Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/98164
標題: 臺灣及越南百香果病毒之鑒定以及構築具交互保護能力之東亞百香果輕症病毒
Characterization of passionfruit-infecting viruses in Taiwan and Vietnam and generation of cross-protection effective mild strains of East Asian passiflora virus
作者: 張宇航
Yee-Hang Chong
關鍵字: 東亞百香果病毒 (EAPV)
越南百香果病毒 (PVNV)
具感染力轉錄體
輕症病毒
交互保護
East Asian passiflora virus (EAPV)
Passionfruit Vietnam virus (PVNV)
infectious clone
mild strain
cross-protection
引用: 林盈達 1982. 百香果雜交F1 品種之育成。中國農藝 28:190. 王惠亮 1983. 臺灣百香果木質型病毒之研究。國立中興大學植物病理研究所碩士論文 84pp。 李文立,林榮貴. 2008. 百香果的栽培管理。行政院農業委員會農業試驗所技術服務季刊74:4-8 鄭櫻慧,陳金枝,鄧汀欽。2015. 百香果雙生病毒發生狀況。農試所特刊第184號:臺灣新浮現之重要作物病害及其防治研討會專刊。99-106 Aapola, A. I. E., and Rochow, W. F. 1971. Relationships among three isolates of barley yellow dwarf virus. Virology 46: 127-141. Adams, M. J., Antoniw, J. F., and Beaudoin, F. 2005. Overview and analysis of the polyprotein cleavage sites in the family Potyviridae. Molecular Plant Pathology 6: 471-487. Aguilar, I., Sanchez, F., and Ponz, F. 2000. Different forms of interference between two tobamoviruses in two different hosts. Plant Pathology 49: 659-665. Ahoonmanesh, A., and Shalla, T. A. 1981. Feasibility of cross-protection for control of tomato mosaic virus in fresh market field-grown tomatoes. Plant Disease 65: 56-58. Ala-Poikela, M., Goytia, E., Haikonen, T., Rajamaki, M. L., and Valkonen, J. P. T. 2011. Helper component proteinase of the genus Potyvirus is an interaction partner of translation initiation factors eIF(iso)4E and eIF4E and contains a 4E bingding motif. Journal of Virology 85: 6784-6794. Allison, R., Johnston, R. E., and Dougherty, W. G. 1986. The nucleotide sequence of the coding region of Tobacco etch virus genomic RNA evidence for the synthesis of a single polyprotein. Virology 154: 9-20. Anandalakshimi, R., Pruss, G. J., Ge, X., Marathe, R., Mallory, A. C., Smith, T. H., and Vance, V. B. 1998. A viral suppressor of gene silencing in plants. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 95: 13079-13084. Anderson, P. K., Cunningham, A. A., Patel, N. G., Morales, F. J., Epstein, P. R., and Daszak, P. 2004. Emerging infectious diseases of plants: Pathogen pollution, climate change and agrotechnology drivers. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 19: 535-544. Anindya, R., and Savithri, H. S. 2003. Surface-exposed amino- and carboxy-terminal residues are crucial for the initiation of assembly in Pepper vein banding virus: A flexuous rod-shaped virus. Virology 316: 325–336. Anindya, R., and Savithri, H. S. 2004. Potyviral NIa proteinase, a proteinase with novel deoxyribonuclease activity. Journal of Biological Chemistry 279: 32159-32169. Anonymous, 2004. FAO report 2004. Declaration of the high-level conference on world food security: The challanges of climate change and bioenergy. http://www.fao.org/fileadmin/user_upload/foodclimate/HLCdocs/declaration-E.pdf. Accessed 08.08.2018. Atif, M., Hassan, Z., and Ahmed, S. 2015. Pakistan's citrus industry: An overview of key constrains. The Patriot, 01. Atreya, C. D., Atreya, P. L., Thornbury, D. W., and Pirone, T. P. 1992. Site-directed mutations in the potyvirus HC-Pro gene affect helper component activity, virus accumulation, and symptom expression in infected tobacco plants. Virology 191: 106-111. Atreya, C. D., and Pirone, T. P. 1993. Mutational analysis of the helper component proteinase gene of a potyvirus: Effects of amino acid substitutions, deletions, and gene replacement of virulence and aphid transmissibility. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 90: 11919-11923. Atta, S., Sidique, M., Ashiq, S., and Hannan, A. 2017. Citrus tristeza virus in Pakistan: A review. Pakistan Journal of Phytopahtology 29: 227-233. Balaraman, K., and Ramakrishnan, K. 1980. Strain variation and cross-protection in citrus tristeza virus on acid lime. In 'Eighth IOCV Conference'. pp. 60-68. Ballut, L., Drucker, M., Pugniere, M., Cambon, F., Blanc, S., Roquet, F., Candresse, T., Schmid, H. P., Nicolas, P., Gall, O. L., and Badaoui, S. 2005. HcPro, a multifunctional protein encoded by a plant RNA virus, targets the 20S proteasome and affects its enzymic activities. Journal of General Virology 86: 2595-2603. Bar-Joseph, M., Marcus, R., and Lee, R. F. 1989. The continuous challange of citrus tristeza virus control. Annual Review of Phytopathology 27: 291-316. Basso. J., Dallaire. P., Charest. P. J., Devantier. Y. and Laliberte. J. F. 1994. Evidence for an internal ribosome entry site within the 5' non-translated region of turnip mosaic potyvirus RNA. Journal of General Virology 75: 3157-3165. Batista, L, Porras, D. N., Gutierrez, A., Pena, I., Rodriguez, J., Fernandez del Amo, O., Perez, R., Morera, J. L., Lee, R. F., and Niblett, C. L. 1996. Tristeza and Toxoptera citricida in Cuba: Incidence and control strategies. In 'Thirteenth IOCV Conference'. pp. 104-111. Bazan, J. F., and Fletterick, R. J. 1988. Viral cysteine proteases are homologous to the trypsin-like family of serine proteases structural and functional implications. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 85: 7872-7876. Beck, D. L., Foster, R. L. S., Bevan, M. W., Boxen, K. A., and Lowe, S. C. 1990. Infectious transcripts and nucleotide sequence of coloned cDNA of the potexvirus white clover mosaic virus. Virology 177: 152-158. Bederski, K., Roistacher, C. N., and Muller, G. W. 2005. Cross protection against the severe citrus tristeza virus stem pitting in Peru. In 'Sixteenth IOCV Conference'. pp. 117-126. Benitez-Galeano, M. J., Vallet, T., Carrau, L., Hernandez-Rodriguez, L., Bertalmio, A., Rivas, F., Rubio, L., Maeso, D., Vignuzzi, M., Moratorio, G., and Colina, R. 2018. Complete genome sequence of a novel recombinant citrus tristeza virus, a resistance-breaking isolate from Uruguay. Genome Announcement 6. pii: e00442-18. doi: 10.1128/ genomeA.00442-18. Benitez-Galeano, M. J., Castells, M., and Colina, R. 2017. The evolutionary history and spatiotemporal dynamics of the NC linage of citrus tristeza virus. Viruses 9. pii: E272. doi: 10.3390/ v9100272. Bennet, C. W. 1951. Interference phenomena between plant viruses. Annual Review of Microbiology 5: 295-308. Bergua, M., Kang, S. H., and Folimonova, S. Y. 2016. Understanding superinfection exclusion by complex populations of Citrus tristeza virus. Virology 499: 331-339. Besong-Ndika, J., Ivanov, K. I., Hafren, A., Michon, T., and Makinen, K. 2015. Cotranslational coat protein-mediated inhibition of potyviral RNA translation. Journal of Virology 89: 4237-4248. Bitterlin, M. W., and Gonsalves, D. 1988. Serological grouping of tomato ringspot virus isolates: Implications for diagnosis and cross-protection. Phytopathology 78: 278-285. Bodaghi, S., Mathews, D. M., and Dodds, J. A. 2004. Natural incidence of mixed infections and experimental cross protection between two genotypes of tobacco mild green mosaic virus. Phytopathology 94: 1337-1341. Boyer, J. C., and Haenni, A. L. 1994. Infectious transcripts and cDNA clones of RNA viruses. Virology 198: 415-426. Boyer, J. C., Drugeon, G., Seron, K., Morch-Devignes, M. D., Agnes, F., and Haenni, A. L. 1993. In vitro transcripts of turnip yellow mosaic virus encompassing a long 3' extension or produced from a full-length cDNA clone harboring a 2 kb-long PCR-amplified segment are infectious. Research in Virology 144: 339-348. Boyle, J. S., and Bergman, E. L. 1969. The prevention of blotch ripening in tomato. Phytopathology 49: 397. Bozarth, R. F., and Ford, R. E. 1989. Viral interactions: Induced resistance (cross-protection) and viral interference among plant viruses. In 'Experimental and Conceptual Plant Pathology, Vol. 3', pp. 551-567. Gordon and Breach Scientific Publications, New York. Brigneti, G., Voinnet, O., Li, W. X., Li, L. H., Ding, S. W., and Baulcombe, D. C. 1998. Viral pathogenecity determinants are suppressors of trangene silencing in Nicotiana benthamiana. The EMBO Journal 17: 6739-6746. Broadbent, P., Bevington, K. B., and Coote, B. G. 1991. Control of stem pitting of grapefruit in Australia by mild strain protection. In 'Eleventh IOCV Conference'. pp. 64-70. Burgyan, J., and Gaborjanyi, R., 1984. Cross-protection and multiplication of mild and severe strains of TMV in tomato plants. Phytopathology Zeitschrift 110: 156-167. Canizares, M. C., Nicholson, L., and Lomonossoff, G. P. 2005. Use of viral vectors for vaccine production in plants. Immunology and Cell Biology 83: 263-270. Canizare, M. C., Lozano-Duran, R., Canto, T., Bejarano, E. R., Bisaro, D. M., Navas-Castillo, J., and Moriones, E. 2013. Effects of the crinivirus coat protein-interacting plant protein SAHH on post-transcriptional RNA silencing and its suppression. Molecular Plant Microbe Interactions 26: 1004-1015. Canto, T., Aranda, M. A., and Fereres, A. 2009. Climate change effects on physiology and population processes of hosts and vectors that influence the spread of hemipteran-borne plant viruses. Global Change Biology 15: 1884-1894. Carbonell, A., Maliogka, V. I., Perez, Jde. J., Salvador, B., Leon, D. S., Garcia, J. A., and Simon-Mateo, C. 2013. Diverse amino acid changes at specific positions in the N-terminal region of the coat protein allow Plum pox virus to adapt to new hosts. Molecular Plant Microbe Interactions 26: 1211-1224. Carrington, J. C., Freed, D. D., and Sanders, T. C. 1989. Autocatalytic processing of the potyvirus helper component proteinase in Escherichia coli and in vitro. Journal of Virology 63: 4459-4463. Carrington, J. C., and Herndon, K. L. 1992. Characterization of the potyviral HC-pro autoproteolytic cleavage site. Virology 187: 308-315. Castle, S., Palumbo, J., and Prabhaker, N. 2009. Newer insecticides for plant virus disease management. Virus Research 141: 131-139. Chamberlain, E. E., Atkinson, J. D., and Hunter, J. A. 1969. Cross-protection between strains of apple mosaic virus. New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research 7: 480-490. Chang, C. A., Wang, H. .C, Chen, Y. L., and Chou, T. Y. 1981. The investigation and identification of virus disease of passionfruit in Taiwan. Plant Protection Bulletin 23:267. Chang, C. A. 1992. Characterization and comparison of passionfruit mottle virus, a newly recognized potyvirus, with Passionfruit woodiness virus. Phytopathology 82:1358-1363. Chang, C. A., Chen, C. C., Deng, T. C., and Zettler, F. W. 1996. Characterization of passionfruit crinkle potyvirus—a newly found virus infecting passionfruit. Plant Protection Bulletin 38:339-354. Chapman, E. J., Prokhnevsky, A. I., Gopinath, K., Dolja, V. V., and Carrington, J. C. 2004. Viral RNA silencing suppressors inhibit the microRNA pathway at an intermediate step. Genes and Development 18: 1179-1186. Chatchawankanphanich, O., Jamboonsri, W., Kositrana, W., and Attathom, S. 2000. Screening fro mild strains of papaya ringspot virus for cross protection. Thailand Journal of Agricultural Science 33: 147-152. Chen, L., Yan, Z., Xia, Z., Cheng, Y., Jiao, Z., Sun, B., Zhou, T., and Fan, Z. 2017. A violaxanthin deepoxidase interacts with a viral suppressor of RNA silencing to inhibit virus amplification. Plant Physiology 175: 1774-1794. Chen, S., Das, P., Ghaffar, M. H. A., and Hari, V. 1995. Electron microscopic localization of ATPase activity in tobacco cells infected by tobacco etch potyvirus and Tobacco mosaic virus. Archives of Virology 140: 173-178. Cheng, Y. Q., Liu, Z. M., Xu, J., Zhou, T., Wang, M., Chen, Y. T., Li, H. F., and Fan, Z. F. 2008. HC-Pro protein of sugar cane mosaic virus interacts specifically with maize ferredoxin-5 in vitro and in planta. Journal of General Virology 89: 2046-2054. Cheng, Y. H. , Deng, T. C., Chen, C. C., Chiang, C. H., and Chang, C. A. 2014. First report of Euphorbia leaf curl virus and Papaya leaf curl Guangdong virus on passion fruit in Taiwan. Plant Disease 98:1746. Chewachong, G. M., Miller, S. A., Blakeslee, J. J., Francis, D. M., Morris, T. J., and Qu, F. 2015. Generation of an attenuated, cross-protective Pepino mosaic virus variant through alignment-guided mutagenesis of the viral capsid protein. Phytopathology 105: 126-134. Chiang, C. H. 1995. Construction of in vitro and in vivo infectious transcripts of Papaya ringspot potyvirus and analysis on pathogenicity of virus hybrids. In Research Institute of Plant Pathology (Taichung: National Chung Hsing University) pp. 92-124. Chiang, C. H., and Yeh, S. D. 1997. Infectivity assays of in vitro and in vivo transcripts of Papaya ringspot potyvirus. Botanical Bulletin of Academica Sinica 38: 153-163. Chiang, C. H., Lee, C. Y., Wang, C. H., Jan, F. J., Lin, S. S., Chen, T. C., Raja, J. A. J., and Yeh, S. D. 2007. Genetic analysis of an attenuated Papaya ringpost virus strain applied for cross-protection. European Journal of Plant Pathology 118: 333-348. Chiemsombat, P., Prammanee, S., and Pipattanawong, N. 2014. Occurrence of telosma mosaic virus causing passion fruit severe mosaic disease in thailand and immunostrip test for rapid virus detection. Crop Protection 63:41-47. Cho, J. J., Ullman, D. E., Wheatley, E., Holly, J., and Gonsalves, D. 1992. Commercialization of ZYMV cross protection for zucchini production in Hawaii. Phytopathology 82: 1073. Chung, B. Y., Miller, W. A., Atkins, J. F. and Firth, A. E. 2008. An overlapping essential gene in the Potyviridae. