Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/98162
標題: 稠李鏈黴菌PMS-702防治水稻紋枯病的功效
Efficacy of Streptomyces padanus PMS-702 for controlling rice sheath blight
作者: 楊佳融
Chia-Jung Yang
關鍵字: 水稻紋枯病
稠李鏈黴菌PMS-702
治黴色基素
苦茶粕
茶皂素
Rice sheath blight
Streptomyces padanus PMS-702
fungichromin
tea seed pomace
tea saponin
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摘要: 水稻紋枯病為水稻的重要病害之一,其病原菌為Rhizoctonia solani Kühn AG1-IA,可為害水稻整個生育期,其中最常發生在分糵盛期至孕穗期。在台灣水稻每年因紋枯病所造成的產量損失約14 - 17%;近年來農民將稻稈拌入田土取代稻稈焚燒的耕作方式,亦有增加農田中紋枯病菌接種源之虞。目前水稻紋枯病之防治策略大多以噴佈化學農藥為主,然而化學藥劑易使病原菌產生抗藥性與引起殘留毒汙染的問題。近年來開發非農藥的防治策略已成為我們研究的重要方向,因此本研究的主要目的在於嘗試開發生物防治法藉以減少使用化學藥劑,首先著重於降低田間紋枯病菌的接種源,進而配合植株的噴佈防治,祈有效減少水稻紋枯病的發生。研究結果發現稠李鏈黴菌Streptomyces padanus Baldacci. et al. PMS-702所產生之二次代謝物治黴色基素(Fungichromin)可顯著抑制水稻紋枯病菌的菌絲生長,於3.07 mg/L能夠抑制50 %菌絲生長,並可造成菌絲原生質滲漏及抑制病原菌形成侵入構造。利用麥芽抽出物-苜蓿種子粉培養液培養S. padanus PMS-702,可使治黴色基素的產量達到802 mg/L。在混有紋枯病菌的稻稈田土中施用0.5 % (v/v) PMS-702發酵液,可加速病原菌死亡及減少病原菌於稻稈中的存活。進一步,研究發現PMS-702發酵液配合0.5 % (w/v)苦茶粕施用後第12天,可使土壤中帶菌稻稈之菌絲完全死亡,施用三週後亦可顯著降低紋枯病菌核發芽率。此外,利用黃豆粉-葡萄糖培養液(SMGC-2)培養S. padanus PMS-702製成SMGC-2發酵液與2 % (w/v)茶皂素溶液以體積一比一混合製成SPT製劑後,在溫室進行水稻紋枯病防治試驗,結果發現SPT製劑之100倍稀釋液可使水稻紋枯病的罹病度由66.67 %降至24.04 %。歸言之,本研究證明稠李鏈黴菌PMS-702之發酵液搭配苦茶粕拌入稻田中,可有效降低紋枯病菌於稻稈上存活外,其發酵液混合2 %茶皂素溶液,亦可顯著防治水稻紋枯病的發生。
Rice sheath blight (ShB), caused by Rhizoctonia solani Kühn AG1-IA, is one of the destructive diseases in rice fields worldwide. The pathogen infects all growing stages of rice, especially at tillering and boosting stages. In Taiwan, ShB disease causes 14-17% yield loss every year. Although the application of fungicides could control the disease, developing more friendly strategies for the disease management is needed due to the occurrence of fungicide-resistant pathogen and environmental concerns. The purposes of this study were to develop biological control strategies focusing on field sanitation and spraying rice plants with a biocontrol agent for ShB disease management. Streptomyces padanus PMS-702 showed a great antagonistic activity against R. solani isolates RS1-731 and RS1-024 on potato dextrose agar plates. Fungichromin was found to be the major compound produced by S. padanus PMS-702 for inhibiting mycelial growth of R. solani. The results revealed that fungichromin at 3.07 mg/L could inhibit 50% mycelial growth of the pathogen. In addition, fungichromin could also cause leakage of cytoplasm and inhibit the formation of infection structure of R. solani. Fungichromin could reach as high as 802 mg/L when S. padanus PMS-702 was cultured in malt extract-alfalfa seed meal liquid medium for 6 days. Addition of 0.5% (v/v) S. padanus PMS-702 fermented broth into soil decreased the survival rate of the pathogen on rice straws compared to the control. Soil amended with 0.5% (v/v) S. padanus PMS-702 broth and 0.5% (w/v) tea seed pomace resulted in the death of R. solani mycelia in the infested rice straws and inhibited the germination of sclerotia 21 days after treatment. Greenhouse assays revealed that S. padanus PMS-702 cultured in soybean meal-glucose (SMGC-2) medium after mixing with different surfactants could enhance its efficacy for inhibiting the pathogen. Of six surfactants tested, the addition of 2% tea saponin was the most effective in suppressing the pathogen. S. padanus PMS-702 broth fermented in SMGC-2, mixed with 2% tea saponin, diluted 100 fold, and sprayed onto rice plants significantly reduced ShB disease severity ranging from 24.04 to 66.67%. Thus, S. padanus PMS-702 is an effective biocontrol agent. The results demonstrated that the efficacy of S. padanus PMS-702 for controlling rice ShB disease could be significantly improved through culture-based fermentation.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/98162
文章公開時間: 2021-08-08
Appears in Collections:植物病理學系

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