Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item:
Assessment of Hermetia illucens pupal exuviae fermented by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens as functional feed additive for chickens
Red Feather Native chicken
|引用:||Aam, B. B., E. B. Heggset, A. L. Norberg, M. Sørlie, K. M. Vårum, and V. G. H. Eijsink. 2010. Production of chitooligosaccharides and their potential applications in medicine. Mar. Drugs 8: 1482-1517. Ahmed, S. T., M. M. Islam, H.-S. Mun, H.-J. Sim, Y.-J. Kim, and C.-J. Yang. 2014. Effects of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens as a probiotic strain on growth performance, cecal microflora, and fecal noxious gas emissions of broiler chickens. Poult. Sci. 93: 1963-1971. Akbarian, A., J. Michiels, J. Degroote, M. Majdeddin, A. Golian, and S. Smet. 2016. Association between heat stress and oxidative stress in poultry; mitochondrial dysfunction and dietary interventions with phytochemicals. J. Anim. Sci. Technol. 7: 37-50. Aliahmat, N. S., M. R. M. Noor, W. J. W. Yusof, S. Makpol, W. Z. W. Ngah, and Y. A. M. Yusof. 2012. Antioxidant enzyme activity and malondialdehyde levels can be modulated by Piper betle, tocotrienol rich fraction and Chlorella vulgaris in aging C57BL/6 mice. Clinics 67: 1447-1454. Aniebo, A. O., E. S. Erondu, and O. J. Owen. 2009. Replacement of fish meal with maggot meal in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) diets. UDO Agrícola. 9: 666-671. Azizah, S. N., N. R. Mubarik, and L. I. Sudirman. 2015. Potential of chitinolytic Bacillus amyloliquefaciens SAHA 12.07 and Serratia marcescens KAHN 15.12 as biocontrol agents of Ganoderma boninense. Res. J. Microbiol. 10: 452-466. Balcázar, J. L., I. d. Blas, I. Ruiz-Zarzuela, D. Cunningham, D. Vendrell, and J. L. Múzquiz. 2006. The role of probiotics in aquaculture. Vet. Microbiol. 114: 173-186. Beier, S., and S. Bertilsson. 2013. Bacterial chitin degradation—mechanisms and ecophysiological strategies. Front. Microbiol. 4: 149-160. Bersuder, P., M. Hole, and G. Smith. 1998. Antioxidants from a heated histidine-glucose model system. I: Investigation of the antioxidant role of histidine and isolation of antioxidants by high-performance liquid chromatography. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 75: 181-187. Bhutia, Y., A. Ghosh, M. L. Sherpa, R. Pal, and P. K. Mohanta. 2011. Serum malondialdehyde level: surrogate stress marker in the Sikkimese diabetics. J. Nat. Sc. Biol. Med. 2: 107-112. Binns, N. 2013. Probiotics, prebiotics and the gut microbiota: ILSI Europe. Caligiani, A., A. Marseglia, G. Leni, S. Baldassarre, L. Maistrello, A. Dossena, and S. Sforza. 2018. Composition of black soldier fly prepupae and systematic approaches for extraction and fractionation of proteins, lipids and chitin. Food Res. Int. 105: 812-820. Chen, K., J. Gao, J. Li, Y. Huang, X. Luo, and T. Zhang. 2012. Effects of probiotics and antibiotics on diversity and structure of intestinal microflora in broiler chickens. J. Microbiol. Res. 6: 6612-6617. Chu, Y. T., C. T. Lo, S. C. Chang, and T. T. Lee. 2017. Effects of Trichoderma fermented wheat bran on growth performance, intestinal morphology and histological findings in broiler chickens. Ital. J. Anim. Sci. 16: 82-92. Chung, H., Y. Kim, S. Chun, and G. E. Ji. 1999. Screening and selection of acid and bile resistant bifidobacteria. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 47: 25-32. Cullere, M., G. Tasoniero, V. Giaccone, G. Acuti, A. Marangon, and A. Dalle Zotte. 