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 105: 5897-5902. Cochran, L. C. 1954. The origin and interaction of forms of the peach mosaic virus. International Botanical Congress 202-204. Cohen, M. 1976. A comparison of some tristeza isolates and a cross-protection trial in Florida. In 'Seventh IOCV Conference'. pp. 50-54. Contreras, R., Cherouter, H., Degrave, W., and Fiers, W. 1982. Simple, efficient in vitro synthesis of capped RNA useful for direst expression of cloned eukaryotic genes. Nucleic Acids Research 10: 6353-6362. Cornin, S., Verchot, J., Haldeman-Cahill, R., Schaad, M. C., and Carrington, J. C. 1995. Long-distance movement factor: A transport function of the Potyvirus helper component proteinase. Plant Cell 7: 549-559. Costa, A. S., and Muller, G. W. 1980. Tristeza control by cross protection: A U.S.-Brazil cooperative success. Plant Disease 64: 538-541. Cox, J. E., Fraser, L. R., and Broadbent, P. 1976. Stem pitting of grapefruit: Field protection by the use of mild strains, an evaluation of trials in two climatic districts. In 'Seventh IOCV Conference'. pp. 68-70. Cui, B. F., Cui, S. W., Wang, H. X., Weng, F. L., and Gong, J. Q. 2005. Study of cross protection of citrus tristeza virus disease on Bendizao mandarin (Citrus succosa) [in Chinese]. Journal of Zhejiang University (Agricultural Life Science) 31: 433-438. Cui, X., Wei, T., Chowda-Reddy, R. V., Sun, G., and Wang, A. 2010. The Tobacco etch virus P3 protein forms mobile inclusions via the early secretory pathway and traffics along actin microfilaments. Virology 397: 56-63. Cui, X., Yaghmaiean, G., Wu, X., Wu, X., Chen, G., Thorn, G., and Wang, A. 2017. The C-terminal region of the Turnip mosaic virus P3 protein is essential for viral infection via targeting P3 to the viral replication complex. Virology 510: 147-155. Culver, J. N. 1996. Tobamovirus cross protection using a potexvirus vector. Virology 226: 228-235. Dagless, E., Shintaku, M. H., Nelson, R. S., and Foster, G. D. 1997. A CaMV 35S promoter driven cDNA clone of tobacco mosaic virus can infect host plant tissue despite being uninfectious when manually inoculated onto leaves. Advances in Virology 142: 183-191. Daniell, H., Singh, N. D., Manson, H., and Streatfield, S. J. 2009. Plant-made vaccine antigens and biopharmaceuticals. Trends in Plant Science 14: 669-679. Dassanayake, E. .M, and Hicks, R. G. T. 1992. Sri Lankan passionfruit mottle virus, a potyvirus infecting golden passionfruit in Sri Lanka. Annals of Applied Biology 120: 459-469. Dawson, W. O., Bar-Joseph, M., Garnsey, S. M., and Moreno, P. 2015. Citrus tristeza virus: making an ally from an enemy. Annual Review of Phytopathology 53: 137-155. De La Rosa, M., and Lastra, R. 1983. Purification and partial characterization of Papaya ringspot virus. Phytopathology 106: 329-336. De Wijs, J. J. 1974. A virus causing ringspot of Passiflora edulis in the Ivory Coast. Annals of Applied Biology 77: 33-40. Desbiez, C., and Lecoq, H. 1997. Zucchini yellow mosaic virus. Plant Pathology 46: 809-829. Desbiez, C., Gal-On, A., Girard, M., Wipf-Scheibel, C., and Lecoq, H. 2003. Increase in zucchini yellow mosaic virus symptom severity in tolerant zucchini cultivars is related to a point mutation in P3 protein and is associated with a loss of relative fitness on susceptible plants. Phytopathology 93: 1478-1484. Desbiez, C., Girard, M., and Lecoq, H. 2010. A novel natural mutation in HC-Pro responsible for mild symptomatology of Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV, Potyvirus) in cucurbits. Archives of Virology 155: 397-401. Dias, P. R. P., and Rezende, J. A. M. 2001. Problemas na premunizacao de melancia para o controle do mosaico causado pelo Papaya ringspot virus. Fitopatologia Brasileira 26: 651-654. Dielen, A. S., Sassaki, F. T., Walter, J., Michon, T., Menard, G., Pagny, G., Krause-Sakate, R., Maia Ide, G., Badaoui, S., Le Gall, O., Candresse, T., and German-Retana, S. 2011. The 20S proteasome α5 subunit of Arabidopsis thaliana carries an RNase activity and interacts in planta with the Lettuce mosaic potyvirus HcPro protein. Molecular Plant Pathology 12: 137-150. Dodds, J. A. 1982. Cross-protection and interference between electrophoretically distinct strains of cucumber mosaic virus in tomato. Virology 118: 235-240. Dodds, J. A., Lee, S. Q., and Tiffany, M. 1985. Cross protection between strains of cucumber mosaic virus: Effect of host and type of inoculum on accumulation of virions and double-stranded RNA of the challange strain. Virology 144: 301-309. Dolja, V. V., Herndon, K. L., Pirone, T. P., and Carrington, J. C. 1993. Spontaneous mutagenesis of a plant potyvirus genome after insertion of a foreign gene. Journal of Virology 67: 5968-5975. Dolja, V. V., Halderman, R., Robertson, N. L., Dougherty, W. G., and Carrington, J. C. 1994. Distinct fucntions of capsid protein in assembly and movement of tobacco etch potyvirus in plants. The EMBO Journal 13: 1482-1491. Domier, L. L., Franklin, K. M., Shahabuddin, M., Hellmann, G. M., Overmeyer, J. H., Hiremath, S. T., Siaw, M. F., Lmonossoff, G. P., Shaw, J. G., and Rhoads, R. E. 1986. The nucleotide sequence of Tobacco vein mottling virus RNA. Nucleic Acids research 14: 5417-5430. Domier, L. L., Franklin, m. K. M., Hunt, A. G., Rhoads, R. E., and Shaw, J. G. 1989. Infectious in vitro transcripts from cloned cDNA of a potyvirus, Tobacco vein mottling virus. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 86: 3509-3513. Dougherty, W. G., and Parks, T. D. 1989a. Molecular genetic and biochemical evidence for the involvement of the heptapeptide cleavage sequence in determining the reaction profile at two tobacco etch virus cleavage sites in cell-free assays. Virology 172: 145-155. Dougherty, W. G., Cary, S. M., and Parks, T. D. 1989b. Molecular genetic analysis of a plant virus polyprotein cleavage site: a model. Virology 171: 356-364. Dougherty, W. G., and Parks, T. D. 1991. Post-translational processing of the tobacco etch virus 49-kDa small nuclear inclusion polyprotein; identification of an internal cleavage site and delimitation of VPg and proteinase domains. Virology 183: 449-456. Duff-Farrier, C. R. A., Bailey, A. M., Boonham, H., and Foster, G. D. 2015. A pathogenicity determinant maps to the N-terminal coat protein region of the Pepino mosaic virus genome. Molecular Plant Pathology 16: 308-315. Duff-Farrier, C. R. A., Candresse, T., Bailey, A. M., Boonham, N., and Foster, G. D. 2016. Evidence for different, host-dependent functioning of Rx against both wild-type and recombinant Pepino mosaic virus. Molecular Plant Pathology 17: 120-126. Dufresne, P. J., Thivierge, K., Cotton, S., Beauchemin, C., Ide, C., Ubalijoro, E., Laliberte, J. F., and Fortin, M. G. 2008. Heat shock 70 protein interaction with Turnip mosaic virus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase within virus-induced membrane vesicles. Virology 374: 217-227. Dunoyer, P., Lecellier, C. H., Parizotto, E. A., Himber, C., and Voinnet, O. 2004. Probing the microRNA and small interfering RNA pathways with virus-encoded suppressors of RNA silencing. The Plant Cell 16: 1235-1250. Dzianott, A. M., and Bujarski, J. J. 1989. Derivation of an infectious viral RNA by autocatalytic cleavage of in vitro transcribed viral cDNAs. Proceedings of the National Academy of the United States of America 86: 4823-4827. EFSA (European Food Safety Authority). 2017. Conclusion on the peer review of the pesticide risk assessment of the active substance Mild Pepino mosaic virus isolate VX1. EFSA Journal 15: 4650. EFSA (European Food Safety Authority). 2015. Conclusion on the peer review of the pesticide risk assessment of the active substance Pepino mosaic virus strain CH2 isolate 1906. EFSA Journal 13: 3977. Eggen, R., Verver, J., Wellink, J., De Jong, A., Goldbach, R., and Van Kammen, A. 1989. Improvements of the infectivity of in vitro transcripts from cloned cowpea mosaic virus cDNA: Impact of terminal nucleotide sequences. Virology 173: 447-455. Eiamtanasate, S., Juricek, M., and Yap, Y. 2007. C-terminal hydrophobic region leads PRSV P3 protein to endoplasmic reticulum. Virus Genes 35: 611-617. Endres, M. W., Gregory, B. D., Gao, Z., Foreman, A. W., Mlotshwa, S., Ge, X., Pruss, G. J., Ecker, J. R., Bowman, L. H., and Vance, V. 2010. Two plant viral suppressors of silencing require the ethylene-inducible host transcription factor RAV2 to block RNA silencing. PLoS Pathogen 6: e1000729. Faurez, F., Baldwin, T., Tribodet, M., and Jacquot, E. 2012. Identification of new Potato virus Y (PVY) molecular determinants for the induction of vein necrosis in tobacco. Molecular Plant Pathology 13: 948-959. Feng, M., Zhang, H., Pan, Y., Hu, Y., Chen, J., Zuo, D., and Jiang, T. 2016. Complete nucleotide sequence of strawberry vein banding virus Chinese isolate and infectivity of its full-length DNA clone. Virology Journal 2016: 164. Fernandez, A., Guo, H. S., Saenz, P., Simon-Buela, L., Gomez de Cedron, M., and Garcıa, J. A. 1997. The motif V of plum pox potyvirus CI RNA helicase is involved in NTP hydrolysis and is essential for virus RNA replication. Nucleic Acids Research, 25: 4474-4480. Ferreira, S. A., Pitz, K. Y., Manshardt, R., Zee, F., Fitch, M., and Gonsalves, D. 2002. Virus coat protein transgenic papaya provides practical control of Papaya ringspot virus in Hawaii. Plant Disease 86: 101-105. Fletcher, J. T., and Rowe, J. M. 1975. Observations oand experiments on the use of an avirulent mutant strain of tobacco mosaic virus as a means of controlling tomato disease. Annual Applied of Biology 81: 171-179. Folimonova, S. Y., Robertson, C. J., Shilts, T., Folimonov, A. S., Hilf, M. E., Garnsey, S. M., and Dawson, W. O. 2010. Infection with strains of Citrus tristeza virus does not exclude superinfection by other strains of the virus. Journal of Virology 84: 1314-1325. Folimonova, S. Y. 2013. Developing an understanding of cross-protection by Citrus tristeza virus. Frontiers in Microbiology 4: 76. Fraile, A., and Garcia-Arenal, F. 2010. The coevolution of plants and viruses: Resistance and pathogenicity. Advance in Virus Research 76: 1-32. Francki, R. I. B., Fruquet, C. M., Knudson, D. L., and Brown, F. 1991. Classification and nomenclature of virus: fifth report of the international committee on taxonomy of viruses. Archives of virology 450. Fuchs, M., Ferreira, S., and Gonsalves, D. 1997. Management of virus diseases by classical and engineered protection. Molecular Plant Pathology. http://www.bspp.org.uk/mppol/1997/0116fuchs. Fuji, S., Iida, T., and Nakamae, H. 2000. Selection of an attenuated strain of Japanese yam mosaic virus and its use for protecting yam plants against severe strains [in Japanese]. Japan Journal of Phytopathology 66: 35-39. Fulton, R. W. 1986. Practices and precautions in the use of cross protection for plant virus disesase control. Annual Review of Phytopathology 24: 67-81. Furuichi, Y., Lafiandra, A., and Shatkin, A. J. 1977. 