Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/96560
標題: 任飼對白肉種母雞心臟病變之影響與維生素D之改善效果
Unrestricted feed intake induces cardiomyopathy in broiler hens and its amelioration by vitamin D
作者: 林軒羽
Hsuan-Yu Lin
關鍵字: 白肉種雞
心肌病變
猝死
維生素D
Broiler breeder hens
Cardiomyopathy
Sudden death
Vitamin D
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摘要: 中文摘要 過去數十年間,快速生長以及高飼料換肉率一直是白肉雞育種選拔的主要目標,但卻也伴隨著現今白肉雞許多的異常,如肥胖、腹水(ascites)、心臟肥大(cardiac hypertrophy)、產蛋率降低、甚至是猝死率(sudden death)增加等負面效應。過去的文獻指出近年來維生素D受體(vitamin D receptor, VDR)被發現廣泛存在於許多不同的組織中,因此許多調節鈣磷平衡以外的功能也逐漸被了解,包括心臟血管保護的功能(cardiovascular protection),以及在代謝、糖尿病和高血壓有調節作用,因此可能對心臟病變有預防的效果。本研究旨在探討任飼對白肉種母雞心臟病變與猝死之影響,以及維生素D添加於日糧中對其之改善效果。本研究以 Cobb 白肉種母雞 300 隻為對象,於 0 至 29 週齡以種雞公司提供標準限飼,30 週齡分為限飼、任飼、限飼添加Hy-D®(1 g/kg diet)以及任飼添加Hy-D®(1 g/kg diet)四組,飼養至 70 週齡,記錄其平均體重、採食、產蛋率以及猝死率,並將飼養期間猝死之雞隻解剖,觀察記錄其腹水與心臟病變之比例。於 47 週齡時於各處理組隨機選取各 25 隻雞為對象,測量其血壓與心跳數。於 38 至 40 以及 48 至 50 週齡時,各組中隨機選取各 7 隻雞,測量其心電圖之形態。於 35 週齡以及 47 週齡時自各處理組中隨機選取各 6 隻雞,禁食至少 16 小時後執行犧牲採樣,收集血液、心臟以便進一步的生化分析。結果顯示:任飼組之平均體重、猝死率與猝死雞隻體重皆較限飼組為高,添加Hy-D®對於平均體重無影響,但無論在限飼組或任飼組中皆有使猝死率下降之效果,前者約下降 9.6%,後者約 7.8%。產蛋率方面:約於 41 週齡後任飼組之產蛋率相對於限飼組明顯下降,Hy-D®添加於日糧當中對於產蛋率沒有明顯改善效果,但提高整體產蛋數。心臟病理方面:任飼組猝死雞隻其心臟絕對與相對重量皆較限飼組為高,而添加Hy-D®對於任飼組猝死雞心臟絕對與相對重量皆有調降的效果。心臟肥大、心室擴張(ventricle dilation)、心包膜積水(pericardial effusion)與心肌破裂創傷(traumatic myocardial rupture)的發生率在任飼組中皆較限飼組為高,而添加Hy-D®在限飼組或任飼組中皆可使心臟肥大、心室擴張以及心包膜積水的發生率下降,Hy-D®的添加也降低了任飼組中心肌破裂創傷及限飼組中腹水的發生率,且無論在限飼組或任飼組中Hy-D®的添加也減少了前述症狀中任兩症狀合併發生的機率。迴歸分析結果顯示,各組猝死雞隻體重與均重差隨時間呈現遞減之趨勢,心臟相對重量對時間則呈現遞增之趨勢。心跳數、血壓與心電圖方面:任飼組之心跳數高於其他三組,而Hy-D®的添加對於任飼組心跳數有調降的效果。任飼添加Hy-D®的組別其平均動脈壓、收縮壓與舒張壓皆顯著低於任飼組 (P < 0.05)。任飼添加Hy-D®組發生心電圖異常之個體數亦較任飼組為低。血液與組織生化分析之結果顯示,任飼白肉種母雞體內表現出類糖尿症之生理狀態,伴隨著心肌大量triacylglycerol與ceramide堆積。CPT-1表達量與PDH(pyruvate dehydrogenase)活性,以及AMPK(AMP-activated protein kinase)活化的結果顯示任飼處理導致代謝性心肌病變(metabolic cardiomyopathy),能量由-oxidation轉而來自glycolysis,組織纖維化以及發炎反應亦有上升趨勢,更進一步印證此結果。而Hy-D®的添加在任飼組中顯示出對於前述情形產生改善效果。本研究顯示任飼在白肉種雞引發肥胖相關代謝失調,除了使產蛋率下降外,亦會導致代償性心臟肥大的發生,組織能量過量的堆積可能進一步使心臟朝向病理肥大性肥大發展,最後導致心臟衰竭,進而使猝死率上升。Hy-D®作為維生素D之補充劑添加於日糧中,可以有效抑制白肉種母雞因任飼造成之心臟病變,可能透過維生素D負調節RAS以及血壓的外因性方式,間接對雞隻心臟健康帶來益處,或透過維生素D對AMPK活性之調節、抑制脂肪中毒(lipotoxicity)以及調節發炎反應等內因性路徑,對心肌細胞產生直接性的作用,調節早期代償性肥大的發展,進一步延緩病理性心臟肥大的發生,從而減緩心臟衰竭發生並降低猝死率。
Abstract After decades of genetic selection for rapid growth and high feed conversion rate, the modern broilers developed a tendency to overeat and several undesirable defects, including obesity, ascites, cardiac hypertrophy, poor egg production, and even sudden death. In the past studies, vitamin D receptor (VDR), has been found in various tissues, and therefore, in addition to calcium homeostasis, a variety of functions have been defined, including cardiovascular protection, diabetes, hypertension, cardiac hypertrophy. This study was conducted to delineate the relationship between cardiac pathogenesis and sudden death in broiler hens under ad libitum feeding and the amelioration effects by dietary supplementation of vitamin D. Three hundred Cobb broiler breeder chicks were reared according to the protocol provided by the breeder company. At age of 30 weeks, hens were divided into four groups with restricted (R) or ad libitum(Ad) feed