Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/96964
標題: 製糖廢料防治雜草的效果評估
Efficacy Evaluation of Agricultural Wastes from Making Sugar Process for Controlling Field Weeds
作者: 黃志成
Chih-Cheng Huang
關鍵字: 雜草防治
蔗渣
濾泥
尿素
糖蜜
Weed control
bagasse
filter mud
urea
molasses
引用: 參考文獻 方英傑、王傳釗、陳正羲。1982。台糖公司自營農場土壤肥力測定及其運用。 林茂益、蔡育文。2014。說糖解惑濾仔土(濾泥)。23 pp.。台糖通訊2027期。 林泰佑、吳文欽、宣大平、黃佳興、潘昶儒。2014。施用米糠對於有機水稻田初期雜草防治之效果。花蓮區農業改良場研究彙報 32:1-13。 邱怡詮、蔡文福。2002。田菁敷蓋對不整地栽培青割玉米雜草管理及產量的影響。中華民國雜草學會會刊 23:13-22。 陳能敏。1996。敷蓋資材對甘藷田雜草防治及甘藷生育之影響。p. 121-122。農業科學資料服務中心。 楊滔慈、張晉華。1970。日光加熱晒土對甘蔗生長影響之研究。台灣糖業試驗所研究彙報 50;25-30。 臺灣糖業公司農藝技術手冊。1981。自營農場甘蔗栽培作業規範。 蔣慕琰、蔣永正、袁秋英、徐玲明、陳富永。2004。台灣農田雜草管理之現況及展望。 蔣慕琰。2004。台灣農地雜草與多樣性維護。台灣植物資源之多樣性發展研討會專刊。p.153-170。花蓮區農業改良場。 蕭素碧、許福星、許進德、羅國棟。1995。台灣禾豆科牧草種原。201 pp.。台灣省畜產試驗所。台南。 簡道南。2004。尿素的性質和施肥方法。台肥季刊。45(3)。 Teasdale, J. R. and C. S. T. Daughtry. 1993. Weed suppression by live and desiccated hairy vetch (Vicia villosa). Weed Sci. 41: 207-212. Yenish, J. P., A. D. Worshom, and A. C. York. 1996. Cover crops for herbicide replacement in no-tillage corn (Zea mays). Weed Technol. 10: 815-821.
摘要: 本研究為探討甘蔗栽培過程中,使用製糖廢料防治雜草的最佳方法。在此所使用的製糖廢料為蔗渣與濾泥作為覆蓋用料,同時搭配不同濃度的尿素與糖蜜處理,以期獲得有效的雜草防治效果。經試驗,乾燥蔗渣充分泡水後的吸水率約在72 ~ 79 % (w/w)。試驗方式可分為盆栽試驗與田間試驗,盆栽試驗為隨機於預定田間試驗區內採取之具有雜草種子的田間土壤,進行覆蓋蔗渣、濾泥和透明塑膠布。盆栽試驗中,蔗渣搭配1 %尿素或2 %糖蜜,無論單純覆蓋蔗渣、蔗渣搭配1 %尿素或蔗渣搭配2 %糖蜜皆能有效抑制雜草生長,調查的雜草種類,酢漿草、牛筋草、馬唐、莧及土香的萌發株數皆為0。而使用濾泥作為覆蓋材料,不覆蓋塑膠布無論單純覆蓋濾泥、濾泥搭配1 %尿素或濾泥搭配2 %糖蜜皆有雜草萌發生長,尤其單純覆蓋濾泥無法抑制土香的生長。在盆栽試驗中,所有處理皆以覆蓋塑膠布抑制雜草萌發的效果最佳。為了排除其他因素影響雜草萌發的結果,使用乾淨無雜草種子的培養土進行試驗,撒播2000粒,發芽率為35 %的莧菜種子,同時也取用田間土香球莖種植於盆栽之中。莧菜種子受到蔗渣覆蓋後種子萌發的數量急遽減少,經覆蓋蔗渣2 cm以上即可有效抑制雜草生長,而土香球莖生長則不受蔗渣覆蓋影響。而在不覆蓋蔗渣的處理中,莧菜種子的發芽率接近種子包所標示的35 %,在單純施用0.75 %尿素的處理下,莧菜種子的發芽數最少,為194株,發芽率約9.7 %。在盆栽試驗中,觀測覆蓋塑膠布有無在溫度上的變化可以看出,經覆蓋塑膠布的盆栽溫度在測量時間上午8:00至下午17:00,每個小時的平均溫度皆較無覆蓋塑膠布的盆栽溫度高,高出約1.4 ~ 2.6 °C,而有覆蓋塑膠布盆栽的最高溫是在下午16:00,溫度為34.1 °C,無覆蓋塑膠布的盆栽最高溫出現在下午15:00,溫度為31.9 °C。覆蓋塑膠布能有效的提升介質溫度,且能延續較長時間的高溫。田間試驗中,蔗渣搭配2 %糖蜜的處理明顯較單純覆蓋蔗渣或蔗渣搭配1 %尿素的處理在抑制雜草生長的效果為差,無法有效抑制土香的生長。而若不覆蓋蔗渣且不覆蓋塑膠布的情況下,單純施用1 %尿素或2 %糖蜜,則以2 %糖蜜最不能抑制雜草生長。濾泥搭配2 %糖蜜的處理明顯無法抑制雜草生長,同樣以土香萌發數最多。與盆栽試驗相同,以有覆蓋塑膠布的處理最能有效抑制雜草生長。雜草萌發株數也會明顯隨著蔗渣覆蓋厚度增加而減少,各不同濃度尿素處理皆以覆蓋厚度達10公分時,雜草萌發株數最少。而蔗渣覆蓋厚度為10 cm時,以0.25 %尿素處理最能抑制雜草生長,雜草萌發株數為0,而0.5 %尿素的處理抑制雜草萌發的效果最差。
In this study, the best way to control weeds in sugar cane cultivation was discussed. The waste of refining sugar used here was bagasse and filter mud with different concentrations of urea and molasses treatment, applying as covering materials. The test method could be divided into pot experiment and field experiment. In the pot experiment, soil seed bank was taken from an experimental field, and covered with