2017. Black soldier fly as dietary protein source for broiler quails: meat proximate composition, fatty acid and amino acid profile, oxidative status and sensory traits. Animal 12: 640-647. Decker, E. A., and B. Welch. 1990. Role of ferritin as a lipid oxidation catalyst in muscle food. J. Agric. Food Chem. 38: 674-677. Dierenfeld, E. S., and J. King. 2008. Digestibility and mineral availability of phoenix worms, Hermetia illucens, ingested by mountain chicken frogs, Leptodactylus fallax. J. Herpetol. Med. Surg. 18: 100-105. Dunne, C., L. O'Mahony, L. Murphy, G. Thornton, D. Morrissey, S. O'Halloran, M. Feeney, S. Flynn, G. Fitzgerald, and C. Daly. 2001. In vitro selection criteria for probiotic bacteria of human origin: correlation with in vivo findings. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 73: S386-S392. Dutta, P. K., J. Dutta, and V. Tripathi. 2004. Chitin and chitosan: chemistry, properties and applications. J. Sci. Ind. Res. 63: 20-31. Errington, J. 2003. Regulation of endospore formation in Bacillus subtilis. Nat. Rev. Microbiol. 1: 117. Estévez, M. 2015. Oxidative damage to poultry: from farm to fork. Poult. Sci. 94: 1368-1378. Fellenberg, M., and H. Speisky. 2006. Antioxidants: their effects on broiler oxidative stress and its meat oxidative stability. Worlds Poult. Sci. J. 62: 53-70. Feng, J., L. Zhao, and Q. Yu. 2004. Receptor-mediated stimulatory effect of oligochitosan in macrophages. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 317: 414-420. Ferket, P., E. Van Heugten, T. Van Kempen, and R. Angel. 2002. Nutritional strategies to reduce environmental emissions from nonruminants J. Anim. Sci. 80: E168-E182. Finke, M. D. 2007. Estimate of chitin in raw whole insects. Zoo Biol. 26: 105-115. Gaggìa, F., P. Mattarelli, and B. Biavati. 2010. Probiotics and prebiotics in animal feeding for safe food production. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 141: S15-S28. Gibson, G. R., and R. Fuller. 2000. Aspects of in vitro and in vivo research approaches directed toward identifying probiotics and prebiotics for human use. J. Nutr. 130: 391S-395S. Goy, R. C., D. d. Britto, and O. B. G. Assis. 2009. A review of the antimicrobial activity of chitosan. Polímeros 19: 241-247. Gusakov, A. V., E. G. Kondratyeva, and A. P. Sinitsyn. 2011. Comparison of two methods for assaying reducing sugars in the determination of carbohydrase activities. Int. J. Anal. Chem. 2011: 1-4. Hajji, S., O. Ghorbel-Bellaaj, I. Younes, K. Jellouli, and M. Nasri. 2015. Chitin extraction from crab shells by Bacillus bacteria. Biological activities of fermented crab supernatants. Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 79: 167-173. Hammes, W. P., and C. Hertel. 2006. The genera lactobacillus and carnobacterium. The prokaryotes (pp. 320-403). Springer. New York, NY. Han, I. K., J. Lee, X. Piao, and D. Li. 2001. Feeding and management system to reduce environmental pollution in swine production. Asian Australas. J. Anim. Sci. 14: 432-444. Hao, H., G. Cheng, Z. Iqbal, X. Ai, H. I. Hussain, L. Huang, M. Dai, Y. Wang, Z. Liu, and Z. Yuan. 2014. Benefits and risks of antimicrobial use in food-producing animals. Front. Microbiol. 5: 288-298. Hasan, M. M., M. Hasan, M. Parvin, R. Khatun, A. Habib, T. Islam, A. Bushra, and S. Islam. 2017. Determination of minimum inhibitory concentration for chitosan extracted from metapeuous monoceros against gram positive bacteria, Gram negative bacteria and fungi. IOSR J. Pharm. Biol. Sci. 12: 53-57. Helander, I., E. L. Nurmiaho-Lassila, R. Ahvenainen, J. Rhoades, and S. Roller. 