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Low-voltage start-up boost converter with zero current switching control and MPPT
|引用:|| S. Siouane, S. Jovanovi´c, and P. Poure, “Equivalent electrical circuit of thermoelectric generators under constant heat flow,” in Proc. IEEE International Environment and Electrical Engineering Conference, 2016.  S. Bandyopadhyay and A. P. Chandrakasan, “Platform architecture for solar, thermal, and vibration energy combining with MPPT and single inductor,” IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, vol. 47, no. 9, pp. 2199-2215, Sept. 2012.  S. Carreon-Bautista, A. Eladawy, A. N. Mohieldin, and E. Sánchez-Sinencio, “Boost converter with dynamic input impedance matching for energy harvesting with multi-array thermoelectric generators,” IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, vol. 61, no. 10, pp. 5345-5353, Oct. 2014.  M. Aamir and M. Y. Shinwari, “Design. implementation and experimental analysis of two-stage boost converter for grid connected photovoltaic system,” in Proc. IEEE International Computer Science and Information Technology Conference, 2010.  P. Chen, K. Ishida, X. Zhang, Y. Okuma, Y. Ryu, M. Takamiya, and T. Sakurai, “0.18-V input charge pump with forward body biasing in startup circuit using 65nm CMOS,” in Proc. Custom Integrated Circuits Conference, 2010.  C. Veri, M. Pasca, and S. D''Amico, “A 40mV start up voltage DC - DC converter for thermoelectric energy harvesting applications,” in Proc. Ph.D. Research in Microelectronics and Electronics Conference, 2014.  P. Weng, H. Tang, P. Ku, and L. Lu, “50 mV-Input batteryless boost converter for thermal energy harvesting,” IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, vol. 48, no. 4, pp. 1031-1041, Apr. 2013.  J. Kim and C. Kim, “A DC–DC boost converter with variation-tolerant MPPT technique and efficient ZCS circuit for thermoelectric energy harvesting applications,” IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, vol. 28, no. 8, pp. 3827-3833, Dec. 2012.  C. Huang, W. Chen, C. Ni, K. Chen, C. Lu, Y. Chu, and M. Kuo, “Thermoelectric energy harvesting with 1mV low input voltage and 390nA quiescent current for 99.6% maximum power point tracking”, in Proc. ESSCIRC , 2012.  A. Shrivastava, N. E. Roberts, O. U. Khan, D. D. Wentzloff, and B. H. Calhoun, “A 10 mV-Input boost converter with inductor peak current control and zero detection for thermoelectric and solar energy harvesting with 220 mV cold-start and 14.5 dBm, 915 MHz RF kick-start,” IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, vol. 50, no. 8, pp. 1820-1832, Aug. 2015.  T. Ozaki, T. Hirose, H. Asano, N. Kuroki, and M. Numa, “Fully-integrated high-conversion-ratio dual-output voltage boost converter with MPPT for low-voltage energy harvesting,” IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, vol. 51, no. 10, pp. 2398-2407, Oct. 2016.  P. Chen, K. Ishida, K. Ikeuchi, X. Zhang, K. Honda, Y. Okuma, Y. Ryu, M. Takamiya, and T. Sakurai, “Startup techniques for 95 mV step-up converter by capacitor pass-on scheme and Vth-tuned oscillator with fixed charge programming,” IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, vol. 47, no. 5, pp. 1252-1260, May 2012.  J. Goeppert and Y. Manoli, ” Fully integrated startup at 70 mV of boost converters for thermoelectric energy harvesting,” IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, vol. 51, no. 7, pp. 1716-1726, Jul. 2016.  M. Ashraf and N. Masoumi, “A thermal energy harvesting power supply with an internal startup circuit for pacemakers,” IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration Systems, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 26-37, Jan. 2016.  J. Im, S. Wang, S. Ryu, and G. Cho, “A 40 mV transformer-reuse self-startup boost converter with MPPT control for thermoelectric energy harvesting,” IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, vol. 47, no. 12, pp. 3055-3067, Dec. 2012.  T. Ogawa, T. Ueno, T. Miyazaki, and T. Itakura, “20 mV input, 4.2 V output boost converter with methodology of maximum output power for thermoelectric energy harvesting,” in Proc. Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition, 2016.  A. Tyagi, C. Gopi, P. Baldi, and A. Islam, “CNFET-based 0.1- to 1.2-V DC/DC boost converter with voltage regulation for energy harvesting applications,” IEEE Transactions on Nanotechnology, vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 660-667, Jul. 2015.|
This thesis presents a fully electrical self-start-up dc–dc boost converter designed for thermoelectric generator (TEG) for energy harvesting applications. Because the output voltage of TEG is smaller than the supply voltage required by most of the circuits, power management circuit cannot be used directly. Therefore, a circuit for low voltage start-up is necessary. In the first stage of operation, the start-up circuit can produce a supply voltage for the start-up boost converter, which increases the output voltage from zero to 0.6V. After the output voltage reaches the target of 0.6V, the start-up circuit will be completely shut down and the second stage of operation begins. The zero current switching (ZCS) control circuit starts producing the control signal to make primary boost converter operate in discontinuous conduction mode. Finally, a higher and stable output voltage can be obtained efficiently. The converter was designed by using TSMC 0.18 µm CMOS process, which can achieve a peak efficiency of 82.5%. The lowest start-up voltage is 0.2V and the lowest input voltage is 0.1V. Not only to increase the output power but also considering the variation of TEG’s output voltage, this thesis attempts to add maximum power point tracking (MPPT) technique into previous converter architecture. The modified version with MPPT does have a higher output power, however, the peak efficiency is lower at 57% and the lowest input voltage increases to 0.2V.
|Appears in Collections:||電機工程學系所|
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