Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item:
標題: 探討乳脂肪球膜對巨噬細胞以及葡聚醣硫酸鈉誘發腸炎之影響
Effect of milk fat globule membrane on macrophages and dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis
作者: 胡子軒
Tzu-Xuan Hu
關鍵字: 乳脂肪球膜
milk fat globule membrane
intestinal inflammatory disease
引用: 魏天恩。2017。以氫氧磷灰石前處理搭配微過濾之新穎乳脂肪球膜分離技術探討其產物與乳酸菌之交互作用。國立中興大學動物科學所碩士論文。台中市。 Adams, C. A. 2010. The probiotic paradox: live and dead cells are biological response modifiers. Nutr. Res. Rev. 23: 37-46. Ahn, Y. J., P. Ganesan and H. S. Kwak. 2011. Composition, structure, and bioactive components in milk fat globule membrane. J. Food Sci. Ani. Resour. 31:1-8. Appell, K.C., T.W. Keenan and P. S. Low. 1982. Differential scanning calorimetry of milk fat globule membranes. Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 69: 243–250. Arranz, E. and M. Corredig. 2017. Invited review: Milk phospholipid vesicles, their colloidal properties, and potential as delivery vehicles for bioactive molecules. J. Dairy Sci. 100: 4213-4222. Atabai, K., R. Fernandez, X. Huang, I. Ueki, A. Kline, Y. Li, S. Sadatmansoori, C. Smith-Steinhart, W. Zhu, R. Pytela, Z. Werb, and D. Sheppard. 2005. Mfge8 is critical for mammary gland remodeling during involution. Mol. Biol. Cell. 16: 5465-5901. Atabai, K., S. Jame, N. Azhar, A. Kuo, M. Lam, W. McKleroy, G. DeHart, S. Rahman, D. D. Xia, A. C. Melton, P. Wolters, C. L. Emson, S. M. Turner, Z. Werb and D. Sheppard. 2009. Mfge8 diminishes the severity of tissue fibrosis in mice by binding and targeting collagen for uptake by macrophages. J Clin Invest. 119:3 713-3722. Aziz, M., S. Ishihara, Y. Mishima, N. Oshima, I. Moriyama, T. Yuki, Y. Kadowaki, M. A. K.Rumi, Y. Amano and Y. Kinoshit. 2009. MFG-E8 attenuates intestinal inflammation in murine experimental colitis by modulating osteopontin-dependent αvβ3 integrin signaling. J. Immunol. 11:222-7232. Aziz, M., A. Jacob, A. Matsuda and P. Wang. 2011. Milk fat globule-EGF factor 8 expression, function and plausible signal transduction in resolving inflammation. Apoptosis . 16: 1077-1086. Aziz, M., A. Matsuda, W. Yang, A. Jacob and P. Wang. 2012. Milk fat globule-epidermal growth factor-factor 8 attenuates neutrophil infiltration in acute lung injury via modulation of CXCR2. J. Immunol. 201:2. Bain, C. C. and A. M. Mowat. 2014. Macrophages in intestinal homeostasis and inflammation. Immunological Reviews. 260: 102-117. Bain, C. C., C. L. Scott, H. Uronen-Hansson, S. Gudjonsson, O. Jansson, O. Grip, M. Guilliams, B. Malissen, W. W. Agace and A. M. Mowat. 2013. Resident and pro-inflammatory macrophages in the colon represent alternative context-dependent fates of the same Ly6Chi monocyte precursors. Mucosal Immunol. 6: 498-510. Balzar, M., I. H. B. Bruijn, H. A. M. Rees-Bakker, F. A. Prins, W. Helfrich, L. de Leij, G. Riethmüller, S. Alberti, S. O. Warnaar, G. J. Fleuren and S. V. Litvinov. 2001. Epidermal growth factor-Like repeats mediate lateral and reciprocal interactions of Ep-CAM molecules in homophilic adhesions. Mol. Cell. Biol. 21: 2570-2580. Bhinder, G., J. M. Allaire, C. Garcia, J. T. Lau, J. M. Chan, N. R. Ryz, E. S. Bosman, F. A. Graef, S. M. Crowley, L. S. Celiberto, J. C. Berkmann, R. A. Dyer, K. Jacobson, M. G. Surette, S. M. Innis and B. A. Vallance. 2017. Milk fat globule membrane supplementation in formula modulates the neonatal gut microbiome and normalizes intestinal development. Sci. Rep. 7:45274. Bonaïti, B., F. Alarcon , V. Bonadona, S. Pennec, N. Andrieu, D. Stoppa-Lyonnet. H. Perdry and C. Bonaïti-Pellié. 