%E5% A4%9A%E5%B0%91%3F%E5%80%92%E5%A4%9A%E5%B0%91%3F-。上網日期:2018/01/02。 陳韋達。2004。新化妝品學。合記圖書。新北市,台灣。 陳志恩。2013。利用廢棄物質為催化劑製作生殖柴油之研究。國立中山大學碩士論文。高雄,台灣。 馬鴻文及吳先琪。2016。土壤地下水污染場址的風險評估與管理:挑戰與機會。五南圖書。台北市,台灣。 張有義及郭蘭生。1997。膠體及界面化學入門。高立圖書。台北市,台灣。 張勝善。1999。蛋品加工學。華香園出版社。台北市,台灣。 許澤善。2006。電腦輔助功能之土壤立學試驗。高立圖書。新北市,台灣。 章蘇寧。2007。化妝品工藝學。中國輕工業出版社。北京,中國。 張洳楣、林宜蓉、管麗珍及周秀冠。2007。市售化妝品微生物之調查。物食品檢驗局調查研究年報,25: 40-45。 張凱婷。2015。廢棄蛋殼與煅燒蛋殼對水溶液中銀與鎳之吸附能力。東海大學碩士論文。台中,台灣。 張效明。2016。化妝品有效性評估。五南圖書。台北市,台灣。 張素幸及歐明秋。2016。減鹼配方對於冷製手工皂特性之影響。弘光學報,77: 155-166。 鄭星泉、周淑玉及周世偉。2009。化妝品衛生檢驗手冊。新文京開發。新北市,台灣。 趙坤山及張效明。2006。化妝品化學。五南圖書。台北市,台灣。 衛生福利部食品藥物管理署。2013。化妝品中微生物檢驗方法。台北市,台灣。 蕭淑珊。2015。蛋殼粉對於截蔬果之殺菌與保鮮作用。國立高雄海洋科技大學碩士論文。高雄,台灣。 Armelin, H. A. 1973. Pituitary extracts and steroid hormones in the control of 3T3 cell growth. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 70: 2702-2706. Avram, A. S., M. M. Avram, and W. D. James. 2005. Subcutaneous fat in normal and diseased states: 2. Anatomy and physiology of white and brown adipose tissue. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology 53: 671-683. Baker, J. R. and D. A. Balch. 1962. A study of the organic material of hen's-egg shell. Biochemical Journal 82: 352-361. Bao, S. F., W. Windisch, and M. Kirchgessner. 1997. Calcium bioavailability of different organic and inorganic dietary Ca sources (citrate, lactate, acetate, oyster-shell, eggshell, β-tri-Ca phosphate). Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition 78: 154-160. Beneventi, D., B. Carre, and A. Gandini. 2001. Role of surfactant structure on surface and foaming properties. Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects 189: 65-73. Besseling, E., A. Wegner, E. M. Foekema, M. J. van den Heuvel-Greve, and A. A. Koelmans. 2012. Effects of microplastic on fitness and PCB bioaccumulation by the lugworm Arenicola marina (L.). Environmental Science & Technology 47: 593-600. Bhattacharya, P., S. Lin, J. P. Turner, and C. K. Pu. 2010. Physical adsorption of charged plastic nanoparticles affects algal photosynthesis. Journal of Physical Chemistry C 114: 16556-16561. Boerger, C. M., G. L. Lattin, S. L. Moore, and C. J. Moore. 2010. Plastic ingestion by planktivorous fishes in the North Pacific Central Gyre. Marine Pollution Bulletin 60: 2275-2278. Bondi, C. A., J. L. Marks, L. B. Wroblewski, H. S. Raatikainen, S. R. Lenox, and K. E. Gebhardt. 2015. Human and environmental toxicity of sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS): evidence for safe use in household cleaning products. Environmental Health Insights 9: 27-32. Browne, M. A., A. Dissanayake, T. S. Galloway, D. M. Lowe, and R. C. Thompson. 2008. Ingested microscopic plastic translocates to the circulatory system of the mussel, Mytilus edulis (L). Environmental Science & Technology 42: 5026-5031. Chaudhary, B. and S. Verma. Preparation and evaluation of novel In Situ gels containing acyclovir for the treatment of oral herpes simplex virus infections. The Scientific World Journal 2014: 1-7. Cole, M., P. Lindeque, E. Fileman, C. Halsband, R. M. Goodhead, J. Moger, and T. Galloway. 2013. Microplastic ingestion by zooplankton. Environmental Science & Technology 47: 6646-6655. Cork, M. J., S. G. Danby, Y. Vasilopoulos, J. Hadgraft, M. E. Lane, M. Moustafa, R. H. Guy, A. L. Macgowan, R. Tazi-Ahnini, and S. J. Ward. 2009. Epidermal barrier dysfunction in atopic dermatitis. Journal of Investigative Dermatology 129: 1892-1908. Daengprok, W., W. Garnjanagoonchorn, and Y. Mine. 2002. Fermented pork sausage fortified with commercial or hen eggshell calcium lactate. Meat Science 62: 199-204. Dale, B. A., K. A. Resing, J. D. Lonsdale-Eccles. 1985. Filaggrin: a keratin filament associated protein. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 455: 330-342. De Mul, M. N. G., H. T. Davis, D. F. Evans, A. V. Bhave, and J. R. Wagner. 2000. Solution phase behavior and solid phase structure of long-chain sodium soap mixtures. Langmuir 16: 8276-8284. Dennis, J. E., S. Q. Xiao, M. Agarwal, D. J. Fink, A. H. Heuer, and A. I. Caplan. 1996. Microstructure of matrix and mineral components of eggshells from white leghorn chickens (Gallus gallus). Journal of Morphology 228: 287-306. Dominguez, A., A. Fernandez, N. Gonzalez, E. Iglesias, and L. Montenegro. 1997. Determination of critical micelle concentration of some surfactants by three techniques. Journal of Chemical Education 74: 1227. Draize, J. H., G. Woodard, and H. O. Calvery. 1944. Methods for the study of irritation and toxicity of substances applied topically to the skin and mucous membranes. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 82: 377-390. Edoga, M. 2009. Comparison of various fatty acid sources for making soft soap. Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences 4: 110-113. Elias, P. M. 2005. Stratum corneum defensive functions: an integrated view. Journal of Investigative Dermatology 125: 183-200. Elias, P. M. and D. S. Friend. 1975. The permeability barrier in mammalian epidermis. The Journal of Cell Biology 65: 180-191. Elias, P. M., N. Matsuyoshi, H. Wu, C. Lin, Z. H. Wang, B. E. Brown, and J. R. Stanley. 2001. Desmoglein isoform distribution affects stratum corneum structure and function. The Journal of Cell Biology 153: 243-250. Foekema, E. M., C. De Gruijter, M. T. Mergia, J. A. Van Franeker, A. J. Murk, and A. A. Koelmans. 2013. Plastic in North Sea Fish. Environmental Science & Technology 47: 8818-8824. Geerligs, M. 2010. Skin layer mechanics. Ph. D. dissertation. Technische Universiteit Eindhoven, Netherlands. Glatz, P. and Z. Miao. 2009. High Value Products From Hatchery Waste. Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation. RIRDC Publication No. 09/061, Canberra, Australia. Gouin, T., J. Avalos, I. Brunning, K. Brzuska, J. de Graaf, J. Kaumanns, T. Konong, M. Meyberg, K. Rettinger, H. Schlatter, and J. Thomas. 2015. Use of micro-plastic beads in cosmetic products in Europe and their estimated emissions to the North Sea environment. SOFW Journal 141: 40-46. Gouin, T., N. Roche, R. Lohmann, G. Hodges. 2011. A thermodynamic approach for assessing the environmental exposure of chemicals absorbed to microplastic. Environmental Science &Technology 45:1466-1472. Graham, E.R. and J. T. Thompson. 2009. Deposit- and suspension-feeding sea cucumbers (Echinodermata) ingest plastic fragments. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 368: 22-29. Gunathilake, H. M., G. M. Sirimanna, and N. Y. Schürer. 2007. The pH of commercially available rinse-off products in Sri Lanka and their effect on skin pH. Ceylon Medical Journal 52: 125-129. Gergely, G., F. Wéber, I. Lukács, A. L. Tóth, Z. E. Horváth, J. Mihály, and C. Balázsi. 2010. Preparation and characterization of hydroxyapatite from eggshell. Ceramics International 36: 803-806. Harding, C. R. 2004. The stratum corneum: structure and function in health and disease. Dermatology and Therapy 17: 6-15. Hester, R. E. and R. M. Harrison. 2006. Alternatives to Animal Testing. The Royal Society of Chemistry, Cambridge, U.K. Hincke, M. T., Y. Nys, J. Gautron, K. Mann, A. B. Rodriguez-Navarro, and M. D. McKee. 2012. The eggshell: structure, composition and mineralization. Frontiers in Bioscience 17: 1266-1280. Hintersteiner, I., M. Himmelsbach, and W. W. Buchberger. 2015. Characterization and quantitation of polyolefin microplastics in personal-care products using high-temperature gel-permeation chromatography. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry 407: 1253-1259. Holmes, J. D., J. E. Sawyer, P. Kassel, and D. R. Diaz. 2011. Using ground eggshells as a liming material in corn and soybean production. Crop Management 10. doi: 10.1094/CM-2011-1129-01-RS. Humbert, P., F. Fanian, H. I. Maibach, and P. Agache. 2017. Agache's Measuring the Skin (2nd edition). Springer Verlag, Berlin, Germany. Hunton, P. 2005. Research on eggshell structure and quality: an historical overview. Brazilian Journal of Poultry Science 7: 67-71. Jacobi, U., M. Kaiser, R. Toll, S. Mangelsdorf, H. Audring, N. Otberg, W. Sterry, and J. Lademann. 2007. Porcine ear skin: an in vitro model for human skin. Skin Research and Technology 13: 19-24. Jambeck, J. R., R. Geyer, C. Wilcox, T. R. Siegler, M. Perryman, A. Andrady, R. Narayan, and K. L. Law. 2015. Plastic inputs from land into the ocean. Science 347: 768-771. Jendrossek, D. and R. Handrick. 2002. Microbial degradation of polyhydroxyalkanoates. Annual Review of Microbiology 56: 403-432. Kim, J. E., S. L. Gordon, M. G. Ferruzzi, and W. W. Campbell. 2015. Effects of egg consumption on carotenoid absorption from co-consumed, raw vegetables. American Society for Nutrition 102: 75-83. Klevens, H. B. 1946. The critical micelle concentration of anionic soap mixtures. The Journal of Chemical Physics 14: 742. Kokura, S., O. Handa, T. Takagi, T Ishikawa., Y. Naito, amd T. Yoshikawa. 2010. Silver nanoparticles as a safe preservative for use in cosmetics. Nanomedicine 6: 570-574. Lee, K.W., W. J. Shim, O. Y. Kwon, and J. H. Kang. 2013. Size-dependent effects of micro polystyrene particles in the marine copepod Tigriopus japonicas. Environmental Science & Technology 47: 11278−11283. Lee, S. H., H. R. Lee, Y. R. Kim, and M. K. Kim. 2012. Toxic response of zinc oxide nanoparticles in human epidermal keratinocyte HaCaT cells. Toxicology and Environmental Health Sciences 4: 14-18. Lusher, A. L., M. McHugh, and R. C. Thompson. 2013. Occurrence of microplastics in the gastrointestinal tract of pelagic and demersal fish from the English Channel. Marine Pollution Bulletin 67: 94-99. Marx, S. 2004. Guidelines on stability testing of cosmetic products. 2004. Cosmetics Europe, Belgium. Miles, G. D. and J. Ross. 1944. Foam stability of solutions of soaps of pure fatty acids. The Journal of Physical Chemistry 48: 280-290. Mine, Y. 2007. Egg Bioscience and Biotechnology. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New Jersey, USA. Montenegro, L., L. Rapisarda, C. Ministeri and G. Puglisi. 2015. Effects of lipids and emulsifiers on the physicochemical and sensory properties of cosmetic emulsions containing vitamin E. Cosmetics 2: 35-47. Moore, C. J. 2008. Synthetic polymers in the marine environment: a rapidly increasing, long-term threat. Environmental Research 108: 131-139. Morávková, T. and P. Stern. 2011. Rheological and textural properties of cosmetic emulsions. Applied Rheology 21: 35200. Mukerjee, P., K. J. Mysels. 1971. Critical micelle concentrations of aqueous surfactant systems. NSRDS-NBS 36. US Government Printing Office, Washington, DC. Murray, F. and P. R. Cowie. 2011. Plastic contamination in the decapod crustacean Nephrops norvegicus (Linnaeus, 1758). Marine Pollution Bulletin 62: 1207-1217. Napper, I. E., A. Bakir, S. J. Rowland, and R. C. Thompson. 2015. Characterisation, quantity and sorptive properties of microplastics extracted from cosmetics. Marine Pollution Bulletin 99:178-185. Park, H. O., M. Yu, S. K. Kang, S. I. Yang, and Y. J. Kim. 2011. Comparison of cellular effects of titanium dioxide nanoparticles with different photocatalytic potential in human keratinocyte, HaCaT cells. Molecular & Cellular Toxicology 7: 67-75. Preston, W. 1948. Some correlating principles of detergent action. The Journal of Physical Chemistry 52: 84-97. Rangel-Yagui, C. O., A. P. Junior, L. C. Tavares. 