2001. Chitosan disrupts the barrier properties of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 71: 235-244. Horwitz, W., and G. Latimer. 2000. Official methods of analysis of AOAC International, Gaithersburg MA, USA. J. Assoc. Off. Anal. Chem. Hosseinnejad, M., and S. M. Jafari. 2016. Evaluation of different factors affecting antimicrobial properties of chitosan. Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 85: 467-475. Islam, V. H., N. P. Babu, P. Pandikumar, and S. Ignacimuthu. 2011. Isolation and characterization of putative probiotic bacterial strain, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, from north east Himalayan soil based on in vitro and in vivo functional properties. Probiotics Antimicrob. Proteins 3: 175-185. Jørgensen, J. N., J. S. Laguna, C. Millán, O. Casabuena, and M. I. Gracia. 2016. Effects of a Bacillus-based probiotic and dietary energy content on the performance and nutrient digestibility of wean to finish pigs. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 221: 54-61. Jemil, N., A. Manresa, F. Rabanal, H. Ben Ayed, N. Hmidet, and M. Nasri. 2017. Structural characterization and identification of cyclic lipopeptides produced by Bacillus methylotrophicus DCS1 strain. J. Chromatogr. B. 1060: 374-386. Johnsen, H. R., and K. Krause. 2014. Cellulase activity screening using pure carboxymethylcellulose: application to soluble cellulolytic samples and to plant tissue prints. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 15: 830-838. Jung, J., and Y. Zhao. 2012. Comparison in antioxidant action between α-chitosan and β-chitosan at a wide range of molecular weight and chitosan concentration. Bioorg. Med. Chem. 20: 2905-2911. Jung, W. J., and R. D. Park. 2014. Bioproduction of chitooligosaccharides: present and perspectives. Mar. Drugs 12: 5328-5356. Kabel, A. M. 2014. Free radicals and antioxidants: role of enzymes and nutrition. J. Nutr. Health 2: 35-38. Klaenhammer, T. R., and M. J. Kullen. 1999. Selection and design of probiotics. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 50: 45-57. Kobayashi, M., T. Watanabe, S. Suzuki, and M. Suzuki. 1990. Effect of N‐Acetylchitohexaose against Candida albicans infection of tumor‐bearing mice. Microbiol. Immunol. 34: 413-426. Kosin, B., and S. K. Rakshit. 2006. Microbial and processing criteria for production of probiotics: a review. Food Technol. Biotechnol. 44: 371-379. Kujala, T. S., J. M. Loponen, K. D. Klika, and K. Pihlaja. 2000. Phenolics and betacyanins in red beetroot (Beta vulgaris) Root: distribution and effect of cold storage on the content of total phenolics and three individual compounds. J. Agric. Food Chem. 48: 5338-5342. Kumar, A. B. V., M. C. Varadaraj, L. R. Gowda, and R. N. Tharanathan. 2005. Characterization of chito-oligosaccharides prepared by chitosanolysis with the aid of papain and Pronase, and their bactericidal action against Bacillus cereus and Escherichia coli. Biochem. J. 391: 167-175. Kumirska, J., M. X. Weinhold, J. Thöming, and P. Stepnowski. 2011. Biomedical activity of chitin/chitosan based materials—influence of physicochemical properties apart from molecular weight and degree of N-acetylation. Polymers. 3: 1875-1901. Larreta, J., U. Bilbao, A. Vallejo, A. Usobiaga, G. Arana, and O. Zuloaga. 