intake w/o Hy-D® (1g/kg diet) inclusion in diets. During the feeding trial up to age of 70 weeks, body weight, feed intake, egg production, and mortality were recorded and dead hens were autopsied immediately for cardiac pathogenesis examination. At age of 38 to 40 weeks and 47 to 50 weeks, several hens of each group were chosen randomly for blood pressure, heart rate, and ECG measurement. At age of 35 and 47 weeks, 6 hens were used for biochemical analysis. Results showed that body weight and mortality were higher in Ad hens than those of R counterparts. Hy-D® did not affect body weight and feed intake but reduced mortality in both R and Ad group, by 9.6% and 7.8%, respectively. After 41 weeks, egg production of Ad hens declined significantly when compared to that of R hens. Hy-D® did not affect hen-day-egg production, but promoted total eggs laid by the whole flock. Among the dead hens by sudden death, absolute and fractional heart weight of Ad hens was higher than the R counterparts and supplementation with Hy-D® reduced fractional heart weight and mortality in the dead Ad hens. Incidence of heart hypertrophy, ventricular dilation, pericardial effusion, and traumatic myocardial rupture of Ad group were higher. Hy-D® inclusion reduced the incidence of traumatic myocardial rupture of both Ad and R group, and reduced the compound cardiac syndromes. Residual difference distribution of the body weight between broiler hens died by sudden death and survival hens declined, but the distribution of fractional heart weight increased with the time course of feeding trial. Ad group had higher heart rate, mean arterial pressure, systolic blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure than the R hens, and Hy-D® inclusion significanly ameliorated the indices. The incidence of abnormal ECG of Ad+Hy-D® group was less than Ad group. In biochemical analyses, Ad hens exhibited diabetic-like conditions in accompany with excessive cardiac TG and ceramide accumulation. The results of CPT-1 expression, PDH activity, and AMPK activation suggested metabolic cardiomyopathy by Ad feed intake, which in turn further exacerbated the pathological hypertrophy as evidenced by cardiac fibrosis and systemic inflammation. Supplementation of Hy-D® has a beneficial effects to ameliorate the pathogenic symptoms by Ad feeding. This study showed that obesity by ad libitum feeding induces metabolic derangements in association with poor egg production, as well as with occurrence of compensatory cardiac growth, lipotoxic cardiomyopathy, which lead to heart failure and thus sudden death of broiler hens. Hy-D®, as a dietary supplement can ameliorate the incidence of cardiomyopathy through extrinsic ways by regulating RAS and blood pressure and may have directly act on the heart by regulating AMPK activity, lipotoxicity, inflammation to ameliorate the progression of pathological cardiac growth and remodeling, and thus reduce heart failure and improve livability of broiler hens.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/96560
文章公開時間: 2021-02-07
Appears in Collections:動物科學系

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