5'-Terminal sturcture and mRNA stabiliy. Nature 266: 235-239. Gaba, V., Zelcer, A., and Gal-On, A. 2004. Invited review: Cucurbit biotechnology- The importance of virus resistance. In Vitro Cell and Developmental Biology- Plant 40: 346-358. Gaba, V., Lapidot, M., and Gal-On, A. 2013. HandGun-mediated inoculation of plants with viral pathogens for mechanistic studies. In 'Biolistic DNA Delivery: Methods and Protocols', Humana Press, pp. 53-62. Gabrenaite-Verkhovskaya, R., Andreev, I. A., Kalinina, N. O., Torrance, L., Taliansky, M. E., and Makinen, K. 2008. Cylindrical inclusion protein of potato virus A is associated with a subpopulation of particles isolated from infected plants. Journal of General Virology 89: 829-838. Gal-On, A., Antignus, Y., Rosner, A., and Raccah, B. 1990. Nucleotide sequence of the Zucchini yellow mosaic virus capsid-encoding gene and its expression in Escherichia coli. Gene 87: 273-277. Gal-On, A., Antigus, Y., Rosner, A., and Raccah, B. 1991. Infectious in vitro RNA transcripts derived from cloned cDNA of the cucurbit potyvirus, Zucchini yellow mosaic virus. Journal of General Virology 72: 2639-2643. Gal-On, A. 2000. A point mutation in the FRNK motif of the Potyvirus helper component-protease gene alters symptom expression in cucurbits and elicits protection against the severe homologous virus. Phytopathology 90: 467-473. Gal-On, A., Katsir, P., and Yongzang, W. 2000. Genetic engineering of attenuated viral cDNA of zucchini yellow mosaic virus for protection of cucurbits. Acta Horticulturae 510: 343-347. Gal-On, A. 2007. Zucchini yellow mosaic virus: insect transmission and pathogenicity- The tails of two proteins. Molecular Plant Pathology 8: 139-150. Garcia, J. A., Lain, S., Cervera, M. T., Riechmann, J. L., and Martin, M. T. 1990. Mutational analysis of plum pox potyvirus polyprotein processing by the NIa protease in Escherichia coli. Journal of General Virology 71: 2773-2779. Garcia, J. A., Martin, M. T., Cervera, M. T., and Riechmann, J. L. 1992. Proteolytic processing of the plum pox potyvirus polyprotein by the NIa protease at a novel cleavage site. Virology 188: 697-703. Garnsey, S. M., Gottwald, T. R., and Yokomi, R. K. 1998. Control strategies for citrus tristeza vrius. In 'Plant Virus Disease Control'. pp 639-658. APS Press, St. Paul, MN. Gallitelli, D. 2000. The ecology of Cucumber mosaic virus and sustainable agriculture. Virus Research 71: 9-21. Glais, L., Faurez, F., Tribodet, M., Boulard, F., and Jacquot, E. 2015. The amino acid 419 in HC-Pro is involved in the ability of PVY isolate N605 to induce necrotic symptoms on potato tubers. Virus Research 208: 1110-119. Gleba, Y., Klimyuk, V., and Marillonnet, S. 2007. Viral vectors for the expression of proteins in plants. Current Opinion in Biotechnology 18: 134-141. Gonsalves, D., and Ishii, M. 1980. Purification and serology of papaya ringspot virus. Phytopathology 70: 1028-1032. Gonsalves, D., and Garnsey, S. M. 1989. Cross protection techniques for control of plant virus diseases in the tropics. Plant Disease 73: 592-597. Gonsalves, D. 1998. Control of papaya ringspot virus in papaya: A case study. Annuals Review of Phytopahtology 36: 415-437. Gonsalves, D. 2006. Transgenic papaya development, release, impact and challanges. Advance in Virus Research 67: 317-354. Gonzalez-Gamboa, I., Manrique, P., Sanchez, F., and Ponz, F. 2017. Plant-made potyvirus-like particles used for long-increasing antibody sensing capacity. Journal of Biotechnology 254: 17-24. Gonzalez-Jara, P., Atencio, F. A., Martinez-Garcia, B., Barajas, D., Tenllado, F., and Diaz-Ruiz, J. R. 2005. A single amino acid mutation in the plum pox virus helper component-proteinase gene abolishes both synergistic and RNA silencing suppression activities. Phytopathology 95: 894-901. Gorbalenya, A. E., Donchenko, A. P., Blinov, V. M., and Koonin, E. V. 1989. Cysteine proteases of positive strand RNA viruses and chymotrypsin-like serine proteases: a distinct protein superfamily with a common structural fold. FEBS Letters 243: 103-114. Goregaoker, S. P., Eckhardt, L. G., and Culver, J. N. 2000. Tobacco mosaic virus replicase-mediated cross-protection: Contributions of RNA and protein-derived mechanisms. Virology 273: 267-275. Goto, T., Komochi, S., and Oshima, N. 1966. Study on control of plant virus diseases by vaccination with attenuated virus. (2). Effects of concentration and time elapsed after inoculation of tomato with attenuated TMV against infection with virulent parent strain. Annals of the Phytopathological Society of Japan 32: 221-226. Gottula, J., and Fuchs, M. 2009. Towards a quarter century of pathogen-derived resistance and practical approaches to plant virus disease control. Advance in Virus Research 75: 161-183. Grant, T. J., and Costa, A. S. 1951. A mild strain of the tristeza virus of citrus. Phytopathology 41: 114-122. Green, M. R., Maniatis, T., and Melton , D. A. 1983. Human ß-globin pre-mRNA synthesized in vitro is accurately spliced in Xenopus oocyt nuclei. Cell 32: 681-694. Guo, D., Spetz, C., Saarma, M., and Valkonen, J. P. 2003. Two potato proteins, including a novel RING finger protein (HIP1), interact with the potyviral multifunctional protein Hcpro. Molecular Plant Microbe Interactions 16: 405-410. Haikonen, T., Rajamaki, M. L., Tian, Y. P., and Valkonen, J. P. T. 2013. Mutation of a short variable region in Hcpro protein of Potato virus A affects interactions with a microtubule-associated protein and induces necrotic responses in tobacco. Molecular Plant Microbe Interactions 26: 721-733. Hall, J. S., French, R., Hein, G. L., Morris, T. J., and Steger, D. C. 2001. Three distinct mechanisms facilitate genetic isolation of sympatric wheat streak mosaic virus lineages. Virology 282: 230-236. Han, J. S., Kim, D. H., and Choi, K. Y. 2013. Chapter 544- Potyvirus NIa protease. Handbook of Proteolytic Enzymes 2: 2427-2432. Hari, V., Siegel, A., Rozek, C., and Timberlake, W.E. 1979. The RNA of Tobacco etch virus contains poly (A). Virology 92: 568-571. Harper, S. J., Killiny, N., Tatineni, S., Gowda, S., Cowell, S. J., Shilts, T., and Dawson, W. O. 2016. Sequence variation in two genes determines the efficacy of transmission of citrus tristeza virus by the brown citrus aphid. Advances in Virology 161: 3555-3559. Hasiow-Jaroszewska, B., Borodynko, N., Jackowiak, P., Figlerowicz, M., and Pospieszny, H. 2011. Single mutation converts mild pathotype of the Pepino mosaic virus into necrotic one. Virus Research 159: 57-61. Hayes, R. J., and Buck, K. W. 1990. Infectious cucumber mosaic virus RNA transcribe in vitro from clones obtained from cDNA amplified using the polymerase chain reaction. Journal of General Virology 71: 2503-2508. Hefferon, K. L. 2012. Plant virus expression vectors set the stages as production platforms for biopharmaceutical proteins. Virology 433: 1-6. Hefferon, K. L. 2014. Plant virus expression vector development: new perspectives. BioMed Research International 2014: 1-6, Article ID 785382. Hernandez-Rodriguez, L., Bertalmio, A., Arruabarrena, A., Rubio, L., Rivas, F., Benitez-Galeano, M. J., Colina, R., and Maeso, D. 2017. First report of the Citrus tristeza virus trifoliate resistance-breaking (RB) genotype in 'Newhall' sweet orange in South America. Plant Disease 101: 1063. Herold, F., and Weibel, J. 1962. Electron microscopic demonstration of papaya ringspot virus. Virology 18: 302-311. Hisa, Y., Suzuki, H., Atsumi, G., Choi, S. H., Nakahara, K. S., and Uyeda, I. 2014. P3N-PIPO of Clover yellow vein virus exacerbates symptoms in pea infected with white clover mosaic virus and is implicated in viral synergism. Virology 449: 200-206. Hollings, M., and Brunt, A. A. 1981. Potyvirus group. Descript of Plant Viruses 245. Holy, S., and Abouhaidar, M. G. 1993. Production of infectious in vitro transcripts from full-length clover yellow mosaic virus cDNA clone. Journal of General Virology 74: 781-784. Hong, Y., and Hunt, A. G. 1996. RNA polymerase activity catalyzed by a potyvirus-encoded RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. Virology 226: 146-151. Hu, X., Karasev, A. V., Brown, C. J., and Lorenzen, J. H. 2009. Sequence characteristics of potato virus Y recombinants. Journal of General Virology 90: 3033-3041. Huet, H., Gal-On, A., Meir, E., Lecoq, H., and Raccah, B. 1994. Mutations in the helper component protease gene of zucchini yellow mosaic virus affect its ability to mediate aphid transmissibility. Journal of General Virology 75: 1407-1414. Hughes, J. d'A., and Ollennu, L. A. A. 1994. Mild strain protection of cocoa in Ghana against cocoa swollen shoot virus: A review. Plant Pathology 43: 442-457. Hull, R. 2002. Matthews' Plant Virology. 4th edition. Academic Press, New York, London and San Diego. Huss, B., Walter, B., and Fuchs, M. 1989. Cross-protection between arabis mosaic virus and grapvine fanleaf virus isolates in Chenopodium quinoa. Annals of Applied Biology 114: 45-60. Ichiki, T. U., Nagaoka, E. N., Hagiwara, K., Uchikawa, K., Tsuda, S., and Omura, T. 2005. Integration of mutations responsible for the attenuated phenotype of Pepper mild mottle virus strains results in a symptomless cross-protecting strain. Archives of Virology 150: 2009-2020. Ieki, H., and Yamaguchi, A. 1988. Protective interference of mild strains of citurs tristeza virus against a severe strain in Morita navel orange. In 'Tenth IOCV Conference'. pp. 86-90. Ivanov, K. I., and Makinen, K. 2012. Coat proteins, host factors and plant viral replication. Current Opinion in Virology 2: 712-718. Ivanov, K. I., Eskelin, K., Lohmus, A., and Makinen, K. 2014. Molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying potyvirus infection. Journal of General Viorlogy 95: 1415-1429. Ivanov, K. I., Eskelin, K., Basic, M., De, S., Lohmus, A., Varjosalo, M., and Makinen, K. 2016. Molecular insights into the function of the viral RNA silencing suppressor HCPro. Plant Journal 85: 30-45. Iwai, H., Yamashita, Y., Nishi, N., and Nakamura, M. 2006b The potyvirus associated with the dappled fruit of Passiflora edulis in Kagoshima Prefecture, Japan is the third strain of the proposed new species East Asian passiflora virus (EAPV) phylogenetically distinguished from strains of Passion fruit woodiness virus. Archives of Virology 151: 811-818. Jagadish, M. N., Huang, D., and Ward, C. W. 1993. Site-directed mutagenesis of a potyvirus coat protein and its assembly in Escherichia coli. Journal of General Virology 74: 893-896. Jamous, R. M., Boonrod, K., Fuellgrabe, M. W., Ali-Shtayeh, M. S., Krczal, G., and Wassenegger, M. 2011. The helper component-proteinase of the Zucchini yellow mosaic virus inhibits the Hua Enhancer 1 methytransferase activity in vitro. Journal of General Virology 92: 2222-2226. Janda, M., French, R., and Ahlquist, P. 1987. High efficiency T7 polymerase synthesis of infectious RNA from cloned brome mosaic virus cDNA and effects of 5' extensions on transcript infectivity. Virology 158: 259-262. Jay, F., Wang, Y., Yu, A., Taconnat, L., Pelletier, S., Colot, V., Renou, J. P., and Voinnet, O. 2011. Misregulation of AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR 8 underlies the developmental abnormalities caused by three distinct viral silencing suppressors in arabidopsis. PLoS Pathogens 7: e1002035. Jedlinski, H., and Brown, C. M. 1965. Cross-protection and mutual exclusion by three strains of barley yellow dwarf virus in Avena sativa L. Virology 26: 613-621. Jin, Y. S., Ma, D. Y., Dong, J. L., Jin, J. C., Li, D. F., Deng, C. W., and Wang, T. 2007a. HC-Pro protein of Potato virus Y can interact with three Arabidopsis 20S proteasome subunits in planta. Journal of Virology 81: 12881-12888. Jin, Y. S., Ma, D. Y., Dong, J. L., Li, D. F., Deng, C. W., Jin, J. C., and Wang, T. 2007b. The HC-Pro protein of potato virus Y interacts with NtMinD of tobacco. Molecular Plant Microbe Interactions 20: 1505-1511. Kajihara, H., Muramoto, K., Inoue, T., Kameya-Iwaki, M., Suyama, N. Sumida, Y., and Matsumoto, O. 2000. Production of attenuated strain of Japanese yam moasic virus of Dioscorea opposita and its effectiveness of cross protection [in Japanese]. Bulletin of Yamaguchi Agricultural Experiment Station 51: 33-38. Kameya-Iwaki, M., Tochihara, H., Hanada, K., and Torigoe, H. 1992. Attenuated isolate of watermelon mosaic virus (WMV-2) and its cross protection against virulent isolate [in Japanese]. Annals of the Phytopathological Society of Japan 58: 491-494. Kang, S. H., Lim, W. S., Hwang, S. H., Park, J. W., Choi, H. S., and Kim, K. H. 2006. Importance of the C-terminal domain of soybean mosaic virus coat protein for subunit interactions. Journal of General Virology, 87: 225-229. Kasschau, K. D., Cronin, S., and Carrington, J. C. 1997. Genome amplification and long-distance movement functions associated with the central domian of tobacco etch potyvirus helper component-proteinase. Virology 228: 251-262. Kasschau, K. D., and Carrington, J. C. 1998. A counterdefensive strategy of plant viruses: suppression of posttransciptional gene silencing. Cell 95: 461-470. Kasschau, K. D., and Carrington, J. C. 2001. Long-distance movement and replication maintenance functions correlate with silencing suppression activity of potyviral HC-Pro. Virology 