2008. Multisimplex optimisation of the purge-and-trap preconcentration of volatile fatty acids, phenols and indoles in cow slurries. Chromatographia 67: 93-99. Lee, B. C., M. S. Kim, S. H. Choi, K. Y. Kim, and T. S. Kim. 2009. In vitro and in vivo antimicrobial activity of water-soluble chitosan oligosaccharides against Vibrio vulnificus. Int. J. Mol. Med. 24: 327-333. Lefevre, M., S. M. Racedo, M. Denayrolles, G. Ripert, T. Desfougères, A. R. Lobach, R. Simon, F. Pélerin, P. Jüsten, and M. C. Urdaci. 2017. Safety assessment of Bacillus subtilis CU1 for use as a probiotic in humans. Regul. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 83: 54-65. Lei, X., X. Piao, Y. Ru, H. Zhang, A. Péron, and H. Zhang. 2015. Effect of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens-based direct-fed microbial on performance, nutrient utilization, intestinal morphology and cecal microflora in broiler chickens. Asian Australas. J. Anim. Sci. 28: 239-246. Lei, X. J., Y. J. Ru, and H. F. Zhang. 2014. Effect of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens-based direct-fed microbials and antibiotic on performance, nutrient digestibility, cecal microflora, and intestinal morphology in broiler chickens. J. Appl. Poult. Res. 23: 486-493. Li, X.-f., X.-q. Feng, S. Yang, G.-q. Fu, T.-p. Wang, and Z.-x. Su. 2010. Chitosan kills Escherichia coli through damage to be of cell membrane mechanism. Carbohydr. Polym. 79: 493-499. Li, X. J., X. S. Piao, S. W. Kim, P. Liu, L. Wang, Y. B. Shen, S. C. Jung, and H. S. Lee. 2007. Effects of chito-oligosaccharide supplementation on performance, nutrient digestibility, and serum composition in broiler chickens. Poult. Sci. 86: 1107-1114. Liu, X., X. Chen, H. Wang, Q. Yang, K. ur Rehman, W. Li, M. Cai, Q. Li, L. Mazza, and J. Zhang. 2017. Dynamic changes of nutrient composition throughout the entire life cycle of black soldier fly. PLoS One. 12: 1-21. Lodhi, G., Y. S. Kim, J. W. Hwang, S. K. Kim, Y. J. Jeon, J. Y. Je, C. B. Ahn, S. H. Moon, B. T. Jeon, and P. J. Park. 2014. Chitooligosaccharide and its derivatives: preparation and biological applications. Biomed. Res. Int. 2014: 1-13. Maeda, Y., and Y. Kimura. 2004. Antitumor effects of various Low-molecular-weight chitosans are due to increased natural killer activity of intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes in sarcoma 180–bearing mice. J. Nutr. 134: 945-950. Makkar, H. P., G. Tran, V. Heuzé, and P. Ankers. 2014. State-of-the-art on use of insects as animal feed. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 197: 1-33. Maurer, V., M. Holinger, Z. Amsler, B. Früh, J. Wohlfahrt, A. Stamer, and F. Leiber. 2016. Replacement of soybean cake by Hermetia illucens meal in diets for layers. J. Insect Food Feed 2: 83-90. Mendel, M., M. Chłopecka, N. Dziekan, and W. Karlik. 2017. Phytogenic feed additives as potential gut contractility modifiers—a review. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 230: 30-46. Mengíbar, M., I. Mateos-Aparicio, B. Miralles, and Á. Heras. 2013. Influence of the physico-chemical characteristics of chito-oligosaccharides (COS) on antioxidant activity. Carbohydr. Polym. 97: 776-782. Mourad, K., and K. Nour-Eddine. 2006. In vitro preselection criteria for probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum strains of fermented olives origin. Int. J. Probiotics Prebiotics 1: 27-32. Nardone, A., B. Ronchi, N. Lacetera, M. S. Ranieri, and U. Bernabucci. 2010. Effects of climate changes on animal production and sustainability of livestock systems. Livest. Sci. 130: 57-69. Newton, L., C. Sheppard, D. W. Watson, G. Burtle, and R. Dove. 2005. Using the black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens, as a value-added tool for the management of swine manure. Animal and Poultry Waste Management Center, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 17. Nikolov, S., H. Fabritius, M. Petrov, M. Friák, L. Lymperakis, C. Sachs, D. Raabe, and J. Neugebauer. 