2005. Micellar solubilization of drugs. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 8: 147-163. Rigo, L. A., J. Weber, C. B. Silva, and R. C. R. Beck. 2012. Evaluation of the spreadability of pharmaceutical or cosmetic semisolid formulations using scanned images. Latin American Journal of Pharmacy 31: 1387-1391. Robinson, M, M. Visscher, A. Laruffa, and R. Wickett. 2010. Natural moisturizing factors (NMF) in the stratum corneum (SC). II. Regeneration of NMF over time after soaking. Journal of Cosmetic Science 61: 13-22. Ross, J. and G. D. Miles. 1941. An apparatus for comparison of foaming properties of soaps and detergents. Oil & Soap 18: 99-102. Sanosh, K. P., M. C. Chu, A. Balakrishnan, T. N. Kim, and S. J. Cho. 2009. Utilization of biowaste eggshells to synthesize nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite powders. Materials Letters 63: 2100-2102. Schwartz, N. O. 1974. Adaptation of the sensory texture profile method to skin care products. Journal of Texture Studies 6: 33-42. Shen, W., Z. M. Wang , M. Punyanita, J. Lei, A. Sinav, J. G. Kral, C. Imielinska, R. Ross, and S. B. Heymsfield. 2005. Adipose tissue quantification by imaging methods. Obesity Research 11: 5-11. Shetty, S. and S. Gokul. 2012. Keratinization and its disorders. Oman Medical Journal 27: 348-357. Su, C. W. 2007. Effects of eggshell powder addition on the extrusion behaviour of rice. Journal of Food Engineering 79: 607-612. Takahashi, Y., M. Koike, H. Honda, Y. Ito, H. Sakaguchi, H. Suzuki, and N. Nishiyama. 2008. Development of the short time exposure (STE) test: an in vitro eye irritation test using SIRC cells. Toxicology in Vitro 22: 760-770. Thompson, R. C., Y. Olsen, R. P Mitchell, A. Davis, S. J. Rowland, A. W. G. John, D. McGonigle, and A. E. Russel. 2004. Lost at sea: where is all the plastic? Science 304: 838. Van Franeker, J. A., C. Blaize, J. Danielsen, K. Fairclough, J. Gollan, N. Guse, P. L. Hansen, M. Heubeck, J. K. Jensen, and G. Le Guillou. 2011. Monitoring plastic ingestion by the northern fulmar Fulmarus glacialis in the North Sea. Environmental Pollution 159: 2609-2615. Vennat, B., D. Gross, M. P. Pouget, A. Pourrat, and H. Pourrat. 1995. Comparison of the physical stability of astringent hydrogels based on cellulose derivatives. Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy 21: 559-570. Von Moos, N., P. Burkhardt-Holm, and A. Köhler. 2012. Uptake and effects of microplastics on cells and tissue of the blue mussel Mytilus edulis L. after an experimental exposure. Environmental Science & Technology 46: 11327-11335. Wei, Z., C. Xu, and B. Li. 2009. Application of waste eggshell as low-cost solid catalyst for biodiesel production. Bioresource Technology 100: 2883-2885. Weyenberg, W., P. Filev, D. Van den Plas, J. Vandervoort, K. De Smet, P. Sollie, and A. Ludwig. 2007. Cytotoxicity of submicron emulsions and solid lipid nanoparticles for dermal application. International Journal of Pharmaceutics 337: 291-298. Yoo, S., J. S. Hsieh, P. Zou, and J. Kokoszka. 2009. Utilization of calcium carbonate particles from eggshell waste as coating pigments for ink-jet printing paper. Bioresource Technology 100: 6416-6421. Zhen, Y. X., T. Suetake, H. Tagami. 1999. Number of cell layers of the stratum corneum in normal skin - relationship to the anatomical location on the body, age, sex and physical parameters. Archives of Dermatological Research 291: 555-559.