285: 71-81. Kasschau, K. D., Xie, Z. X., Allen, E., Llave, C., Chapman, E. J., Krizan, K. A., and Carrington, J. C. 2003. P1/HC-Pro, a viral suppressor of RNA silencing, interferes with Arabidopsis development and miRNA function. Developmental Cell 4: 205-217. Kekarainen, T., Merits, A., Oruetxebarria, I., Rajamake, M. L., and Valkonen, J. P. T. 1999. Comparison of the complete sequences of five different isolates of Potato virus A (PYA), genus Potyvirus. Archives of Virology 144: 2355-2366. Kim, D. H., Park, Y. S., Kim, S. S., Lew, J., Nam, H. G., and Choi, K. Y. 1995. Expression, purification, and identification of a novel self-cleavage site of the NIa C-terminal 27-kDa protease of turnip mosaic potyvirus C5. Virology 213: 517-525. Klein, P. G., Klein, R. R., Rodrıguez-Cerezo, E., Hunt, A., and Shaw, J. G. 1994. Mutational analysis of the tobacco vein mottling virus genome. Virology, 204: 759-769. Koizumi, M., Kuhara, S., Ieki, H., Kano, T., Tanaka, A., and Iwanami, T. 1991. A report of preinoculation to control stem pitting disease of Naval orange in fields up to 1989. In 'Eleventh IOCV Conference'. pp. 125-127. Kondo, T., Kasai, K., Yamashita, K., and Ishitani,M. 2007. Selection and discrimination of an attenuated strain of Chinese yam necrotic mosaic virus for cross-protection. Journal of General Plant Pathology 73: 152-155. Kosaka, Y., and Fukunishi, T. 1993. Attenuated isolates of soybean mosaic virus derived at a low temperature. Plant Disease 77: 882-886. Kosaka, Y., Ryang, B. S., Kobori, T., Shiomi, H., Yasuhara, H., and Kataoka, M. 2006. Effectiveness of an attenuated zucchini yellow mosaic virus isolate for cross-protecting cucumber. Plant Disease 90: 67-72. Kost, B., Galli, A., Potrykus, I., and Neuhaus, G. 1995. High-efficiency transient and stable transformation by optimized DNA microinjection into Nicotaina tabacum protoplasts. Journal of Experimental Botany 46: 1157-1167. Krczal, G., and Wassenegger, M. 2013. Chapter 492- Potyvirus helper component proteinase. Handbook of Proteolytic Enzymes 2: 2187-2192. Kung, Y. J., Lin, P. C., Yeh, S. D., Hong, S. F., Chua, N. H., Liu, L. Y., Lin, C. P., Huang, Y. H., Wu, H. W., Chen, C. C., and Lin, S. S. 2014. Genetic analyses of the FRNK motif function of Turnip mosaic virus uncover multiple and potentially interactive pathways of cross-protection. Molecular Plant Microbe Interactions 27: 944-955. Kung, Y. J., You, B. J., Raja, J. A., Chen, K. C., Huang, C. H., Bau, H. J., Yang, C. F., Huang, C. H., Chang, C. P., and Yeh, S. D. 2015. Nucleotide sequence-homology-independent breakdown of transgenic resistance by more virulent virus strains and a potential solution. Scientific Reports 5: 9804. Kurihara, Y., and Watanabe, Y. 2003. Cross-protection in Arabidopsis against crucifer Tobamovirus Cg by an attenuated strain of the virus. Molecular Plant Pathology 4: 259-269. Kuti, J. O., and Moline, H. E. 1986. Effects of inoculation with a mild strain of tomato aspermy virus on the growth and yield of tomatoes and the potential for cross protection. Journal of Phytopathology 115: 56-60. Lain. S., Riechmann. J. L., Mendez. E., and Garcia. J. A. 1988. Nucleotide sequence of the 3' terminal region of Plum pox potyvirus RNA. Virus Research 10: 325-342. Lain, S., Riechmann, J. L., and Garcia, J. A. 1990. RNA helicase a nevel activity associated with a protein encoded by a positive strand RNA virus. Nucleic Acids Research 18: 7003-7006. Laino, P., Russo, M. P., Guardo, M., Reforgiato-Recupero, G., Vale, G., Cattivelli, L., and Moliterni, V. M. 2016. Rootstock-scion interaction affecting citrus response to CTV infection: a proteomic view. Physiologia Plantarum 156: 444-467. Lakatos, L., Csorba, T., Pantaleo, V., Chapman, E. J., Carrington, J. C., Liu, Y. P., Dolja, V. V., Calvino, L. F., Lopez-Moya, J. J., and Burgyan, J. 2006. Small RNA binding is a common strategy to suppress RNA silencing by several viral suppressors. The EMBO Journal 25: 2768-2780. Lange, M., Yellina, A. L., Orashakova, S., and Becker, A. 2013. Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) in plants: an overview of target species and the virus-derived vector systems. Methods in Molecular Biology 975: 1-14. Lasierra, P., and Prat. S. 2018. Transient transactivation studies in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves. Methods in Molecular Biology 1794: 311-322. Latorre, B. A., and Flores, V. 1985. Strain identification and cross-protection of potato virus Y affecting tobacco in Chile. Plant Disease 69: 930-932. Lecoq, H. 1986. A poorly aphid transmissible variant of zucchini yellow mosaic virus. (Abstract). Phytopathology 76: 1063. Lecoq, H., Lemaire, J. M., and Wipf-Scheibel, C. 1991. Control of zucchini yellow mosaic virus in squash by cross-protection. Plant Disease 75: 208-211. Lecoq, H., and Raccah, B. 2001. Cross-protection: interactions between strains exploited to control plant virus diseases. In 'Biotic Interactions in Plant-Pathogen Associations', CABI Publishing, pp. 177-192. Lee, R. F., Brlansky, R. H., Garnsey, S. M., and Yokomi, R. K. 1987. Traits of citrus tristeza virus important for mild strain cross protection of citrus: The Florida approach. Phytophylactica 19: 215-218. Lee, R. F., and Keremane, M. L. 2013. Mild strain cross protection of tristeza: a review of research to protect against decline on sour orange in Florida. Frontiers in Microbiology 4: 259. Lee, W. S., Hammond-Kosack, K. E., and Kanyuka, K. 2012. Barley stripe mosaic virus-mediated tools for investigating gene function in cereal plants and their pathogens: virus-induced gene silencing, host-mediated gene silencing, and virus-mediated overexpression of heterologous protein. Plant Physiology 160: 582-590. Levis. C. and Astier-Manifacier. S. 1993. The 5' untranslated region of PVY RNA, even located in an internal position, enables initiation of translation. Virus Genes 7: 367-379. Li, H., Ma, D., Jin, Y., Tu, Y., Liu, L., Leng, C., Dong, J., and Wang, T. 2015. Helper component-proteinase enhances the activity of 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate synthase and promotes the biosynthesis of plastidic isoprenoids in Potato virus Y-infected tobacco. Plant Cell Enviroment 38: 2023-2034. Li, F., and Wang, A. 2018. RNA decay is an antiviral defense in plants that is counteracted by viral RNA silencing suppressors. PLoS Pathogen 14: e1007228. Liefting, L., Pearson, M., and Pone, S. 1992. The isolation and evaluation of two naturally occuring mild strains of vanilla necrosis potyvirus for control by cross-protection. Journal of Phytopathology 136: 9-15. Lin, M. J., Kim, J. K., Seo, E. Y., Hong, S. M., Hwang, E. I., Moon, J. K., Domier, L. L., Hammond, J., Youn, Y. N., and Lim, H. S. 2014. Sequence variability in the HC-Pro coding regions of Korean soybean mosaic virus isolates is associated with differences in RNA silencing suppression. Archives of Virology 159: 1373-1383. Lin, S. S., Hou, R. F., and Yeh, S. D. 2001. Complete genome sequence and genetic organization of a Taiwan isolate of Zucchini yellow mosaic virus. Botanical Bulletin of Academia Sinica 42: 243-250. Lin, S. S., Wu, H. W., Jan, F. J., Hou, R. F., and Yeh, S. D. 2007. Modifications of the helper component-protease of Zucchini yellow mosaic virus for generation of attenuated mutants for cross protection against severe infection. Virology 97: 287-296. Lin, T. T., and Yeh, S. D., 2016. Generation of useful mild virus strains by modification of pathogenicity factor HC-Pro of Papaya ringspot virus for solving the problem of strain-specific cross protection. Master thesis. Taichung: Chung Hsing University. Taiwan. Lin, Y., Rundell, P. A., and Powell, C. A. 2002. In situ immunoassay (ISIA) of field grapefruit trees inoculated with mild isolates of Citrus tristeza virus indicates mixed infections with sever isolates. Plant Disease 86: 458-461. Lindbo, J. A., Fitzmaurice, W. P., and Della-Cioppa, G. 2001. Virus-mediated reprogramming of gene expression in plants. Current Opinion in Plant Biology 4: 181-185. Liu, L., Peng, B., Zhang, Z., Wu, Y., Miras, M., Aranda, M. A., and Gu, Q. 2017. Exploring different mutations at a single amino acid position of cucumber green mottle mosaic virus replicase to attain stable symptom attenuation. Phytopathology 107: 1080-1086. Loebenstein, G. 2009. Local lesions and induced resistance. Advance in Virus Research 75: 73-117. Lozsa, R., Csorba, T., Lakatos, L., and Burgyan, J. 2008. Inhibition of 3' modification of small RNAs in virus-infected plants require spatial and temporal co-expression of small RNAs and viral silencing-suppressor proteins. Nucleic Acids Research 36: 4099-4107. Lu, B., Stubbs, G., and Culver, J. N. 1998. Coat protein interactions involved in tobacco mosaic tobamovirus cross-protection. Virology 248: 188-198. Lurquin, P. F., and Rollo, F. 1993. Liposome-mediated delivery of nucleic acids into plant protoplast. Methods in Enzymology 221: 409-415. MacDiarmid, R., Rodoni, B., Melcher, U., Ochoa-Corona, F., and Roossinck, M. 2013. Biosecurity implications of new technology and discovery in plant virus research. PLoS Pathogen 9: e1003337. Madden, L. V., and Wheelis, M. 2003. The threat of plant pathogens as weapons against U.S. crops. Annual Review of Phytopathology 41: 155-176. Mahmood, T., and Rush, C. M. 1999 Evidence of cross-protection between beet soilborne mosaic virus and beet necrotic yellow vein virus in sugar beet. Plant Disease 83: 521-526. Maia, I. G., Haenni, A. L., and Bernardi, F. 1996. Potyviral HC-Pro: A multifunctional protein. Journal of General Virology 77: 1335-1341. Maiss, E., Timpe, U., Birsske, A., Jelkman, W., Casper, R., Himmler, G., Mattanovich, D., and Katinger, H.W.D. 1989. The complete nucleotide sequence of Plum pox virus RNA. Journal of General Virology 70: 513-524. Majer, E., Salvador, Z., Zwart, M. P., Willemsen, A., Elena, S. F., and Daros, J. A. 2014. Relocation of the NIb gene in the tobacco etch potyvirus genome. Journal of Virology 88: 4586-4590. Mallory, A. C., Ely, L., Smith, T. H., Marathe, R., Anandalakshmi, R., Fagard, M., Vaucheret, H., Pruss, G., Bowman, L., and Vance, V. B. 2001. HC-Pro suppression of transgene silencing eliminates the small RNAs but not transgene methylation or the mobile signal. The Plant Cell 13: 571-583. Mallory, A. C., Reinhart, B. J., Bartel, D., Vance, V. B., and Bowman, L. H. 2002. A viral suppressor of RNA silencing differentially regulates the accumulation of short interference RNAs and micro-RNAs in tobacco. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 99: 15228-15233. Mandadi, K. K., and Scholthof, K. B. G. 2013. Plant immune responses against viruses: how does a virus cause disease? Plant Cell Online 25: 1489-1505. Maneechoat, P., Takeshita, M., Uenoyama, M., Nakatsukasa, M., Kuroda, A., Furuya, N., and Tsuchiya, K. 2015. A single amino acid at N-terminal region of the 2b protein of cucumber mosaic virus strain m1 has a pivotal role in virus attenuation. Virus Research 197: 67-74. Mangrauthia, S. K., Singh, P., and Praveen, S. 2010. Genomics of helper component proteinase reveals effective strategy for Papaya ringspot virus resistance. Molecular Biotechnology 44: 22-29. Marenaud, C., Dunez, J., and Bernhard, R. 1976. Identification and comparision of different strains of apple chlorotic leaf spot virus and possibilites of cross protection. Acta Horticulturae 67: 219-225. Marsian, J., and Lomonossoff, G. P. 2016. Molecular pharming - VLPs made in plants. Current Opinion in Biotechnology 37: 201-206. Martin, D. P., and Rybicki, E. P. 2002. Investigation of Maize streak virus pathogenicity determinants using chimaeric genomes. Virology 300: 180-186. Martin, D. P., van der Walt, E., Posada, D., and Rybicki, E. P. 2005. The evolutionary value of recombination is constrained by genome modularity. PLoS Genetics 1: e51. Martinez, F., and Daros, J. A. 2014. Tobacco etch virus protein P1 traffics to the nucleolus and associates with the host 60S ribosomal subunits during infection. Journal of Virology 88: 10725-10737. Mascia, T., and Gallitelli, D. 2016. Synergies and antagonisms in virus interactions. Plant Science 252: 176-192. Matthews, R. E. F. 1949. Studies on potato virus X II. Criteria of relationships between strains. Annals of Applied Biology 36: 460-474. Matthews, D. A., Smith, W. W., Ferre, R. A., Condon, B., Budahazi, G., Sisson, W., Villafranca, J. E., Janson, C. A., McElroy, H. E., and Gribskov, C. L. 1994. Structure of human rhinovirus 3C