2011. Robustness and optimal use of design principles of arthropod exoskeletons studied by ab initio-based multiscale simulations. J. Mech. Behav. Biomed. Mater. 4: 129-145. Nyakeri, E., H. Ogola, M. Ayieko, and F. Amimo. 2017. An open system for farming black soldier fly larvae as a source of proteins for smallscale poultry and fish production. J. Insect Food Feed 3: 51-56. Pereira, D. I., and G. R. Gibson. 2002. Cholesterol assimilation by lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria isolated from the human gut. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 68: 4689-4693. Popova, T. 2017. Effect of probiotics in poultry for improving meat quality. Curr. Opin. Food Sci. 14: 72-77. Porporatto, C., I. D. Bianco, and S. G. Correa. 2005. Local and systemic activity of the polysaccharide chitosan at lymphoid tissues after oral administration. J. Leukoc. Biol. 78: 62-69. Powers, S. K., and M. J. Jackson. 2008. Exercise-induced oxidative stress: cellular mechanisms and impact on muscle force production. Physiol. Rev. 88: 1243-1276. Priest, F., M. Goodfellow, L. Shute, and R. Berkeley. 1987. Bacillus amyloliquefaciens sp. nov., nom. rev. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 37: 69-71. Prieto, M., L. Sullivan, S. Tan, P. McLoughlin, H. Hughes, M. Gutierrez, J. Lane, R. Hickey, P. Lawlor, and G. Gardiner. 2014. In vitro assessment of marine Bacillus for use as livestock probiotics. Mar. Drugs 12: 2422-2445. Raafat, D., K. Von Bargen, A. Haas, and H. G. Sahl. 2008. Insights into the mode of action of chitosan as an antibacterial compound. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 74: 3764-3773. Ravi Kumar, M. N. V. 2000. A review of chitin and chitosan applications. React. Funct. Polym. 46: 1-27. Rinaudo, M. 2006. Chitin and chitosan: properties and applications. Prog. Polym. Sci. 31: 603-632. Ruhnke, I., C. Normant, D. L. M. Campbell, Z. Iqbal, C. Lee, G. N. Hinch, and J. Roberts. 2018. Impact of on-range choice feeding with black soldier fly larvae (Hermetia illucens) on flock performance, egg quality, and range use of free-range laying hens. Anim. Nutr. Sachindra, N. M., and N. Bhaskar. 2008. In vitro antioxidant activity of liquor from fermented shrimp biowaste. Bioresour. Technol. 99: 9013-9016. Salim, H. M., H. K. Kang, N. Akter, D. W. Kim, J. H. Kim, M. J. Kim, J. C. Na, H. B. Jong, H. C. Choi, O. S. Suh, and W. K. Kim. 2013. Supplementation of direct-fed microbials as an alternative to antibiotic on growth performance, immune response, cecal microbial population, and ileal morphology of broiler chickens. Poult. Sci. 92: 2084-2090. Salminen, S., and A. von Wright. 1998. Current probiotics-safety assured? Microb. Ecol. Health Dis. 10: 68-77. Shewale, R. N., P. D. Sawale, C. Khedkar, and A. Singh. 2014. Selection criteria for probiotics: a review. Int. J. Probiotics Prebiotics 9: 17-23. Sánchez, Á., M. Mengíbar, G. Rivera-Rodríguez, B. Moerchbacher, N. Acosta, and A. Heras. 2017a. The effect of preparation processes on the physicochemical characteristics and antibacterial activity of chitooligosaccharides. Carbohydr. Polym. 157: 251-257. Sánchez, B., S. Delgado, A. Blanco‐Míguez, A. Lourenço, M. Gueimonde, and A. Margolles. 2017b. Probiotics, gut microbiota, and their influence on host health and disease. Mol. Nutr. Food Res. 61: 1-15. Suthongsa, S., R. Pichyangkura, S. Kalandakanond-Thongsong, and B. Thongsong. 