Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/97730
標題: 臺灣蚯蚓之分類與東亞蚯蚓地理之分布探討
Taxonomy of Taiwanese Earthworms and Biogeography of East Asian Earthworms (Annelida: Oligochaeta)
作者: 王玉璽
Yu-Hsi Wang
關鍵字: 台灣
東亞
地理分布
分類
Amynthas
Metaphire
Taiwan
East Asia
Taxonomy
Amynthas
Metaphire
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摘要: 東亞 (中國、南韓、日本本島、琉球群島與台灣) 蚯蚓的種類經由文獻整理、同物異名的處理與部分標本比對, 共有 525 種 (61 全球廣布種) 9 科33 屬。本研究於台灣、鄰近島嶼 (蘭嶼、小琉球與澎湖)、金門與馬祖進行蚯蚓採集, 補充了台灣東部、部分西部地區與鄰近島嶼的蚯蚓資訊。採集結果增加了 Amynthas shinjiroi Wang & Shih, 2010, Pithemera tao Wang & Shih, 2010, A. lalashan Wang & Shih, 2017, A. fusing Wang & Shih, 2017, A. lioujia Wang & Shih, 2017, A. majia Wang & Shih, 2017 等 6 種蚯蚓物種, 顯示台灣仍有許多蚯蚓物種尚待發現。經由蚯蚓物種採集、部分標本比對以及本研究增加的種類數, 台灣蚯蚓種類目前共有 6 科15 屬 100 種 (69 特有種)。東亞蚯蚓多集中於 Amynthas 與 Metaphire 兩屬, 分別有 312 種屬於Amynthas 以及 97 種屬於 Metaphire。區分這兩屬的判斷特徵為 '交配腔 (copulatory pouch)', 但本研究發現交配腔對於區分這兩屬可能不是有用的, 或者這兩屬甚至應屬於同一屬。對於這兩屬的關係確認於未來需要進行更多種類測試以確認不同程度的交配腔以及使用不同的 DNA 標誌進行親緣關係的分析。除了屬的分類問題外, 尚有部分同物異名種的問題需要進行探討與處理。本研究發現 Amynthas aspergillum 類群的 A. masatakae, A. paraglandularis, A. robustus 與 A. takatorii 物種, 經由形態特徵比對以及使用分子分析證明這些種類為不同種。本研究以集群分析 (cluster analysis) 方法首次進行東亞蚯蚓地理分布之分析, 根據分析結果發現東亞蚯蚓的分布模式與地理屏障、溫度、濕度、土壤性質以及植被是有關連的。東亞蚯蚓的地理分布模式除了受到山脈與河川的阻隔外, 也受到土壤性質以及植被的影響, 則可區分為 7 個不同的區塊: (I) 四川盆地與雲南-貴州-西藏高原; (II) 秦嶺; (III) 中國東北; (IV) 黃土高原; (V) 中國北方與長江中下游平原; (VI) 武夷山-南嶺山脈和海南島; (VII) 東亞群島-韓國, 分為韓國, 日本, 琉球和台灣。東亞蚯蚓的生物地理學以土壤類形做為區域的劃分, 結果發現自然地理區分更適合於蚯蚓的生物地理分析, 推論原因為蚯蚓的分布與棲地的土壤結構和性質更為相關。針對台灣蚯蚓的地理分布模式, 根據中央山脈以及河川的阻隔, 則可區分為北部、中部高海拔區、南部高海拔區、東部等 4 個區塊。
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/97730
文章公開時間: 2021-08-30
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