protease reveals a trypsin-like polypeptide fold, RNA-binding site and means for cleaving precursor polyprotein. Cell 77: 761-771. McKnight T. 1953. The woodiness virus of the passion vine. Journal of Agricultural Science 10: 4-35. McKinney, H. H. 1929. Mosaic diseases in the Canary Islands, West Africa and Gibraltar. Journal of Agricultural Research 39: 557-578. McKinney, H. H. 1941. Virus-antagonism test and their limitations for establishing relationship between mutants, and non-relationship between distinct viruses. American Journal of Botany 28: 770-778. Mengual-Chulia, B., Bedhomme, S., Lafforgue, G., Elena, S. F., and Bravo, I. G. 2016. Assessing parallel gene histories in viral genomes. BMC Evolutionalry Biology 16: 32. Merits, A., Rajamaki, M. L., Lindholm, P., Runeberg-Roos, P., Kekarainen, T., Puustinen, P., Makelainen, K., Valkonen, J. P., and Saarma, M. 2002. Proteolytic processing of potyviral proteins and polyprotein processing intermediates in insect and plant cells. Journal of General Virology 83: 1211-1221. Minicka, J., Rymelska, N., Elesa, S. F., Czerwoniec, A., and Hasiow-Jaroszewska, B. 2015. Molecular evolution of Pepino mosaic virus during long-term passaging in different hosts and its impact on virus virulence. Annual Applied of Biology 166: 389-401. Minicka, J., Hasiow-Jaroszewska, B., Borodynko-Filas, N., Pospieszny, H., and Hanssen, I. M. 2016. Rapid evolutionary dynamics of the Pepino mosaic virus- Status and future perspectives. Journal of Plant Protection Research 56: 337-345. Moreno, P., Ambros, S., Albiach-Marti, M. R., Guerri, J., and Pena, L. 2008. Citrus tristeza virus: A pathogen that changed the course of the citrus industry. Molecular Plant Pathology 9: 251-268. Muller, G. W., and Costa, A. S. 1972. Reduction in yield of Galego lime avoided by preimmunization with mild strains of tristeza virus. In 'Fifth IOCV Conference'. pp. 171-175. Muller, G. W. 1980. Use of mild strians of citrus tristeza virus (CTV) to reestablish commercial production of 'Pera' sweet orange in Sao Paulo, Brazil. Proceedings of the Florida State Horticultural Society 93: 62-64. Muller, G. W., and Costa, A. S. 1987. Search for outstanding plants in tristeza infected citrus orchards: The best approach to control the disease by preimmunization. Phytophylactica 19: 197-198. Muller, G. W., Costa, A. S., Castro, J. L., and Guirado, N. 1988. Results from preimmunization test to control the Capao Bonito strain of tristeza. In 'Tenth IOCV Conference'. pp. 82-85. Muller, G. W., Targon, M. L. P. N., and Machado, M. A. 2000. Thirty years of preimmunized sweet orange in the citriculture in Sao Paulo State, Brazil. In 'Fourteenth IOCV Conference'. pp. 400-402. Murphy, J. F., Rhoads, R. E., Hunt, A. G. and Shaw, J. G. 1990. The VPg of Tobacco etch virus RNA is the 49-kDa proteinase or the N-terminal 24-kDa part of the proteinase. Virology 178: 285-288. Nagakubo, T., Kubo, M., and Oeda, K. 1994. Nucleotide sequences of the 3' regions of two major viruses from mosaic-diseased garlic: Molecular evidence of a carlavirus. Phytopathology 84: 640-645. Nagyova, A., and Subr, Z. 2007. Infectious full-length clones of platn viruses and their use for construction of viral vectors. Acta Virologica 51: 223-237. Nakahara, K. S., Masuta, C., Yamada, S., Shimura, H., Kashihara, Y., Wada, T. S., Meguro, A., Goto, K., Tadamura, K., Sueda, K., Sekiguchi, T., Shao, J., Itchoda, N., Matsumura, T., Igarashi, M., Ito, K., Carthew, R. W., and Uyeda, I. 2012. Tobacco calmodulin-like protein provides secondary defense by binding to and directing degradation of virus RNA silencing suppressors. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 109: 10113-10118. Nakazono-Nagaoka, E., Sato, C., Kosaka, Y., and Natsuaki, T. 2004. Evaluation of cross-protection with an attenuated isolate of Bean yellow mosaic virus by differential detection of virus isolates using RT-PCR. Journal of General Plant Pathology 70: 359-362. Nakazono-Nagaoka, E., Suzuku, M., Kosaka, Y., and Natsuaki, T. 2005. RT-PCR-RFLP analysis for evaluating cross protection by an attenuated isolate of Cucumber mosaic virus. Journal of General Plant Pathology 71: 243-246. Nakazono-Nagaoka, E., Takahashi, T., Shimizu, T., Kosaka, Y. Natsuaki, T., Omura, T., and Sasaya, T. 2009. Cross-protection against bean yellow mosaic virus (BYMV) and clover yellow vein virus by attenuated BYMV isolate M11. Phytopathology 99: 251-257. Nattrass, R. M. 1944. The transmission of the virus of the 'woodiness' disease of passion fruit (Passiflora edulis) by single leaf grafts. Annals of Applied Biology 31: 310-311. Nascimento, A. V. S., Santana, E. N., Braz, A. S. K., Alfenas, P. F., Pio-Ribeiro, G., Andrade, G. P., de Carvalho, M. G., and Zerbini, F. M. 2006. Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV) is widespread in passionfruit in Brazil and causes passionfruit woodiness disease. Archives of Virology 151: 1797–1809. Nelson, M. R., and Wheeler, R. E. 1978. Biological and serological characterization and separation of potyviruses that infect peppers. Phytopathology 68: 979-984. Ni, P., and Cheng, K. C. 2013. Non-encapsidation activities of the capsid proteins of positive-strand RNA viruses. Virology 446: 123-132. Niepel. M. and Gallie. D. R. 1999. Identification and charaterization of the functional elements within the tobacco etch virus 5' leader required for cap-independent translation. Journal of Virology 73: 9080-9088. Nishiguchi, M. 2007. Basic studies on attenuated viruses. Journal of General Plant Pathology 73: 418-420. Novakova, S., Svoboda, J., and Glasa, M. 2014. Analysis of the complete sequences of two biologically distinct Zucchini yellow mosaic virus isolates further evidences the involvement of a single amino acid in the virus pathogenicity. Acta Virologica 58: 364-367. Novaes, Q. S., and Rezende, J. A. M. 2005. Protection between strains of Passion fruit woodiness virus in sunnhemp. Fitopathologia Brasileira 30: 307-311. Ochoa, F. M., Carballo, O., Trujillo, G., Mayoral de Izaquirre, M. L., and Lee, R. F. 1993. Biological characterization and evaluation of cross protection potential of citrus tristeza virus isolates in Venezuela. In 'Twelveth IOCV Conference'. pp. 1-7. Ochoa, F. M., Cevik, B., Febres, V. J., Niblett, C. L., and Lee, R. F. 2000. Molecular characterization of Florida citrus tristeza virus isolates with potential use in mild strain cross protection. In 'Fourteenth IOCV Conference'. pp. 94-102. Ochwo-Ssemakula, M., Sengooba, T., Hakiza, J. J., Adipala, E., Edema, R., Redinbaugh, M. G., Aritua, V., and Winter, S. 2011. Characterization and distribution of a Potyvirus associated with passion fruit woodines disease in Uganda. Plant Disease 96: 659-665. Oh, C. S., and Carrington, J. C. 1989. Identification of essential residues in potyvirus proteinase HC-Pro by site-directed mutagenesis. Virology 173: 692-699. Olson, E. O. 1956. Mild and severe strains of tristeza virus in Texas citrus. Phytopathology 46: 336-341. Olspert, A., Chung, B. Y. W., Atkins, J. F., Carr, J. P., and Firth, A. E. 2015. Transcriptional slippage in the positive-sense RNA virus family Potyviridae. EMBO Reports 16: 995-1004. Olspert, A., Carr, J. P., and Firth, A. E. 2016. Mutational analysis of the Potyviridae transcriptional slippage site utilized for expression of the P3N-PIPO and P1N-PISPO proteins. Nucleic Acids Research 44: 7618-7629. Oshima, N. 1981. Control of tomato mosaic virus by attenuated virus. Japan Agricultural Research Quarterly 14: 222-228. Parrella, G., Castellano, M. A. 2002. Passiflora chlorotic spot a disease caused by a strain of Bean yellow mosaic virus in Passiflora coerulea in Italy. Journal of Plant Pathology 84: 139. Pasin, F., Simon-Mateo, C., and Garcia, J. A. 2014. The hypervariable amino-terminus of P1 protease modulates potyviral replication and host defense responses. PLoS Pathogens 10: e1003985. Pelosi, R. R., Rundell, P. A., Cohen, M., and Powell, C. A. 2000. Evaluation of sixteen-year citrus tristeza virus cross-protection trial in Florida. In 'Fourteenth IOCV Conference'. pp. 111-114. Peng, Y. H., Kadoury, D., Gal-On, A., Huet, H., Wang, Y., and Raccah, B. 1998. Mutations in the HC-Pro gene of Zucchini yellow mosaic potyvirus: effects on aphid transmission and binding to purified virions. Journal of General Virology 79: 897-904. Penaflor, M. F. G. V., Mauch, K. E., Alves, K. J., De Moraes, C. M., and Mescher, M. C. 2016. Effects of single and mixed infections of Bean pod mottle virus and Soybean mosaic virus on host-plant chemistry and host-vector interactions. Functional Ecology 30: 1648-1659. Pennazio, S., Roggero, P., and Conti, M. 2001. A history of plant virology. Cross-protection. Microbiologica 24: 99-114. Perring, T. M., Farrar, C. A., Blua, M. J., Wang, H. L., and Gonsalves, D. 1995. Cross protection of cantaloupe with a mild strain of zucchini yellow mosaic virus: Effectiveness and application. Crop Protection 14: 601-606. Peyret, H., and Lomonossoff, G. P. 2015. When plant virology met Agrobacterium: the rise of the deconstructed clones. Plant Biotechnology Journal 13: 1121-1135. Pimentel, D., Lach, L., Zuniga, R., and Morrison, D. 2000. Enviromental and economic costs of non-indigenous species in the United States. BioScience 50: 53-65. Plchova, H., Cerovska, N., Vaculik, P., and Moravec, T. 2017. Plant viruses as scaffolds for the presentation of vaccine epitopes. Biologia Plantarum 61: 1-12. Plisson, C., Drucker, M., Blanc, S., German-Retana, S., Le Gall, O., Thomas, D., and Bron, P. 2003. Structural characterization of HC-Pro, a plant virus multifunctional protein. Journal of Biological Chemistry 278: 23753-23761. Poch, O., Sauvaget, I., Delarue, M., and Tordo, N. 1989. Identification of four conserved motifs among the RNA-dependent polymerase encoding elements. The EMBO Journal 8: 3867-3874. Poque, S., Wu, H. W., Huang, C. H., Cheng, H. W., Hu, W. C., Yang, J. Y., Wang, D., and Yeh, S. D. 2018. Potyviral gene-silencing suppressor HCPro interacts with salicylic acid (SA)-bingding protein 3 to weaken SA-mediated defense responses. Molecular Plant Microbe Interactions 31: 86-100. Posnette, A. F., and Todd, J. M. A. 1951. Virus disease of cacao in West Africa. VIII. The search for virus-resistant cacao. Annual Applied of Biology 38: 785. Posnette, A. F., and Todd, J. M. A. 1955. Virus disease of cacao in West Africa. IX, Strain variation and interference in virus 1A. Annual Applied of Biology 43: 433-453. Posnette, A. F., and Cropley, R. 1956. Apple mosaic viruses host reactions and strain interference. Journal of Horticultural Science 31: 119-133. Powell, C. A., Pelosi, R. R., and Cohen, M. 1992. Superinfection of orange trees containing mild isolates of citrus tristeza virus with severe Florida isolates of citrus tristeza virus. Plant Disease 76: 141-144. Powell, C. A., Pelosi, R. R., Rundell, P. A., Stover, E., and Cohen, M. 1999. Cross-protection of grapefruit from decline-inducing isolates of citrus tristeza virus. Plant Disease 83: 989-991. Price, W. C. 1936. Specificity of acquired immunity from tobacco-ring-spot diseases. Phytopathology 26: 665-675. Purcifull, D. E., Adlerz, W. C., Simone, G. W., Hiebert, E., and Christie, S. R. 1984. Serological relationships and partial characterizaion of Zuccini yellow mosaic virus isolated from squash in Florida. Plant Disease 68: 230-233. Rancovic, M., and Paunovic, S. 1988. Further studies on the resistance of plums to sharka (plum pox) virus. Acta Horticuturae 235: 283-290. Rast, A. T. B. 1972. M II-16, an artificial symptomless mutant of tobacco mosaic virus for seedling inoculation of tomato crops. Netherlands Journal of Plant Pathology 78: 110-112. Rast, A. T. B. 1975. Variability of tobacco mosaic virus in relation to control of tomato mosaic in glasshouse tomato crops by resistance breeding and cross protection. Institute of Phytopathological Research, Wageningen, Netherlands. pp. 1-76. Ratcliff, F. G., MacFarlane, S. A., and Baulcombe, D. C. 1999. Gene silencing without DNA. RNA-mediated cross-protection between viruses. Plant Cell 11: 1207-1216. Ravelonandro, M., Briard, P., Glasa, M., and Adam, S. 2008. The ability of a mild isolate of plum pox virus to cross-protect against sharka virus. Acta Horticulturae 781: 281-286. Reddy, D. V. R., Sudarshana, M. R., Fuchs, M., Rao, N. C., and Tottappilli, G. 2009. Genetically engineered virus-resistant plants in developing contries: Current status and future prospects. Advance in Virus Research 75: 