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Influences of washing with sodium hypochlorite sanitizer, UV irradiation, and storage temperature on shell egg quality during storage
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|摘要:||殼蛋常因糞便等沾染使得微生物存於殼蛋表面，部分病原菌有可能經由蛋殼進入到蛋內，在未洗選及生食的情況下，食用受到汙染殼蛋可能有引起致病之風險。殼蛋洗淨過程中，通常包含物理性刷洗、消毒劑消毒及飲用水沖洗等步驟；文獻指出，次氯酸鈉 (sodium hypochlorite) 等洗淨及紫外線 (ultraviolet, UV) 照射有助於抑制微生物生長及殺菌，故試驗第一部分旨在比較未洗淨、使用次氯酸鈉進行洗淨及次氯酸鈉洗淨後照射UV對不同溫度貯存4週殼蛋品質之影響；試驗第二部分則探討不同次氯酸鈉濃度洗淨及UV照射對冷藏貯存期間殼蛋品質及功能性之影響。
試驗第一部分結果顯示，水質部分，洗選機之水溫及自由有效餘氯實際測量值與原設定值相近，且皆符合台灣優良農產品生鮮蛋品之相關規範。微生物方面，未洗淨組 (U組) 之殼蛋表面總生菌數顯著高於次氯酸鈉洗淨組 (N組) 及次氯酸鈉洗淨後照射UV組 (NUV組)，且NUV組之總生菌數顯著最低，此結果顯示使用次氯酸鈉洗淨後再照射UV具有協同抑菌效果；4週貯存期間各組蛋內容物之總生菌數皆低於25 CFU/mL 蛋內容物。蛋殼品質部分，掃描式電子顯微鏡 (SEM) 結果顯示角質層被覆程度會隨殼蛋貯存時間延長而下降，而未洗淨冷藏7oC (UC組) 及涼藏25oC (UR組)有較佳之角質層披覆，較少氣孔裸露，使得其氣室變化上升幅度較同貯存溫度之組別為小，蛋殼烴基方面亦有相同趨勢，各組之蛋殼厚度及蛋殼強度無顯著差異 (P > 0.05)。蛋內品質部分，經過4週貯存後，UC組、次氯酸鈉洗淨冷藏組 (NC組) 及次氯酸鈉洗淨後照射UV冷藏組 (NUVC組) 之豪氏單位、蛋白pH值、蛋白水分、濃厚蛋白比例及蛋黃指數等皆顯著優於UR組、次氯酸鈉洗淨涼藏組 (NR組)及次氯酸鈉洗淨後照射UV涼藏組 (NUVR組) (P < 0.05)，各組之蛋黃水分無顯著差異及趨勢 (P > 0.05)。
試驗第二部分結果顯示，水質部分，洗選機之水溫及自由有效餘氯實際測量值與設定不同濃度之次氯酸鈉值相近。未洗淨組之蛋殼表面總菌數顯著高於其他組，次氯酸鈉洗淨後照射UV可有效地減少蛋殼表面之細菌。蛋殼品質部分，各組之蛋殼強度及蛋殼厚度皆無顯著差異 (P > 0.05)，各組氣室大小皆隨貯存時間增加顯著變大 (P < 0.05)，其中以未洗淨組其氣室大小變化最小。殼蛋經照射UV，顯著增加蛋殼b*值 (P < 0.05)，但對L*值、a*值無顯著影響 (P > 0.05)。蛋內品質部分，經過4週貯存後，各組殼蛋之豪氏單位仍維持在AA等級，且蛋黃指數僅些微下降，各組蛋白及蛋黃之pH值皆會隨貯存時間增加而顯著上升 (P < 0.05)，但貯存期間各組無顯著差異 (P > 0.05)。各組蛋白水分皆隨貯存時間增加而顯著下降 (P < 0.05)，但貯存期間各組亦無顯著差異 (P > 0.05)；不同次氯酸鈉濃度洗淨及UV照射，對蛋白起泡性、安定性及蛋黃乳化力等功能性無顯著之影響 (P > 0.05)。綜上所述，使用次氯酸鈉洗淨搭配UV照射處理，能夠有效地減少蛋殼表面之總生菌數，且貯存於冷藏時不會顯著劣化殼蛋品質，未來可考慮減少殼蛋消毒劑使用量並搭配UV照射，以降低蛋殼表面之菌量，並應將洗淨之殼蛋冷藏貯存，方可有效地維持殼蛋品質及確保殼蛋食用安全。|
Shell eggs are occasionally contaminated by feces, thus leading to the exhibiting of some microorganisms on the surfaces of shell eggs. Some pathogens may enter into eggs from shells. Consumption of those contained eggs, particularly the eggs without washing and raw ones might exhibit a health hazard to consumers. Shell egg cleaning process commonly include physical brushing, sanitizing, and rinsing with running water. Previous studies indicated that sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and ultraviolet (UV) irradiation significantly inhibited and sanitized the growth of microorganisms. The objective of the 1st part of the study was to compare the influences of washing, sanitizing with NaOCl and UV irradiation on the quality of eggs stored at different temperatures for 4 weeks; the objective of the 2nd part of the study was to compare the influences of different concentrations of NaOCl and UV irradiation on the quality of eggs stored at refrigerated temperatures. For the 1st part, the results show that the values of water temperatures and free available residual chlorine contents collected from the outlets of washing machines close to the setting ones and conformed to the regulation of Certified Agriculture Standards. The total plate counts detected on the shells of unwashed (U) were significantly higher than those of the ones washed and sanitized with NaOCl (N), as well as the ones washed and sanitized with NaOCl and UV irradiated (NUV), which had the lowest microbial counts. The total plate counts of the inner contents for all groups were less than 25 CFU/mL of egg content. Scanning electron microscope results show that cuticle covering diminished with storage time, while superior cuticle coatings were observed on the ones without washing then stored at 7oC (UC) and 25oC (UR), thus leading to less increases in air cells. The similar change pattern of hydroxyl group intensity detected on the eggshell was also observed, while no significant difference was observed for the eggshell thickness and strength (P > 0.05). After 4-week storage, the performance of Haugh units, pH values and moisture content of albumin, thick albumin ratio, and yolk index of samples stored at 7oC (UC, NC, and NUVC) were superior significantly (P < 0.05) than those stored at 25oC (UR, NR, and NUVR), while no significant difference was observed on the yolk moisture contents of samples (P > 0.05). For the 2nd part, the results show that the values of water temperatures and free available residual chlorine contents collected from the outlets of washing machines close to the setting ones. The total plate counts detected on the shells of unwashed (U) were significantly higher than those of the other treatments, while ones washed and sanitized with NaOCl and irradiated with UV decreased the microbial loads. No significant difference was observed for the eggshell thickness and strength (P > 0.05). The size of air cell increased significantly with storage time, while less increase was observed for the ones without washing. UV irradiation increased the b* values of eggshell (P < 0.05), but for L* values and a* values no significant differences were observed between treatments. After 4-week storage, the Haugh units of samples remained at USDA AA grade, while the yolk index decreased slightly. The pH values of albumin and yolk increased significantly with storage time and no significant differences were observed between treatments. The albumin moisture contents increased with storage time with significant differences between treatments. For the functionality, albumin foaming ability, albumin foaming stability and yolk emulsion capacity were not significantly different between treatments due to the concentrations of NaOCl and UV irradiation (P > 0.05). In conclusion, it is suggested that shell eggs should be washed and sanitized with 50 ppm NaOCl, irradiated by UV, and then storage at refrigerated temperatures in order to maintain the quality as well as the consumption safety.
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