2011. A new scoring system for the diagnosis of BRCA1/2 associated breast-ovarian cancer predisposition. J. Med. Genet. 98: 779-795. Bu, H. F., X. L. Zuo, X. Wang, M. A. Ensslin, V. Koti, W. Hsueh, A. S. Raymond, B. D. Shur and X. D. Tan. 2007. Milk fat globule–EGF factor 8/lactadherin plays a crucial role in maintenance and repair of murine intestinal epithelium. J Clin Invest. 117:3673-3683. Chong, B. M., P. Reigan, K. D. Mayle-Combs, D. J. Orlicky and J. L. McManaman. 2011. Determinants of adipophilin function in milk lipid formation and secretion. Trends Endocrinol. Metab. 22: 211-217. Cordeiro-da-Silva, A., J. Tavares, N. Araújo, F. Cerqueira, A. Tomás, K. P .T. Lin and A. Ouaissi. 2004. Immunological alterations induced by polyamine derivatives on murine splenocytes and huma mononuclear cells. Int. Immunopharmacol. 4:547-556. Dalton, D. K., S. Pitts-Meek, S. Keshav, I. S. Figari, A. Bradley and T. A. Stewar. 1993. Multiple defects of immune cell function in mice with disrupted interferon-gamma genes. Science. 259: 1739-1742. Dewettinck, K., R. Rombaut, N. Thienpont, T. T. Le., K. Messens and J. V. Camp. 2007. Nutritional and technological aspects of milk fat globule membrane material. Int. Dairy. J. 18: 436-457 Dieleman, L. A., P. Akol, B. Pena and M. Van Rees. 1998. Chronic experimental colitis induced by dextran sulphate sodium (DSS) is characterized by Th1 and Th2 cytokines. Clin. Exp. Immunol. 114: 385-391. Edwards, J. P., X. Zhang , K. A. Frauwirth and D. M. Mosser. 2006. Biochemical and functional characterization of three activated macrophage populations. J. Leukoc. Biol. 80: 1298-1307. Erben, U., C. Loddenkemper, K. Doerfe, S. Spieckermann, D. Haller, M. M. Heimesaat, M. Zeitz, B. Siegmund and A. A. Kühl. 2014. A guide to histomorphological evaluation of intestinal inflammation in mouse models. Int. J. Clin. Exp. Pathol. 7:4557-4576. Evers, J. M. 2004. The milkfat globule membrane-compositional and structural changes post secretion by the mammary secretory cell. Int. Dairy J. 14: 661-674. Fong, B. Y., C. S. Norris and A. K. H. MacGibbon. 2007. Protein and lipid composition of bovine milk-fat-globule membrane. Int. Dairy J. 17:257-288. Fricker, M., M. J. Oliva-Martín and G. C Brown. 2012. Primary phagocytosis of viable neurons by microglia activated with LPS or Aβ is dependent on calreticulin/LRP phagocytic signaling. J. Neuroinflamm. 9:196. Fukushima, Y., Y. Kawata, H. Hara, A. Terada and T. Mitsuoka. 1998. Effect of a probiotic formula on intestinal immunoglobulin A production in healthy children. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 42:39-44. Gallier, S., J. Cui, T. D. Olson, S. M. Rutherfurd, A.Ye, P. J. Moughan and H. Singh. 2013. In vivo digestion of bovine milk fat globules: Effect of processing and interfacial structural changes. I. Gastric digestion. J. Food Chem. 141: 3273-328. Gordon, S., and P. R Taylor. 2005. Monocyte and macrophage heterogeneity. Nat. Rev. Immunol. 5: 953-964. Hanayama, R., M. Tanaka, K. Miwa, A. Shinohara, A. Iwamatsu and S. Nagata. 2002Identification of a factor that links apoptotic cells to phagocytes. Nature. 417:182-187. Hanayama, R., M. Tanaka, K. Miyasaka, K. Aozasa, M. Koike, Y. Uchiyama and S. Nagata. 2004. Autoimmune disease and impaired uptake of apoptotic cells in MFG-E8-deficient mice. Science 304: 1147-1150. Hedl, M., J. Li, J. H. Cho and C. Abraham. 2007. Chronic stimulation of Nod2 mediates tolerance to bacterial products. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 104:19440–19445. Helming, L., J. Winter and S. Gordon. 2009. The scavenger receptor CD36 plays a role in cytokine-induced macrophage fusion. J. Cell Sci. 122: 453-459. Hume, D. A., V. Hugh Perry and S. Gordon. 1984. The mononuclear phagocyte system of the mouse defined by immunohistochemical localisation of antigen F4/80: Macrophages associated with epithelia. J. Cell Sci. 210: 503-512. Kamada, N., T. Hisamatsu, S. Okamoto, H. Chinen, T. Kobayashi, T. Sato, A. Sakuraba, M. T. Kitazume, A. Sugita, K. Koganei, K. S. Akagawa and T. Hibi. 2008. Unique CD14 intestinal macrophages contribute to the pathogenesis of Crohn disease via IL-23/IFN-gamma axis. J. Clin. Invest.118: 2269-2280. Koike, A., and T. Takgi. 2007. Knowledge discovery based on an implicit and explicit conceptual network. JASIST. 58: 51-65. Kreider, T., R. M. Anthony, J. F. Urban and W. C. Gause. 2007. Alternatively activated macrophages in helminth infections. Curr. Opin. Immunol. 19: 448-453. Le, T. T., G. Debyser, W. Gilbert, K. Struijs, J. V. Camp, T. Van de Wiele, B. Devreese and K. Dewettinck. 2013. Distribution and isolation of milk fat globule membrane proteins during dairy processing as revealed by proteomic analysis. Int. Dairy J. 32: 110-120. Lopez, C. and V. Briard-Bion. 2007. The composition, supramolecular organisation and thermal properties of milk fat: a new challenge for the quality of food products. Le Lait. 87: 317-336. Lopez, C., M. N. Madec and R. J. Flores. 2010. Lipid rafts in the bovine milk fat globule membrane revealed by the lateral segregation of phospholipids and heterogeneous distribution of glycoproteins. Food Chem. 120: 22-33. Ma, T. Y., G. K. Iwamoto, N. T. Hoa, V. Akotia, A. Pedram, M. A. Boivin and H. A. Said. 2004. TNF-alpha-induced increase in intestinal epithelial tight junction permeability requires NF-kappa B activation. Am. J. Physiol Gastrointest. Liver Physiol. 286: G367-G376. Mañá, P., M. Goodyear, C, Bernard, R. Tomioka, M. Freire‐Garabal and D. Liñares. 2004. Tolerance induction by molecular mimicry: prevention and suppression of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis with the milk protein butyrophilin. Int. Immunol. 16:489–499. Mather, I. H. 2000. A review and proposed nomenclature for major proteins of the milk-fat globule membrane. J. Dairy Sci. 83:203-247. Mather, I. H. 2011. Milk Lipids: Milk fat globule membrane. Page 680-690 in Encyclopedia of Dairy Sciences. J. W. Fuquagy, 2ed. Academic Press. San Diego, CA, USA. Mather, I. H. and T. W. Keenan. 1998. The cell biology of milk secretion: historical notes. J. Mammary Gland Biol. 3: 227-232. Mather, I. H., C. H. Sullivan and P. J. Madara. 1982. Detection of xanthine oxidase and immunologically related proteins in fractions from bovine mammary tissue and milk after electrophoresis in polyacrylamide gels containing sodium dodecyl sulphate. Biochem. J. 202: 317-323. Miksa, M., D. Amin, R. Wu, A. Jacob, M. Zhou, W. Dong, W. Yang, T. S. Ravikumar and P. Wang. 2008. Maturation-induced down-regulation of MFG-E8 impairs apoptotic cell clearance and enhances endotoxin response. Int. J. Mol. Med. 22: 743-748 Mosser, D. M. and J. P. Edwards. 2008. Exploring the full spectrum of macrophage activation. Nat. Rev. Immunol. 8:958-969. Motouri, M., H. Matsuyama, J. Yamamura, M. Tanaka, S. Aoe, T. Iwanaga and H. Kawakami. Milk sphingomyelin accelerates enzymatic and morphological maturation of the intestine in artificially reared rats. J. Pediatr. Gastr. Nutr. 36:241-274. Nagashima, R., K. Maeda, T. Imai and T. Takahashi. 