185-220. Reich, T. J., Iyer, V. N., Scobie, B., and Miki, B. L. 1986. A detailed procedure for the intranuclear microinjection of plant protoplasts. Canadian Journal of Botany 64: 1255-1258. Restrepo-Hartwig, M. A., Freed, D. D., and Carrington, J. C. 1990. Nuclear transport of plant potyviral proteins. Plant Cell 2: 987-998. Restrepo-Hartwig, M. A., and Carrington, J. C. 1992. Regulation of nuclear transport of a plant potyvirus protein by autoproteolysis. Journal of Virology 66: 5662-5666. Restrepo-Hartwig, M. A., and Carrington, J. C. 1994. The Tobacco etch potyvirus 6-kilodalton protein is membrane associated and involved in viral replication. Journal of Virology 68: 2388-2397. Revers, F., and Garcia, J. A. 2015. Molecular biology of Potyviruses. Advances in Virus Research 92: 101-199. Rezende, J. A. M., Urban, L., Sherwood, J. L., and Melcher, U. 1992. Host effect on cross protection between two strains of tobacco mosaic virus. Journal of Phytopathology 136: 147-153. Riechmann, J. L., Lain, S., and Garcia, J. A. 1990. Infectious in vitro transcripts from a Plum pox potyvirus cDNA clone. Virology 177: 710-716. Riechmann, J. L., Lain, S., and Garcia, J. A. 1991. Identification of the initiation codon of the Plum pox potyvirus genomic RNA. Virology 185: 544-552. Riechmann, J. L., Lain, S., and Garcia, J. A. 1992. Highlights and prospects of potyvirus molecular biology. Journal of General Virology 73: 1-16. Riechmann, J. L., Cervera, M. T., and Garcıa, J. A. 1995. Processing of the plum pox virus polyprotein at the P3-6K1 junction is not required for virus viability. Journal of General Virology 76: 951-956. Robaglia, C., Durand-Tardif, M., Tronchet, M., Boudazin, G., Astier-Manifacier, S., and Casse-Delbart, F. 1989. Nucleotide sequence of Potato virus Y (N strain) genomic RNA. Journal of General Virology 70: 935-947. Rocha-Pena, M. A., Lee, R. F., Permar, T. A., Yokomi, R. K., and Garnsey, S. M. 1991. Use of enzyme-linked immunosorbent and dot-immunobinding assays to evaluate two mild-strain cross protection experiments after challange with a sever citrus tristeza virus isolate. In 'Eleventh IOCV Conference'. pp. 93-102. Rodamilans, B., Valli, A., Mingot, A., San Leon, D., Baulcombe, D., Lopez-Moya, J. J., and Garcia, J. A. 2015. RNA polymerase slippage as a mechanism for the production of frameshift gene products in plant viruses of the Potyviridae family. Journal of Virology 89: 6965-6967. Rodini, B. 2009. The role of plant biosecurity in preventing and controlling emerging plant virus disease epidemics. Virus Research 141: 150-157. Rodrigo, G., Daros, J. A., and Elena, S. F. 2017. Virus-host interactome: putting the accent on how it changes. Journal of Proteomics 156: 1-4. Rodriguez-Alarado, G., Kurath, G., and Dodds, J. A. 2001.Cross-protection between and within subgroup I and II of cucumber mosaic virus islates from pepper. Agrociencia 35: 563-573. Rodrıguez-Cerezo, E., Ammar, E., Pirone, E. D., and Shaw, J. G. 1993. Association of the non-structural P3 viral protein with cylindrical inclusions in potyvirus-infected cells. Journal of General Virology 74: 1945-1949. Robaglia, C., Durand-Tardif, M., Tronchet, M., Boudazin, G., Astier-Manifacier, S., and Casse-Delbart, F. 1989. Nucleotide sequence of Potato virus Y (N strain) genomic RNA. Journal of General virology 70: 935-947. Roistacher, C. N., Dodds, J. A., and Bash, J. A. 1987. Means of obtaining and testing protective strains of seedling yellows and stem pitting tristeza virus: A preliminary report. Phytophylactica 19: 199-203. Roitacher, C. N., Dodds, J. A., and Bash, J. A. 1988. Cross protection against citrus tristeza seedling yellows and stem pitting viruses by protective isolates developed in greenhouse plants. In 'Tenth IOCV Conference'. pp. 91-100. Roistacher, C. N., and Moreno, P. 1991. The worldwide threat from destructive isolates of citrus tristeza virus: A review. In 'Eleventh IOCV Conference'. pp. 7-19. Roistacher, C. N., and Dodds, J. A. 1993. Failure of 100 mild citrus tristeza virus isolates from California to cross protect against a challange by severe sweet orange stem pitting isolates. In 'Twelveth IOCV Conference'. pp. 100-107. Roistacher, C. N., da Graca, J. V., and Muller, G. W. 2010. Cross protection against Citrus tristeza vrius- a review. In 'In Proceedings of the Seventeenth Conference of the International Organization of Citrus Virologists', pp. 1-27. Rybicki, E. P. 2015. A to ten list for economically important plant viruses. Advance in Virology 160: 17-20. Saenz, P., Quiot, L, Quiot, J. B., Candresse, T., and Garcia, J. A. 2001. Pathogenicity determinants in the complex virus population of a Plum pox virus isolate. Molecular Plant Microbe Interactions 14: 278-287. Sahana, N., Kaur, H., Basavaraj, Tena, F., Jain, R. K., Palukaitis, P., Canto, T., and Praveen, S. 2012. Inhibition of the host proteasome facilitates papaya ringspot virus accumulation and proteosomal catalytic activity is modulated by viral factor HcPro. PLoS One 7: e52546. Sahana, N., Kaur, H., Jain, R. K., Palukaitis, P., Canto, T. And Praveen, S. 2014. The asparagine residue in the FRNK box of potyviral helper-component protease is critical for its sRNA binding and subcellular localization. Journal of General Virology 95: 1167-1177. Salaman, R. N. 1933. Protective inoculation against a plant virus. Nature (London) 131: 468. Salibe, A. A., Souza, A. A., Targon, M. L. P. N., Muller, G. W., Coletta Filho, H. D., and Machado, M. A. 2002. Selection of a mild sub-isolate of citrus tristeza virus for preimmunization of Pera sweet orange. In 'Fifteenth IOCV Conference'. pp. 348-351. Sambade, A., Ambros, S., Lopez, C., Ruiz-Ruiz, S., Hermoso de Mendoza, A., Flores, R., Guerri, J., and Moreno, P. 2007. Preferential accumulation of sever variants of Citrus tristeza virus in plants co-inoculated with mild and severe variants. Archives of Virology 152: 1115-1126. Sanchez, F., and Ponz, F. 2018. Presenting peptides at the surface of Potyvirus in Planta. Methods in Molecular Biology 1776: 471-486. Satoh, N., Kon, T., Yamagishi, N., Takahashi, T., Natsuaki, T., and Yoshikawa, N. 2014. Viruses 6: 4242-4257. Scholthof, K. G., Adkins, S., Czosnek, H., Palukaitis, P., Jacquot, E., Hohn, T., Hohn, B., Saunders, K., Candresse, T., Ahlquist, P., Hemenway, C., and Foster, G. D. 2011. Top 10 plant viruses in molecular plant pathology. Molecular Plant Pathology 12: 938-954. Sclavounos, A. P., Voloudakis, A. E., Arabatzis, C., and Kyriakopoulou, P. E. 2006. A severe Hellenic CMV tomato isolate: Symptom variability in tobacco, characterization and discrimination of variants. European Journal of Plant Pathology 115: 163-172. Seo, J. K., Sohn, S. H., and Kim, K. H. 2011. A single amino acid change in HC-Pro of soybean mosaic virus alters symptom expression in a soybean cultivar carrying Rsv1 and Rsv3. Archives of Virology 156: 135-141. Seo, J. K., Vo Phan, M. S., Kang, S. H., Choi, H. S., and Kim, K. H. 2013. The charged residues in the surface-exposed C-terminus of the Soybean mosaic virus coat protein are critical for cell-to-cell movement. Virology 446: 95-101. Shan, H. Y., Pasin, F., Tzanetakis, I. E., Simon-Mateo, C., Garcia, J. A., and Rodamilans, A. B. 2018. Truncation of a P1 leader proteinase facilitates potyvirus replication in a non-permissive host. Molecular Plant Pathology 19: 1504-1510. Sharma, P., Sharma, P. N., Kapil, R., Sharma, S. K., and Sharma, O. P. 2011. Analysis of 3'-terminal region of Bean common mosaic virus strains infecting common bean in India. Indian Journal of Virology 22: 37-43. Shen, W., Yan, P., Gao, L., Pan, X., Wu, J., and Zhou, P. 2010. Helper component-proteinase (HC-Pro) protein of Papaya ringspot virus interacts with papaya calreticulin. Molecular Plant Pathology 11: 335-346. Sherwood, J. L. 1987. Mechanisms of cross-protection between plant virus strains. In 'Plant Resistance to Viruses', pp. 136-150. Wiley, Chichester. Shiboleth, Y. M., Haronsky, E., Leibman, D., Arazi, T., Wassenegger, M., Whitham, S. A., Gaba, V., and Gal-On, A. 2007. The conserved FRNK box in HC-Pro, a plant viral suppressor of gene silencing, is required for small RNA binding and mediates symptom development. Journal of Virology 81: 13135-13148. Shukla, D. D., and Ward, C. W. 1989. Identification and classification of potyviruses on the basis of coat protein sequence data and serology. Archives of Virology 106: 171-200. Shukla, D. D., Frenkel, M. J., and Ward, C. W. 1991. Structure and function of the potyvirus genome with special reference to the coat protein coding region. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology 13: 178-191. Shuka, D. D., Ward, C. W., and Brunt, A. A. 1994. The Potyviridae. Wallingford, Oxon: CAB International, pp. 80-96. Siaw, M. F., Shahabuddin, M., Ballard, S., Shaw, J. G. and Rhoads, R. E. 1985. Identification of a protein covalently linked to the 5' terminus of Tobacco vein mottling virus RNA. Virology 142: 134-143. Siddiqui, S. A., Sarmiento, C., Truve, E., Lehto, H., and Lehto, K. 2008. Phenotypes and functional effects caused by various viral RNA silencing suppressors in transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana and N. tabacum. Molecular Plant Microbe Interactions 21: 178-187. Simmonds, J. H. 1959. Mild strain protection as a means of reducing losses from the Queensland woodiness virus in the passion vine. Queensland Journal of Agricultural Science 16: 371-380. Singh, M., and Singh, R. P. 1995. Host dependent cross-protection between PVYN, PVYO and PVA in potato cultivars and Solanum brachycarpum. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology 17: 82-86. Singh, A. K., Meetei, N. T., Singh, B. K., and Mandal, N. 2017. High incidence of citrus tristeza virus in mandarin (Citrus reticulata) in North-East states of India. Virus Disease 28: 401-407. Sit, T. L., and Abouhaidar, M. G. 1993. Infectious RNA transcripts derived from cloned cDNA of papaya mosaic virus: Effect of mutations to the capsid and polymerase proteins. Journal of General Virology 74: 1133-1140. Sorel, M., Garcia, J. A., & German-Retana, S. (2014). The Potyviridae cylindrical inclusion helicase: A key multipartner and multifunctional protein. Molecular Plant Microbe Interactions 27: 215-226. Soitamo, A. J., Jada, B., and Lehto, K. 2011. HC-Pro silencing suppressor significantly alters the gene expression profile in tobacco leaves and flowers. BMC Plant Biology 11: 68. Souza, A. A., Muller, G. W., Targon, M. L. P. N., Takita, M. A., and Machado, M. A. 2002. Stability of the mild protective 'PIAC' isolate of citrus tristeza virus. In 'Fifteenth IOCV Coference'. pp. 131-135. Strange, R. N., and Scott, P. R. 2005. Plant disease: A threat to glbal food security. Annual Review of Phytopathology 43: 83-116. Stubbs, L. L. 1964. Tansmission and protective inoculation studies with viruses of the citrus tristeza complex. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 15: 752-770. Suzuki, M., Kuwata, S., Kataoka, J., Masuta, C., Nitta, N., and Takanami, Y., 1991. Functional analysis of deletion mutants of cucumber mosaic virus RNA3 using an in vitro transcription system. Virology 183: 106-113. Syller, J. 2005. The roles and mechanisms of helper compnent proteins encoded by potyviruses and caulimoviruses. Physiological and Molecular Plant Pathology 67: 119-130. Tahmasebi, A. A., and Afsharifar, A. 2017. Cap analog and Potato virus A HC-Pro silencing suppressor improve GFP transient expression using an infectious virus vector in Nicotiana benthamiana. Molecular Biology Research Communications 6: 45-56. Taki, A., Yamagishi, N., and Yoshikawa, N. 2013. Development of apple latent spherical virus-based vaccines agaisnt three tospoviruses. Virus Research 176: 251-258. Tamura, A., Kato, T., Taki, A., Sone, M., Satoh, N., Yamagishi, N., Takahashi, T., Ryo, B. S., Natsuaki, T., and Yoshikawa, N. 2013. Preventive and curative effects of Apple latent spherical virus vectors harboring part of the target virus genome against potyvirus and cucumovirus infectious. Virology 446: 314-324. Tan, S. H., Nishiguchi, M., Sakamoto, W., Ogura, Y., Murata, M., Ugaki, M., Tomiyama, M., and Motoyoshi, F. 1997. Molecular analysis of the genome of an attenuated strain of cucumber green mottle virus. Annals of the Phytopathological Society of Japan 63: 470-474. Taylor, R. H., and Kimble, K. A. 1964. Two unrelated virus which cause woodiness of passionfruit. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 15: 560-570. Thompson, J. R., and Tepfer, M. 2010. Assessment of the benefits and risks for engineered virus resistance. Advance in Virus Research 76: 33-56. Thornton, I. R., and Stubbs, L. L. 1976. Control of tristeza decline of grapefruit on sour orange rootstock by preinduced immunity. In 'Seventh IOCV Conference'. pp. 55-57. Thornton, I. R., Emmett, R. W., and Stubbs, L. L. 1980. A further report on the grapefruit tristeza preimmunization trial al Mildura, Victoria. In 'Eighth IOCV Conference'. pp. 51-53. Tian, Z., Qiu, J., Yu, J., Han, C., and Liu, W. 2009. Competition between cucumber mosaic virus subgroup I and II isolates in tobacco. Journal of Phytopahtology 157: 457-464. Tomlinson, J. A., and Shepherd, R. J. 1978. Studies on mutagenesis and cross-protection of cauliflower mosaic virus. Annals of Applied Biology 90: 223-231. Torres-Barcelo, C., Martin, S., Daros, J. A., and Elena, S. F. 2008. From hypo- to hypersuppression: Effect of amino acid substitutions on the RNA-silencing suppressor activity of the tobacco etch potyvirus HC-pro. Genetics 180: 1039-1049. Tribodet, M., Glais, L., Kerlan, C., and Jacquot, E. 2005. Characterization of Potato virus Y (PVY) molecular determinants involved in the vein necrosis symptom induced by PVYN isolates in infected Nicotiana tabacum cv. Xanthi. Journal of General Virology 86: 2101-2105. Tripathi, S., Suzuki, J. Y., Ferreira, S. A., and Gonsalves, D. 2008. Papaya ringspot virus-P: Characteristics, pathogenicity, sequence variability and control. Molecular Plant Pathology 9: 269-280. Tsuda, S., Kubota, K., Kanda, A., Ohki, T., and Meshi, T. 2007. Pathogenicity of pepper mild mottle virus is controlled by the RNA silencing suppression activity of its replication protein but not the viral accumulation. Phytopathology 97: 412-420. Tu, Y., Zhang, Z., Li, D., Dong, J., and Wang, T. 2015a. Potato virus Y HC-Pro reduces the ATPase activity of NtMinD, which results in enlarged chloroplasts in HC-Pro transgenic tobacco. PLoS One 10: e0136210. Tu, Y., Jin, Y., Ma, D., Li, H., Zhang, Z., Dong, J., and Wang, T. 2015b. Interaction between PVY HC-Pro and the NtCF1β-subunit reduces the amount of chloroplast ATP synthase in virus-infected tobacco. Scientific Report 5: 15605. Tumer, N. E., O'Connell, K. M. Nelson, R. S., Sanders, P. R., Beachy, R. N., Fraley, R. T., and Shah, D. M. 1987. Expression of alfalfa mosaic virus coat protein gene confers cross-protection in transgenic tobacco and tomato plants. The EMBO Journal 6: 1181-1188. Turpen. T. 1989. Molecular cloning of a Potato virus Y genome nucleotide sequence homology in non-coding regions of potyviruses. Journal of General Virology 70: 1951-1960. Uga, H., Kobayshi, Y. O., Hagiwara, K., Honda, Y., and Omura, T. 2004. Selection of an attenuated isolate of Bean yellow mosaic virus for protection of dwarf gentian plants from viral infection in the field. Journal of General Plant Pathology 70: 54-60. Untiveros, M., Olspert, A., Artola, K., Firth, A. E., Kreuze, J. F., and Valkonen, J. P. 2016. A novel sweet potato potyvirus ORF is expressed via polymerase slippage and suppresses RNA silencing. Molecular Plant Pathology 17: 1111-1123. Urban, L. A., Sherwood, J. L., Rezende, J. A. M., and Melcher, U. 1990. Examination of mechnisms of cross protection with non-transgenic plants. In 'Recognition and Response in Plant-Virus Interactions', pp.415-426. Springer-Verlag, Berlin. Urcuqui-Inchima, S., Haenni, A. L., and Bernardi, F. 2001. Potyvirus proteins: A wealth of functions. Virus Research 74: 157-175. Valli, A. A., Lopez-Moya, J. J., and Garcia, J. A. 2007. Recombination and gene duplication in the evolutionary diversification of P1 proteins in the family Potyviridae. Journal of General Virology 88: 1016-1028. Valli, A. A., Gallo, A., Calvo, M., Perez, J. d. J., and Garcia, J. A. 2014. A novel role of the potyviral helper component proteinase contributes to enchance the yield of viral particles. Journal of Virology 88: 9808-9818. Valli, A. A., Gallo, A., Rodamilans, B., Lopez-Moya, J. J., and Garcia, J. A. 2018. The HCPro from the Potyviridae family: an enviable multitasking Helper Component that every virus would like to have. Molecular Plant Pathology 19: 744-763. Van Bokhoven, H., Verver, J., Wellink, J., and Van Kammen, A. 1993. Protoplasts transiently expressing the 200K coding sequence of cowpea mosaic virus B-RNA support replication of M-RNA. Journal of General Virology 74: 2233-2241. van Vuuren, S. P., and Moll, J. N. 1987. Glasshouse evaluation of citrus tristeza virus isolates. Phytophylactica 19: 219-221. van Vuuren, S. P., and van der Vyver, J. B. 2000. Comparison of South African pre-immunizing citrus tristeza virus isolates with foreign isolates in three grapefruit selections. In 'Fourteenth IOCV Conference'. pp. 50-56. van Vuuren, S. P., Collins, R. P., and da Graca, J. V. 1993. Evaluation of citrus tristeza virus isolates for cross protection of grapefruit in South Africa. Plant Disease 77: 24-28. Varrelmann, M., and Maiss, E. 2000. Mutations in the coat protein gene of Plum pox virus suppress particle assembly, heterologous encapsidation and complementation in transgenic plants of Nicotiana benthamiana. Journal of General Virology 81: 567-576. Veidt, I, Bouzoubaa, S. E., Leiser, R. M., Ziegler-Graff, V., Guilley, H., Richards, K., and Jonard, G. 1992. Synthesis of full-length transcripts of beet western yellows virus RNA: Messenger properties and biological activity in protoplasts. Virology 186: 192-200. Vigne, E., Marmonier, A., Komar,V., Lemaire, O., and Fuchs, M. 2009. Genetic sturcture and variability of virus populations in cross-protected grapevines superinfected by Grapevine fanleaf virus. Virus Research 144: 154-162. Vijayapalani, P., Maeshima, M., Nagasaki-Takekuchi, N., and Miller, W. A. 2012. Interaction of the trans-frame potyvirus protein P3N-PIPO with host protein PCaP1 facilitates potyvirus movement. PLoS Pathogens 8: e1002639. Viry, M., Serghini, M. A., Hans, F., Ritzenthaler, C., Pinck, M., and Pinck, L. 1993. Biologically active transcripts from cloned cDNA of genomic grapevine fanleaf nepovirus RNAs. Journal of General Virology 74: 169-174. Voloudakis, A. E., Malpica, C. A., Aleman-Verdaguer, M. E., Stark, D. M., Fauquet, C. M., and Beachy, R. N. 2004. Structural characterization of Tobacco etch virus coat protein mutants. Archives of Virology 149: 699-712. Wang, H. L., Yeh, S. D., Chiu, R. J., and Gonsalves, D. 1987. Effectiveness of cross-protection by mild mutants of papaya ringspot virus for control of ringspot disease of papaya in Taiwan. Plant Disease 71: 491-497. Wang, H. L., Gonsalves, D., and Provvidenti, R. 1991. Effectiveness of cross protection by a mild strain of zucchini yellow mosaic virus in cucumber, melon and squash. Plant Disease 75: 203-207. Wang, M., and Gonsalves, D. 1992. Artificial induction and evaluation of a mild isolate of tomato spotted wild virus. Journal of Phytopathology 135: 233-244. Wang, W. Q., Natsuaki, T., Kosaka, Y., and Okuda, S. 2006. Comparison of the nucleotide and amino acid sequences of parental and attenuated isolates of Zucchini yellow mosaic virus. Journal of General Plant Pathology 72: 52-56. Ward, C. Q., and Shukla, D. D. 1991. Taxonomy of potyviruses current problems and some solutions. Intervirology 32: 269-296. Webb, R. E., Larson, R. H., and Walker, J. C. 1952. Relationships of potato leaf roll virus strains. Research Bulletin of Agricultural Experimental Station, College of Agricultural University Wisconsin 178: 1-38. Wei, T., Zhang, C., Hong, J., Xiong, R., Kasschau, K. D., Zhou, X., Carrington, J. C., and Wang, A. 2010. Formation of complexes at plasmodesmata for potyvirus intercellular movement is mediated by the viral protein P3N-PIPO. PLoS Pathogen 6: e1000962. Wen, H., Lister, R. M., and Fattouh, F. A. 1991. Cross-protection among strains of barley yellow dwarf virus. Journal of General Virology 72: 791-799. Wen, R. H., and Hajimorad, M. R. 2010. Mutational analysis of the putative pipo of soybean mosaic virus suggests disruption of PIPO protein impedes movement. Virology 400: 1-7. Wetzel, T., Candresse, T., Ravelonandro, M., Delbos, R. P., Mazyad, H., Aboul-ata, A. E., and Dunez, J. 1991. Nuclotide sequence of the 3'-terminal region of the RNA of the E1 Amar strain of plum pox potyvirus. Journal of General Virology 72: 1741-1746. Willemsen, A., Carrasco, J. L., Elena, S. F., and Zwart, M. P. 2018. Going, going, gone: predicting the fate of genomic insertions in plant RNA viruses. Heredity. doi: 10.1038/s41437-018-0086-x Wu, H. W., Lin, S. S., Chen, K. C., Yeh, S. D., and Chua, N. H. 2010. Discriminating mutations of HC-Pro of Zucchini yellow mosaic virus with differential effects on small RNA pathways involved in viral pathogenicity and symptom development. Molecular Plant Microbe Interactions 23: 17-28. Wylie, S. J., Adamns, M., Chalam, C., Kreuze, J., Lopez-Moya, J. J., Ohshima, K., Praveen, S., Rabenstein, F., Stenger, D., Wang, A., and Murilo Zerbini, F. 2017. ICTV virus taxonomy profile: Potyviridae. Journal of General Virology 98: 352-354. Xiao, C., Yao, R. X., Li, F., Dai, S. M., Licciardello, G., Catara, A., Gentitle, A., and Deng, Z. N. 2017. Population structure and diversity of citrus tristeza virus (CTV) isolates in Hunan province, China. Archives of Virology 162: 409-423. Xu, M., Xie, H., Wu, J., Xie, L., Yang, J., and Chi, Y. 2017. Translation initiation factor eIF4E and eIFiso4E are both required for Peanut stripe virus infection in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.). Frontiers in Microbiology 8: 338. Yang, L. P., Xu, Y. N., Liu, Y. Q., Meng, D. W., Jin, T. C., and Zhou, X. F. 2016. HC-Pro viral suppressor from tobacco vein banding mosaic virus interferes with DNA methylation and activates the salicylic acid pathway. Virology 497: 244-250. Yang, K., Yan, H., Jin, P. F., Miao, W. G., and Cui, H. G. 2018. Analysis of the complete genome sequence of a potyvirus from passion fruit suggests its taxonomic classifcation as a member of a new species. Archives of Virology. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00705-018-3885-8. Yamaya, J., Yoshioka, M., Meshi, T., Okada, Y., and Ohno, T. 1988. Cross protection in transgenic tobacco plants expressing a mild strain of tobacco mosaic virus. Molecular Genetics and Genomics 215: 173-175. Yambao, M. L., Yagihashi, H., Sekiguchi, H., Sekiguchi, T., Sasaki, T., Sato, M., Atsumi, G., Tacahashi, Y., Nakahara, K. S., and Uyeda, I. 2008. Point mutations in helper component protease of clover yellow vein virus are associated with the attenuation of RNA-silencing suppression activity and symptom expression in broad bean. Archives of Virology 153: 105-115. Yarden, G., Hemo, R., Livne, H., Maoz, E., Lev, E., Lecoq, H., and Raccah, B. 2000. Cross-protection of Cucurbitaceae from zucchini yellow mosaic potyvirus. Acta Horticulturae 510: 349-359. Ye, J., Quing, L., and Zhou, X. P. 2006. Cross-protection mediated by a βC1 deletion DNAβ associated with Tomato yellow leaf curl China virus [in Chinese]. Journal of Zhejiang University (Agricultural Life Science) 32: 479-482. Yeh, S. D., and Gonsalves, D. 1984. Evaluation of induced mutants of Papaya ringspot virus for control by cross protection. Phytopathology 74: 1086-1091. Yeh, S. D., Wang, C. H., and Chen, M. J. 1992a. Detection and immunological analysis of a 112k protein of Papaya ringspot virus produced in vivo. Botanical of Academia Sinica 33: 1-8. Yeh, S. D., Jan, F. J., Chiang, C. H., Doong, T. J., Chen, M. C., Chung, P. H., and Bau, H. J. 1992b. Complete nucleotide sequence and genetic organization of Papaya ringspot virus RNA. Journal of General Virology 73: 2531-2541. Yeh, S. D. 1994. Comparison of the genetic organization of Papaya ringspot virus with other potyvirus. Plant Pathology Bulletin 3: 54-64. Yeh, S. D., and Gonsalves, D. 1994. Practices and perspective of control of papaya ringspot virus by cross protection. In 'Advances in Disease Vector Research, vol. 10'. pp. 237-257. Springer, New York. Yeh, S. D., Gonsalves, D., Wang, H. L., Namba, R., and Chiu, R. J. 1988. Control of papaya ringspot virus by cross-protection. Plant Disease 72: 375-380. Yeh, S. D., and Kung, Y. J. 2007. The past and current approaches for control of papaya rinspot virus in Taiwan. Acta Horticulturae 740: 235-243. Yeh, S. D., Chen, C. C., Raja, J. A. J., and Huang, C. H. 2011. Cross-protection effectiveness of attenuated variants of Turnip mosaic virus with mutations in a conserved motif of the N-terminal