2017. Effects of dietary levels of chito-oligosaccharide on ileal digestibility of nutrients, small intestinal morphology and crypt cell proliferation in weaned pigs. Livest. Sci. 198: 37-44. Suzuki, K., T. Mikami, Y. Okawa, A. Tokoro, S. Suzuki, and M. Suzuki. 1986. Antitumor effect of hexa-N-acetylchitohexaose and chitohexaose. Carbohydr. Res. 151: 403-408. Swiatkiewicz, S., M. Swiatkiewicz, A. Arczewska‐Wlosek, and D. Jozefiak. 2015. Chitosan and its oligosaccharide derivatives (chito‐oligosaccharides) as feed supplements in poultry and swine nutrition. J. Anim. Physiol. Anim. Nutr. 99: 1-12. Teng, P. Y., C. L. Chang, C. M. Huang, S. C. Chang, and T. T. Lee. 2017a. Effects of solid-state fermented wheat bran by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens and Saccharomyces cerevisiae on growth performance and intestinal microbiota in broiler chickens. Ital. J. Anim. Sci. 16: 552-562. Teng, P. Y., C. H. Chung, Y. P. Chao, C. J. Chiang, S. C. Chang, B. Yu, and T. T. Lee. 2017b. Administration of Bacillus Amyloliquefaciens and Saccharomyces Cerevisiae as direct-fed microbials improves intestinal microflora and morphology in broiler chickens. J. Poult. Sci. 54: 134-141. Verlee, A., S. Mincke, and C. V. Stevens. 2017. Recent developments in antibacterial and antifungal chitosan and its derivatives. Carbohydr. Polym. 164: 268-283. Walsh, G., R. Murphy, G. Killeen, and R. Power. 2005. Quantification of supplemental enzymes in animal feedingstuffs by radial enzyme diffusion. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 67: 70-74. Wang, S. L., T. W. Liang, and Y. H. Yen. 2011. Bioconversion of chitin-containing wastes for the production of enzymes and bioactive materials. Carbohydr. Polym. 84: 732-742. Wang, S. L., K. C. Liu, T. W. Liang, Y. H. Kuo, and C. Y. Wang. 2010. In vitro antioxidant activity of liquor and semi-purified fractions from fermented squid pen biowaste by Serratia ureilytica TKU013. Food Chem. 119: 1380-1385. Wang, Y.-S., and M. Shelomi. 2017. Review of black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) as animal feed and human food. Foods. 6: 91-113. Waśko, A., P. Bulak, M. Polak-Berecka, K. Nowak, C. Polakowski, and A. Bieganowski. 2016. The first report of the physicochemical structure of chitin isolated from Hermetia illucens. Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 92: 316-320. Wei, X., X. Liao, J. Cai, Z. Zheng, L. Zhang, T. Shang, Y. Fu, C. Hu, L. Ma, and R. Zhang. 2017. Effects of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens LFB112 in the diet on growth of broilers and on the quality and fatty acid composition of broiler meat. Anim. Prod. Sci. 57: 1899-1905. Xing, R., Y. Liu, K. Li, H. Yu, S. Liu, Y. Yang, X. Chen, and P. Li. 2017. Monomer composition of chitooligosaccharides obtained by different degradation methods and their effects on immunomodulatory activities. Carbohydr. Polym. 157: 1288-1297. Xu, Z. R., X. T. Zou, C. H. Hu, M. S. Xia, X. A. Zhan, and M. Q. Wang. 2002. Effects of dietary fructooligosaccharide on digestive enzyme activities, intestinal microflora and morphology of growing pigs. Asian-Australas J Anim Sci 15: 1784-1789. Yang, X., Y. Guo, X. He, J. Yuan, Y. Yang, and Z. Wang. 2008. Growth performance and immune responses in chickens after challenge with lipopolysaccharide and modulation by dietary different oils. Animal 2: 216-223. Yason, C. V., B. Summers, and K. Schat. 