1996. Lamina propria macrophages in the human gastrointestinal mucosa: their distribution, immunohistological phenotype, and function. J. Histochem. Cytochem.44: 721-731. Nathan, C. ‎2008. Metchnikoff's legacy in 2008. Nature Immunol. 9: 695-698. O'Shea, J. J. and P. J. Murray. 2008. Cytokine signaling modules in inflammatory responses. Immunity. 28: 477-487. Ogg, S. L., A. K. Weldon, L. Dobbie, A. J. H. Smith and I. H. Mather. 2004. Expression of butyrophilin (Btn1a1) in lactating mammary gland is essential for the regulated secretion of milk-lipid droplets. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 101: 10084-10089. Otani, A., S. Ishihara, M. M. Aziz, N. Oshima, Y. Mishima, I. Moriyama, T. Yuki, Y. Amano, M. U. Ansary and Y. Kinoshita. 2011. Intrarectal administration of milk fat globule epidermal growth factor-8 protein ameliorates murine experimental colitis. Int. J. Mol. Med. 349-356. Park, Y. M. 2014. CD36, a scavenger receptor implicated in atherosclerosis. Exp. Mol. Med. 46: 1-7. Pepino, M. Y., O. Kuda, D. Samovski and N. A. Abumrad. 2014. Structure-function of CD36 and importance of fatty acid signal transduction in fat metabolism. Annu. Rev. Nutr. 34: 281-303. Pull, S. L., J. M. Doherty, J. C. Mills, J. I. Gordon and T. S. Stappenbeck. 2005. Activated macrophages are an adaptive element of the colonic epithelial progenitor niche necessary for regenerative responses to injury. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 102:99-104. Raymond, A., M. A. Ensslin and B. D. Shur. 2009. SED1/MFG‐E8: A Bi‐Motif protein that orchestrates diverse cellular interactions. J. Cell. Biochem. 106:957-966. Roberts, P. J., G. P. Riley, K. Morgan, R. Miller, J. O. Hunter and S. J. Middleton. 2001. The physiological expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in the human colon. J Clin Pathol. 54:293-297. Shi, X., X. Cai, W. Di, J. Li, X. Xu, A. Zhang, W. Qi, Z. Zhou and Y. Fang. 2017. MFG-E8 selectively inhibited Aβ-induced microglial M1 polarization via NF-κB and PI3K-Akt pathways. Mol. Neurobol. 54: 7777-7788. Silverstein, R. L., and M. Febbraio. 2009. CD36, a scavenger receptor involved inimmunity, metabolism, angiogenesis, and behavior. Sci. Signal. 2: 7-9. Singh, H. 2006. The milk fat globule membrane-A biophysical system for food applications. J. Cocis. 11:154-163. Smith, A., B. R. Knezevic, Johannes U. Ammann, D. A. Rhodes, D. Aw and D. B. Palmer, Ian H. Mather and John Trowsdale . 2010. BTN1A1, the mammary gland butyrophilin, and BTN2A2 are both inhibitors of T cell activation. J Immunol. 184: 3514-3525. Smith, P. D., L. E. Smythies, R. Shen, T. Greenwell-Wild, M. Gliozzi and S. M Wahl. 2010. Intestinal macrophages and response to microbial encroachment. Mucosal Immunol. 4: 31-42. Snow, D. R., R. E. Ward, A. Olsen, R. Jimenez-Flores and K. J. Hintze. 2011. Membrane-rich milk fat diet provides protection against gastrointestinal leakiness in mice treated with lipopolysaccharide. J. Dairy Sci. 94: 2201-2212. Snow, D. R., R. Jimenez-Flores, R. E. Ward, J. Cambell, M. J. Young, I. Nemere and K. J. Hintze. 2010. Dietary milk fat globule membrane reduces the incidence of aberrant crypt foci in Fischer-344 rats. J. Agric. Food Chem. 58:2157-2163. Spitsberg, V. L. 2005. Invited review: Bovine milk fat globule membrane as a potential nutraceutical. J. Dairy Sci. 88:2289-2294. Stein, M., S. Keshav, N. Harris and S. Gordon. 