bagasse, filter mud or transparent plastic cloth. The treatment of the uncoated plastic cloth, bagasse applying with 1% urea or 2% molasses could effectively inhibit the germination of lavender sorrel, goosegrass, crabgrass, slender amaranth and nut grass weeds. The use of filter mud as covering material with the filter mud alone, or in a combination with 1% urea or with 2% molasses failed to inhibit the growth of nut grass. In the pot experiment, all treatments with plastic cloth were able to completely inhibit weed germination. In order to rule out other factors affecting the results of weed germination, 2000 edible amaranth seeds were sow in peat moss and the germination rate was 35%, and plant nut grass corms were observed in pot. When covering with bagasse, the germination of edible amaranth seeds was drastically reduced, or completely inhibited. When bagasse was not used, the germination rate of edible amaranth seeds was around 35%. Applying 0.75% urea reduced the germination number of edible amaranth seeds drastically (194/2000). However, the application of bagasse regardless of thickness had no effects to inhibit nut grass. Usig plastic sheeting coverage increased the rate of soil temperature, roughly 1.4 ~ 2.6°C per hour higher than those of uncovered treatment. Using plastic sheeting coverage increased soil temperature up to 34.1°C, the highest of the day at 16:00 pm. Plastic sheeting coverage could effectively enhance soil temperature, and could maintain at relatively higher temperature for a longer time. In the field experiment, applying bagasse with 2% molasses had a poorer effect than the treatment of bagasse or bagasse with 1% urea in inhibiting the growth of weeds, and could not effectively inhibit the growth of nut grass. Without bagasse or plastic cloth, application of 1% urea or 2% molasses could not inhibit the growth of weeds. The treatment of filter mud with 2% molasses could not inhibit the growth of nut grass. As in the pot experiment, the treatment with a covered plastic cloth was the most effective way to inhibit weeds growth. The number of weed germination was also decreased with the increase of bagging thickness, and the germination number of weeds was the least when the bagging thickness was 10 cm. When the thickness of bagasse covered with 10 cm, the treatment with 0.25% urea could inhibit the growth of weeds, the germination of weeds was 0, and the treatment of 0.5% urea could not inhibit weed germination.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/96964
文章公開時間: 2021-02-08
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