1987. Pathogenesis of rotavirus infection in various age groups of chickens and turkeys: pathology. Am. J. Vet. Res. 48: 927-938. Yildirim, A., M. OKTAY, and V. BİLALOĞLU. 2001. The antioxidant activity of the leaves of Cydonia vulgaris. Turk. J. Med. Sci. 31: 23-27. Younes, I., S. Sellimi, M. Rinaudo, K. Jellouli, and M. Nasri. 2014. Influence of acetylation degree and molecular weight of homogeneous chitosans on antibacterial and antifungal activities. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 185: 57-63. Zaharoff, D. A., C. J. Rogers, K. W. Hance, J. Schlom, and J. W. Greiner. 2007. Chitosan solution enhances both humoral and cell-mediated immune responses to subcutaneous vaccination. Vaccine. 25: 2085-2094. Zhang, P., W. Liu, Y. Peng, B. Han, and Y. Yang. 2014. Toll like receptor 4 (TLR4) mediates the stimulating activities of chitosan oligosaccharide on macrophages. Int. Immunopharmacol. 23: 254-261. Zhao, D., J. Wang, L. Tan, C. Sun, and J. Dong. 2013. Synthesis of N-furoyl chitosan and chito-oligosaccharides and evaluation of their antioxidant activity in vitro. Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 59: 391-395. Zhou, T., Y. Chen, J. Yoo, Y. Huang, J. Lee, H. Jang, S. Shin, H. Kim, J. Cho, and I. Kim. 2009. Effects of chitooligosaccharide supplementation on performance, blood characteristics, relative organ weight, and meat quality in broiler chickens. Poult. Sci. 88: 593-600.|
|摘要:||動物糞便的處理一直是畜牧業迫切需解決的問題。近年，發展出一種依靠生物轉換的處理方法，藉由將昆蟲飼養於這些有機廢棄物中，不僅能重新轉換其中的營養物質，也能減少廢棄物對於環境的汙染。黑水虻 (Hermetia illucens, BSF) 為一種腐食性昆蟲，幼蟲能利用廚餘、動物糞便及稻稈等有機物生長，並且因其含有豐富的蛋白質及脂質，而被證實能作為動物飼料的蛋白質替代原料。因此，在循環經濟的意識抬頭下，黑水虻也逐漸成為熱門的選項並被規模化飼養。然而，在黑水虻被大量飼養情況下，於生長期間所蛻下的蛹殼 (BSFP) 便成為了無法被利用的廢棄物。本研究即是針對此蛹殼廢棄物藉以液化澱粉芽孢桿菌(Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, BA) 進行發酵，評估作為雞隻機能性飼料添加物之潛力。幾丁質為BSFP 中主要的多醣類物質，在經過微生物發酵後能被降解成分子較小且具有多種生物機能性的幾丁寡醣 (COS)為本研究評估與應用重點。試驗分為三部分，第一部分為篩選最適合的BA菌株作為後續發酵試驗的接種菌株。藉由測定從飼料原料中分離出之五隻BA菌株 (P2、Y2、T4、T6、T7) ，依其特性及酵素分泌能力，篩選出最適合的菌株。結果顯示，Y2菌株具有最佳的生長速度、胃液耐受性、耐熱性及酵素生產能力。另外，Y2菌株亦具有嗉囊上皮細胞之吸附能力，因此選用Y2菌株作為後續發酵BSFP菌株。研究第二部分為BSFP的發酵試驗，此過程為兩階段，第一階段先以蛋白酶處理後，再接種BA進行第二階段的發酵。測定發酵物中的總菌數、還原醣含量、纖維素酶活性及幾丁質酶活性作為指標，篩選出最適當的發酵條件。由結果顯示，以3000 U/g BSFP活性的蛋白酶處理，再接種BA發酵五天後，能夠明顯誘導生產纖維素酶與幾丁質酶，並大量釋出還原醣。在此最佳發酵條件發酵製程之發酵蛹殼 (FBSFP)中，測得具有少量的幾丁二糖、幾丁三糖、幾丁五糖及幾丁六糖等寡醣類，且在體外的抗菌試驗結果中顯示具有抑制大腸桿菌生長的效果。在發酵物抗氧化試驗中顯示，FBSFP相對於BSFP來說有更佳的總酚含量、還原力、自由基清除力。最後為評估以FBSFP添加於土雞飼糧之應用性。試驗將紅羽母土雞隨機分配至五組，分別為餵飼基礎飼糧的控制組 (Control); 基礎飼糧中添加1x107 CFU/kg BA (BA)、基礎飼糧中分別添加0.5% BSFP (BSFP2)、0.25% FBSFP (FBSFP1)及0.5% FBSFP (FBSFP2)，試驗期70日。結果顯示，各組在生長表現上皆沒有顯著差異，而於腸道菌相結果，較於控制組，各處理組皆能提升雞隻迴腸中的乳酸菌數，其中BA組又能顯著降低迴腸中的大腸桿菌群數量。腸道型態則於FBSFP1組表現出較控制組高的空腸絨毛與腺窩深度比。另外，各處理組皆降低雞隻血清中的丙二醛含量，FBSFP2組則能顯著提升血清中的過氧化氫酶(CAT)及穀胱甘肽過氧化物酶 (GSH-Px)活性。飼糧中添加FBSFP的雞隻皆產生較高的血清中腫瘤壞死因子-α (TNF-α)含量。肉品質部分結果顯示，飼糧中添加FBSFP有助於降低雞胸肉的L*值，並在0.5% 的添加量下能顯著降低腿肉的蒸煮失重率。測定各組的墊料性狀，發現添加BA及FBSFP的處理組能顯著降低墊料中的大腸桿菌數及吲哚含量。綜合以上結果，選用適當的液化澱粉芽孢桿菌菌株配合蛋白酶發酵處理黑水虻蛹殼之發酵物具潛力作為雞隻之機能性飼料添加物以改善腸道菌相及型態，且對於墊料性狀亦具正面效益。|
The recycling of animal manure is becoming the major concern of animal production. Recently, feeding insects on organic waste can greatly lower the environmental pollution and re-boost their value. Hermetia illucens, commonly known as black soldier fly (BSF), able to be reared on the organic waste such as food waste, manure and rice straw. BSF larvae are recognized as alternative protein due to the high content of protein and lipid in larvae and prepupae. Therefore, under the rising awareness of the circular economy, BSF has gradually become a popular insect and been raised on a large scale. However, the pupal exuviae (BSFP) left during the growth