1992. Interleukin 4 potently enhances murine macrophage mannose receptor activity: a marker of alternative immunologic macrophage activation. J. Exp. Med.176: 287-292. Vlantis, K., A. Polykratis, P. Welz, G. van Loo, M. Pasparakis and A. Wullaert. 2016. TLR-independent anti-inflammatory function of intestinal epithelial TRAF6 signalling prevents DSS-induced colitis in mice. Gut Jnl. 65: 935-943. Vorbach, C., A. Scriven and M. Capecchi. 2002. The housekeeping gene xanthine oxidoreductase is necessary for milk fat droplet enveloping and secretion: gene sharing in the lactating mammary gland. Genes and Dev. 16: 3223-3235. Wirtz, S., C. Neufert, B. Weigmann and M. F. Neurath. 2007. Chemically induced mouse models of intestinal inflammation. Nat. protoc. 2: 541-546. Witsell, A. L., and L. B. Schook. 1992. Tumor necrosis factor alpha is an autocrine growth regulator during macrophage differentiation. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 89: 4754-4758. Wright, S. D., R. A. Ramos, P. S. Tobias, R. J. Ulevitch and J. C. Mathison. 1990. CD14, a receptor for complexes of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and LPS binding protein. Science 249: 1431-1433. Xu, S., M. Walkling-Ribeiro, M. W. Griffiths and M. Corredig. 2015. Pulsed electric field processing preserves the antiproliferative activity of the milk fat globule membrane on colon carcinoma cells. J. Dairy Sci. 98: 2867-2874. Yamada, K., A. Uchiyama, A. Uehara, B. Perera, S. Ogino, Y. Yokoyama, Y. Takeuchi, M. Udey, O. Ishikawa and S.Motegi. 2016. MFG-E8 drives melanoma growth by stimulating mesenchymal stromal cell-induced angiogenesis and M2 polarization of tumor-associated macrophages. Cancer Res. 10: 22-39. Yamamoto, M., S. Sato, H. Hemmi1, K. Hoshino, T. Kaisho, H. Sanjo, O.Takeuchi, M. Sugiyama, M. Okabe, K. Takeda and S. Akira. 2003. Role of adaptor TRIF in the MyD88-independent Toll-like receptor signaling pathway. Science 301: 640-643. Ye, A., H. Singh, M. W. Taylor and S. Anema. 2002. Characterization of protein components of natural and heat-treated milk fat globule membranes. Int Dairy J. 12: 393-402. Ye, A., H. Singh, M. W. Taylor and S. Anema. 2004. Interactions of whey proteins with milk fat globule membrane proteins during heat treatment of whole milk. Lait. 84: 269-283. Zanabria, R., A. M. Tellez, M. Griffiths, S. Sharif, and M. Corredig. 2014. Modulation of immune function by milk fat globule membrane isolates. J. Dairy. Sci. 97: 2017-2026. Zheng, H., R. Jiménez-Flores and D. W. Everett. 2013. Bovine milk fat globule membrane proteins are affected by centrifugal washing processes. J. Agric. Food Chem. 61: 8403-8411.
摘要: 乳脂肪球膜 (milk fat globule;MFGM) 為三層磷脂質鑲嵌膜蛋白並包覆三酸甘油酯核心的複雜生物性膜,為維持乳汁中乳脂肪穩定與乳化狀態的重要結構。先前研究已知MFGM鑲嵌之膜蛋白與極性磷脂質成分個別具有許多生物活性之潛力,諸如抑制癌症、降低血膽固醇、促進凋亡細胞吞噬以及促進腸道上皮修復與成熟等功能,並且顯示可能具有免疫調節之功能。因此本研究旨在初步評估整體MFGM分離物對於免疫機能性之影響,以及對於小鼠腸炎之影響。   本研究利用氫氧磷灰石 (hydroxyapatite;HA) 前處理法解離酪乳原料中之酪蛋白微粒,進而搭配微過濾 (microfiltration) 收集富含乳脂肪球膜之分離物;此外,更模擬不同之殺菌條件,進行各種溫度條件 (120℃、90℃與65℃) 於30分鐘下之熱處理,對MFGM機能性之影響。於細胞試驗部分,使用小鼠巨噬細胞株 (RAW 264.7),並分為兩主題探討,包括MFGM對巨噬細胞活化之影響,以及MFGM是否可抑制脂多醣 (lipopolysaccharide;LPS) 所引起之發炎反應。結果顯示,不管是否有經過熱處理之MFGM皆會刺激巨噬細胞分泌TNF-α、IL-1β、IL-6以及IFN-γ,然而120℃熱處理組則具有較低之促發炎細胞激素分泌,可能與其活性膜蛋白質變性,以及顯著較低的細胞存活率有關。此外,各種熱處理之MFGM皆無法降低巨噬細胞因LPS刺激引發之促發炎細胞因子TNF-α、IL-1β及IL-6的分泌,甚至可能有加乘刺激之效果。因此可得知,MFGM分離物可以刺激巨噬細胞活化,並推測與其上之生物活性膜蛋白相關;且MFGM無法降低因LPS引起之發炎反應。   腸炎小鼠模式部分,分成控制組 (control)、DSS對照組、低濃度 (10 mg每日/每隻小鼠) 殺菌MFGM、高濃度 (20 mg每日/每隻小鼠) 殺菌MFGM以及高濃度 (20 mg每日/每隻小鼠) 無殺菌MFGM組;其中殺菌條件皆設為65℃,30分鐘。動物實驗結果顯示,在腸炎預防模型之部分,餵飼MFGM無法減緩因DSS誘發腸炎後所引起小鼠之體重降低、採食量降低、腹瀉、糞便潛血評分以及結腸長度縮短;然而於解剖病理學上,MFGM處理組具有較少損傷評分之趨勢。因此,接下來評估治療腸炎之模型,發現餵飼熱處理之MFGM處理組,皆具有顯著改善腸道發炎後造成之損傷,如具有較長之結腸長度與。 綜上所述,MFGM於細胞試驗具有刺激活化巨噬細胞之能力,但無法降低巨噬細胞之發炎反應,亦無法預防及保護小鼠免受於DSS引起急性腸炎之臨床發炎症狀,不過於治療腸炎之模型中,發現MFGM可減緩因DSS誘發腸炎後引起之臨床症狀與結腸組織損傷,並具有加速腸道修復之功能。
Milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) is a complex biological membrane which coats a triglyceride core and is composed of three layers of phospholipids with mosaic membrane proteins. MFGM is responsible for maintaining the stability and emulsified state of the milk fat in milk. Previous studies have shown that the membrane proteins and phospholipids of MFGM individually elicits many potentials for biological activities, such as cancer prevention, lowering blood cholesterol, promoting phagocytosis to apoptotic cells, promoting the repair and maturation of intestinal epithelium, and immune regulation function. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to better understand the effects of MFGM on macrophage and chemical-induced colitis. In this study, preparation of MFGM enriched isolate from buttermilk was conducted by a novel method using hydroxyapatite (HA) pretreatment followed by microfiltration. In addition, MFGM under different heat treatment at various conditions (120°C, 90°C, and 65°C) was performed at 30 minutes to simulate different processing conditions. In the in vitro experiment, mouse macrophage cell line (RAW 264.7) was used for evaluating the immune-stimulating and anti-inflammatory ability of MFGM. The results showed that, both non-treated and heat-treated MFGM were able to stimulate macrophages to secrete pro-inflammatory cytokines, including TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and IFN-γ. The 120 °C heat-treated group had the lowest secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines, which might be related to the denaturation of biological MFGM proteins caused by heat or significantly lower cell viability. On the other hand, all heat-treated MFGM could not reduce the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines in macrophages stimulated by lipopolysaccharides (LPS). In summary, MFGM isolate is able to stimulate macrophage activation which are presumed to be related to the bioactive membrane proteins in vitro. In opposite, MFGM cannot reduce the inflammatory response in macrophage caused by LPS. In the in vivo mouse colitis model, control group (control), dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) control group (CD), a low concentration (10 mg) pasteurized MFGM (PLMD), a high concentration (20 mg) pasteurized MFGM (PHMD) and high concentration (20 mg) MFGM without pasteurization group (NHMD) were conducted, whereas the condition of pasteurization was 65 ℃, 30 min. The results showed that administration of MFGM could not improve the weight loss, decrease of feed intake, diarrhea, fecal blooding, and colon length shortening caused by DSS-induced colitis in preventing model. In histopathological evaluations, administration of MFGM treated group had a less damage. In conclusion, MFGM has the ability to stimulate the activation of macrophages, but it cannot inhibit the inflammatory response of macrophages, nor be able to prevent mice from DSS-induced colitis. MFGM improves clinical symptoms and colon tissue damage, and has accelerated intestinal repair function after recovery period in healing model.
文章公開時間: 10000-01-01
Appears in Collections:動物科學系



Items in DSpace are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.