摘要: 雞蛋是國人動物性食品重要原料之一,然而伴隨著雞蛋消費所產生大量之廢棄蛋殼,亦成為一待解決之難題。具有去角質訴求之化妝品或個人清潔用品中,多會添加直徑小於1 mm之聚乙烯塑膠微粒,然而因其不易分解,會在自然環境中累積,更可能會釋出具有生物活性之化合物或吸附有機汙染物,影響環境中生物;若被生物吞食,亦會產生生物放大作用,對生態造成更大之危害,許多國家也逐漸開始立法禁用塑膠柔珠,故本研究中,試驗一利用40°C 90天之加速老化試驗,評估不同處理之蛋殼粉 (CON:對照組;PEB:塑膠柔珠組;CAL:燒結蛋殼粉組;ESP:蛋殼粉組) 添加於皂化型 (saponification type) 洗面乳中之應用性;試驗二則利用細胞毒性試驗及動物皮膚模擬試驗,評估添加此蛋殼粉之洗面乳的安全性。試驗一結果顯示:顏色部分,各試驗時間點CAL之L*值顯著低於其他組別 (p<0.05),其他組別之L*、a*及b*值數值上有些微差異,但以肉眼觀察並不明顯。pH值部分,除ESP於試驗期第90天時顯著低於CON外 (p<0.05),其餘組別之pH值皆無顯著差異及變化。延展性部分,除了試驗第90天外,皆以CON之延展性最高,各試驗時間點PEB之延展性顯著低於其他組別 (p<0.05)。起泡力部分,CAL於試驗期第14天顯著高於第0天 (p<0.05),PEB於試驗期第60天顯著低於CON (p<0.05),其他組別於各試驗時間點間則無顯著差異 (p>0.05)。泡沫穩定性部分,各組間皆無顯著差異 (p>0.05)。清潔力部分,以臨界微胞濃度 (critical micelle concentration, CMC) 作為樣品清潔力之判定標準,顯示各組於各試驗時間點之CMC皆介於0.080 wt%至0.083 wt%間,並無明顯差異。微生物部分,各組別於各試驗時間點之總生菌數皆小於10 CFU/g,符合衛福部小於1000 CFU/g之規定。試驗二結果顯示:細胞毒性試驗部分,ESP蛋殼粉對於HaCaT細胞或3T3細胞皆無細胞毒性;動物皮膚模擬試驗部分,CON、PEB、CAL及ESP等洗面乳皆不會對豬耳背皮膚之角質層造成嚴重的損害。綜上所述,考量各處理組對於樣品顏色之影響程度,於皂化型洗面乳中添加ESP蛋殼粉,對其原有之各項特性影響較小,不具有細胞毒性,且不致使皮膚角質層有過度的損傷,故蛋殼粉應具有取代個人清潔用品中常用塑膠柔珠的潛力。
Egg is one of the most important animal products consumed globally. How to handle those large quantities of abandoned eggshell properly becomes critical. Currently, many exfoliating cosmetics or personal cleansing products might contain some polyethylene microbeads which have diameters less than 1 mm. Because these plastic materials do not degrade easily for years, such microbeads which have been accumulated in the natural environment may damage the ecological consequence. Mis-consumption those plastic microbeads by numerous animals may also cause a biomagnification in the food chain, thus lead to more serious damages. Many countries have started to ban the plastic microbeads. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential efficacy of applying different treatments of eggshell (CON: control; PEB: adding polyethylene microbeads; CAL: adding calcined eggshell powder; ESP: adding eggshell powder) in a saponification-type facial cleanser using a 90-day and 40°C accelerated aging test as well as a cytotoxicity assay and a porcine skin model test. The result of experiment 1 showed that during the aging period, the L* value of CAL was significantly lower than those of the other treatments (p<0.05), while the differences in the values of L*, a* and b* between CON, PEB, and CON were minor and it might not be distinguished by the naked eyes. The pH value of ESP on day 90 of aging was significantly lower than CON (p<0.05), while there was no significant difference between the other treatments during aging (p>0.05). Except on day 90 of aging, the spreadability of CON was the highest, while the spreadability of PEB was significantly lower than the others during aging (p<0.05). The foaming ability of CAL on day 14 of aging was significantly higher than that on day 0 (p<0.05), while the foaming ability of PEB on day 60 of aging was significantly lower than that of CON (p<0.05). There was no significant difference on the foam stability between the 4 treatments during aging (p>0.05). In the current study, the detergency was determined using a critical micelle concentration (CMC). The CMC value was between 0.080 wt% to 0.083 wt% for each treatment with less difference. The total microbial counts of the four facial cleansers were all conformed with the regulations of the Ministry of Health and Welfare. The result of experiment 2 showed that ESP did not exhibit cytotoxicity to HaCaT cell or 3T3 cell. In the animal skin simulation testing, the 4 treatments did not cause damage to the stratum corneum of porcine ear skin. In conclusion, ESP is recommended to be added in a saponification-type facial cleanser since it does not change the characteristics of the original samples, as well as not exhibit cytotoxicity and cause damage to stratum corneum of porcine ear skin. It is promising to substitute for the polyethylene microbeads currently commonly added in the personal exfoliating cleaning products potentially.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/96548
文章公開時間: 10000-01-01
Appears in Collections:動物科學系

文件中的檔案:

取得全文請前往華藝線上圖書館



Items in DSpace are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.