period became waste. This study was aimed at assessing the BSFP fermented by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (BA) as a functional feed additive for chickens. Chitin is the main polysaccharide in BSFP. Chitooligosaccharides (COS), which can be degraded by microbial fermentation and possess many biological functions, are the emphasis of this research. The first part of the study was to select the best strain from five BA strains (P2, Y2, T4, T6, T7) isolated from feedstuff for subsequent BSFP fermentation. The selection conducted through several in vitro assays. Results showed that the strain Y2 possesses best growth rate, gastrointestinal juice tolerance, heat tolerance, cellulase, protease and chitinase production ability. In addition, the possibility of Y2 adhering to the crop epitheliums of broiler was also discovered. The second part of the study was to discuss the BSFP fermentation. The fermentation was carried out in two steps. BSFP were treated by protease first and then inoculated BA Y2 to start fermentation. The total bacterial count, reducing sugar content, cellulase activity, and chitinase activity of the fermented product were analyzed as indicators for the best fermentation. Results showed that reducing sugar contents, cellulase activity and chitinase activity of FBSFP reached its peak after 3000 U/g protease treatment and after five days of fermentation. COS had been measured out in BSFP, while N-acetyl-chitobiose, N-acetyl-chitotriose, N-acetyl-chitopentaose and N-acetyl-chitohexaose contents were higher in FBSFP. FBSFP showed great antibacterial effect against E.coli and better total phenol contents, reducing power, DPPH radical-scavenging activity and ferrous chelating capacity than BSFP. The last part was to evaluate the application of FBSFP to chickens. Red Feather Native chickens were allocated into five groups and fed as follows: basal diet (Control), basal diet supplemented with 1x107 CFU/kg BA (BA), 0.5% BSFP (BSFP2), 0.25% FBSFP (contains 5x106 CFU/kg BA, FBSFP1), and 0.5% FBSFP (contains 1×107 CFU/kg BA, FBSFP2). The experiment lasted for 70 days. Although there were no differences on the growth performance (1-70 d) among all groups, the lactic acid bacteria counts in ileum was significantly increased in all groups and the coliform counts in ileum was significantly decreased in BA compared to the Control group. FBSFP1 resulted in higher jejunal villi height and crypt depth ratio. All treatments significant decrease the serum MDA contents of chickens. However, the serum CAT and GSH-Px activities of FBSFP2 were significantly higher than there of other groups. Supplementation with FBSFP could significantly increase serum TNF-α of chickens and significantly decreased L* of breast muscle, and meanwhile significantly decrease cooking loss of thigh muscle at the 0.5% supplementation. Except BSFP, supplementation of both BA and FBSFP (0.25% and 0.5%) in diets decreased the counts of coliform bacteria and indole concentration in the litter. In conclusion, selecting appropriate strain of BA to ferment BSFP with protease treatment might be a great way to utilize it. The final product of fermentation performed great potential as feed additive for chickens to improve the intestinal microflora, morphology as well as antioxidant capacity of chickens, and possessed positive benefits for litter properties.
|Appears in Collections:||動物科學系|
Show full item record
TAIR Related Article
Items in DSpace are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.