region of HC-Pro. XV International Congress of Virology. Yokomi, R. K., Garnsey, S. M., Permar, T. A., Lee, R. F., and Youtsey, C. O. 1991. Natural spread of severe citrus tristeza virus isolates in citurs preinfected with mild CTV isolates. In 'Eleventh IOCV Conference'. pp. 86-92. Yokomi, R. K., and DeBorde, R. L. 2005. Incidence, transmissibility, and genotype analysis of citrus tristeza virus (CTV) isolates from CTV eradicative and non-eradicative districts in central California. Plant Disease 89: 859-866. Yokomi, R. K., Selvaraj, V., Maheshwari, Y., Chiumenti, M., Saponari, M., Giampetruzzi, A., Weng, Z., Xiong, Z., and Hajeri, S. 2018. Molecular and biological characterization of a novel mild strain of citrus tristeza virus in California. Archives of Virology 163: 1795-1804. Yoon, H. Y., Hwang, D. C., Choi, K. Y., and Song, B. D. 2000. Proteolytic processing of oligopeptides containing the target sequences by the recombinant tobacco vein mottling virus NIa proteinase. Molecules and Cells 10: 213-219. Yoon, J. Y., Ahn, H. I., Kim, M., Tsuda, S., and Ryu, K. H. 2006. Pepper mild mottle virus pathogenicity determinants and cross protection effect of attenuated mutants in pepper. Virus Research 118: 23-30. Yoshida, N., Shimura, H., Yamashita, K., Suzuki, M., and Masuta, C. 2012. Variability in the P1 gene helps to refine phylogenetic relationships among leek yellow stripe virus isolates from garlic. Archives of virology 157: 147-153. You, B. J., Chiang, C. H., Chen, L. F., Su, W. C., and Yeh, S. D. 2005. Engineered mild strains of papaya ringspot virus for broader cross protection in cucurbits. Phytopathology 95: 533-540. Zarzynska-Nowak, A., Ferriol, I., Falk, B. W., Borodynko-Filas, N., and Hasiow-Jaroszewska, B. 2017. Construction of Agrobacterium tumerfaciens-mediated tomato black ring virus infectious cDNA clones. Virus Research 230: 59-62. Zhang, X. F., and Qu, F. 2016. Chapter 10: Cross protection of plant viruses: Recent developments and mechanistic implications. Current Research Topics in Plant Virology. pp. 241-250. Zhang, X. F., Zhang, S., Guo, Q., Sun, R., Wei, T., and Qu, F. 2018. A new mechanistic model for viral cross protection and superinfection exclusion. Frontiers in Plant Science 9: 40. Zhou, C. Y., Broadbent, P., Hailstones, D. L., Bowyer, J., and Connor, R. 2002a. Movement and titre of Citrus tristeza virus (pre0immunizing isolate PB61) within seedlings and field trees. In 'Fifteenth IOCV Conference'. pp. 39-47. Zhou, C. Y., Hailstones, D. L., Broadbent, P., Connor, R., and Bowyer, J. 2002b. Studies on mild strain cross protection against stem-pitting citrus tristeza virus. In 'Fifteenth IOCV Conference'. pp. 151-157. Ziebell, H. 2008. Mechanisms of cross-protection. CAB Reviews: Perspectives in Agriculture, Veterinary Science, Nutrition and Natural Resources 3: 049. http://www.cababstractsplus.org/cabreveiws/index.asp, 13pp. Ziebell, H., and Carr, J. P. 2009. Effects of dicer-like endoribonucleases 2 and 4 on infection of Arabidopsis thaliana by cucumber mosaic virus and a mutant virus lacking the 2b counter-defence protein gene. Journal of General Virology 90: 2288-2292. Ziebell, H., and Carr, J. P. 2010. Cross-protection- a century of mystery. Advance in Virus Research 76: 211-264. Ziebell, H., and MacDiarmid, R. 2017. Prospects for engineering and imporvement of cross-protective virus strains. Current Opinion in Virology 26: 8-14. Ziemienowicz, A., Tinland, B., Bryant, J., Gloeckler, V., and Hohn, B. 2000. Plant enzymes but not Agrobacterium VirD2 meditae T-DNA ligation in vitro. Molecular Cell Biology 20: 6317-6322. Zinnen, T. M., and Fulton, R. W. 1986. Cross-protection between sunn-hemp mosaic and tobacco mosaic viruses. Journal of General Virology 67: 1679-1687. Abdullah N, Ismail I, Pillai V, Abdullah R, Shaiful AS (2009) Nucleotide sequence of the coat protein gene of the Malaysian passiflora virus and its 3' non-coding region. Am J Appl Sci 6:1633-1636 Adams MJ, Antoniw JF, Fauquet CM (2005) Molecular criteria for genus and species discrimination within the family Potyviridae. Arch Virol 150:459-479 Adams MJ, Zerbini F M, French R, Rabenstein F, Stenger DC, Valkonen JPT (2012) Family Potyviridae. In: Virus taxonomy: Ninth report of the international committee on taxonomy of viruses (AMQ King, MJ Adams, EB Carstens, EJ Lefkowich, eds) Elsevier Academic Press, San Diego, USA. pp. 1069-1089 Anindya R, Savithri HS (2003) Surface-exposed amino- and carboxy-terminal residues are crucial for the initiation of assembly in Pepper vein banding virus: a flexuous rod-shaped virus. Virology 316:325-336 Bernacci LC, Soares-Scott MD, Junqueira NTV, Passos IRDS, Meletti LMM (2008) Passiflora edulis Sims: the correct taxonomic way to cite the yellow passion fruit (and of others colors). Rev Bras Frutic 30:566-576 Brand RJ, Wechmar MB von (1993) Characterization of two viruses implicated in the woodiness disease complex of South African passionfruit: Cucumber mosaic virus and a new potyvirus. J Southern African Society Horti Sci 3:28-33 Chang CA, Chen CC, Deng TC, Zettler FW (1996) Characterization of passionfruit crinkle potyvirus- a newly found virus infecting passionfruit. Plant Prot Bull 38:339-354 Chang CA (1992) Characterization and comparison of Passionfruit mottle virus, a newly recognized potyvirus, with Passionfruit woodiness virus. Phytopathology 82:1358-1136 Chang CA, Lin HH (1989) Passionfruit crinkle virus, a new potyvirus isolated from passionfruit in Taiwan. Plant Prot Bull 31:409-410 Chang CA, Wang HC, Chen YL, Chou TY (1981) The investigation and identification of virus disease of passionfruit in Taiwan. Plant Prot Bull 23 Cheng YH, Deng TC, Chen CC, Chiang CH, Chang CA (2014) First Report of Euphorbia leaf curl virus and Papaya leaf curl Guangdong virus on passion fruit in Taiwan. Plant Dis 98:1746 Chu FH, Yeh SD (1996) Production and evaluation of transgenic tobacco plants expressing the coat protein gene of Passionfruit woodiness virus. Bot Bull Acad Sin 37:181-190 Colinet D, Kummert J (1993) Identification of a Sweet potato feathery mottle virus isolate from China (SPFMV-CH) by the polymerase chain reaction with degenerate primers. J Virol Methods 45:149-159 Coutts BA, Kehoe MA, Webster CG, Wylie SJ, Jones RAC (2011) Indigenous and introduced Potyviruses of legumes and Passiflora Spp. from Australia: Biological Properties and Comparison of Coat Protein Nucleotide Sequences. Arch Virol, 156: 1757-1774 Dassanayake EM, Hicks RGT (1992) Sri-Lankan passionfruit mottle virus, a potyvirus infecting golden passionfruit in Sri-Lanka. Ann Appl Biol 120:459-469 De Wijs JJ (1974) A virus causing ringspot of Passiflora edulis in the Ivory Coast. Ann Appl Biol 77:33-40 Fukumoto T, Nakamura M., Rikitake M, Iwai, H (2012) Molecular characterization and specific detection of two genetically distinguishable strains of East Asian Passiflora virus (EAPV) and their distribution in southern Japan. Virus Genes 44:141-148 Gibbs AJ, Trueman JWH, Gibbs MJ. (2008) The bean common mosaic virus lineage of potyviruses: where did it arise and when? Arch Virol 153:2177–88 Gibbs AJ, Ohshima K (2010) Potyviruses and the digital revolution. Annu Rev Phytopathol 48: 205-223 Iwai H, Terahara R, Yamashita Y, Ueda S, Nakamura M (2006a) Complete nucleotide sequence of the genomic RNA of an Amami-O-Shima strain of East Asian Passiflora potyvirus. Arch Virol 151:1457-1460 Iwai H, Yamashita Y, Nishi N, Nakamura M (2006b) The potyvirus associated with the dappled fruit of Passiflora edulis in Kagoshima prefecture, Japan is the third strain of the proposed new species East Asian Passiflora virus (EAPV) phylogenetically distinguished from strains of Passion fruit woodiness virus. Arch Virol 151:811-818 Jan FJ, Yeh SD (1995) Purification, in-situ localization, and comparative serological properties of passionfruit woodiness virus-encoded amorphous inclusion protein and 2 other virus proteins. Phytopathology 85:64-71 Kitajima EW, Rezende JAM, Rodrigues JCV, Chiavegato LG, Piza Júnior CT, Morozini W (1997) Green spot of passion fruit, a possible viral disease associated with infestation by the mite Brevipalpus phoenicis. Fitopatologia Brasileira 22:555-559 Larkin MA, Blackshields G, Brown NP, Chenna R, McGettigan PA, McWilliam H, Valentin F, Wallace IM, Wilm A, Lopez R, Thompson JD, Gibson TJ, Higgins DG (2007) Clustal W and Clustal X version 2.0. Bioinformatics 23:2947-2948 Lin NS, Chen YK, Hsu YH (1989) Immunological detection of Passionfruit woodiness virus. Bot Bull Acad Sin 30:31-37 Lin SS, Wu HW, Jan FJ, Hou RF, Yeh SD (2007) Modifications of the helper component-protease of Zucchini yellow mosaic virus for generation of attenuated mutants for cross protection against severe infection. Phytopathology 97:287-296 McKnight T (1953) The woodiness virus of the passion vine (Passiflora edulis Sims). Queensland J Agric Sci 10:35 Nascimento AVS, Santana EN, Braz ASK, Alfenas PF, Pio-Ribeiro G, Andrade GP, de Carvalho MG, Zerbini FM (2006) Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV) is widespread in passionfruit in Brazil and causes passionfruit woodiness disease. Arch Virol 151:1797-1809 Nattrass RM (1944) The transmission of the virus of the 'woodiness' disease of passion fruit (Passiflora edulis) by single leaf grafts. Ann Appl Biol 31:310-311 Ochwo-Ssemakula M, Sengooba T, Hakiza JJ, Adipala E, Edema R, Redinbaugh MG, Aritua V, Winter S (2012) Characterization and distribution of a potyvirus associated with passion fruit woodiness disease in Uganda. Plant Dis 96:659-665 Pares RD, Martin AB, Fitzell RD (1985) Virus-induced tip necrosis of passionfruit (Passiflora edulis Sims.). Aus Plant Pathol 14:76-78 Parrella G, Castellano MA (2002) Passiflora chlorotic spot a disease caused by a strain of Bean yellow mosaic virus in Passiflora coerulea in Italy. J Plant Pathol 84:139-139 Polston JE, Londono MA, Cohen AL, Padilla-Rodriguez M, Rosario K, Breitbart M (2017) Genome Sequence of Euphorbia mosaic virus from passionfruit and euphorbia heterophylla in Florida. Genome Announcements 5: 01714-16 Shukla DD, Ward CW (1989) Structure of potyvirus coat proteins and its application in the taxonomy of the potyvirus group. Adv Virus Res 36:273-314 Siaw AB (1971) Transmission of papaya leaf reduction virus by Myzus persicae. Plant Dis 55:526-529 Simon-Buela L, Guo HS, Garcia JA (1997) Long sequences in the 5' noncoding region of Plum pox virus are not necessary for viral infectivity but contribute to viral competitiveness and pathogenesis. Virology 233:157-162 Syller J (2012) Facilitative and antagonistic interactions between plant viruses in mixed infection. Mol Plant Pathol 13: 204-216 Tamura K, Stecher G, Peterson D, Filipski A, Kumar S (2013) MEGA6: Molecular evolutionary genetics analysis version 6.0. Mol Biol and Evol 30:2725-2729 Taylor RH and Greber RS (1973) Passion fruit woodiness virus. CMI/AAB. Description of Plant Viruses 122 Trevisan F, Mendes BMJ, Maciel SC, Vieira MLC, Meletti LMM, Rezende JAM (2006) Resistance to Passionfruit woodiness virus in transgenic passionflower expressing the virus coat protein gene. Plant Dis 90:1026-1030 USAID-ACCESO (2014) The US market for fresh passion fruit. United States Agency International Development Market Brief 16. http://pdf.usaid.gov/pdf_docs/PA00KP21.pdf Vaca-Vaca JC, Carrasco-Lozano EC, Lopez-Lopez K (2017) Molecular identification of a new begomovirus infecting yellow passion fruit (Passiflora edulis) in Colombia. Arch Virol 162:573-576 Wang A, Krishnaswamy S (2012) Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E-mediated recessive resistance to plant viruses and its utility in crop improvement. Mol Plant Pathol 13:795-803 Wylie SJ, Jones MG (2011) The complete genome sequence of a Passionfruit woodiness virus isolate from Australia determined using deep sequencing, and its relationship to other potyviruses. Arch Virol 156:479-482 Ahlquist, P., French, R., Janda, M., and Loesch-Fries, L. S. 1984. Multicomponent RNA plant virus infection derived from cloned viral cDNA. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 81: 7066-7070. Atreya, C. D., Aterya, P. L., Thornbury, D. W., and Pirone, T. P. 1992. Site-directed mutations in the potyvirus HC-Pro gene affect helper component activity, virus accumulation, and symptom expression in infected tobacco plants. Virology 191: 106-111. Beachy, R. N., Leosch-Fries, S., and Tumer, N. E. 1990. Coat protein-mediated resistance against virus infection. Annual Review Phytopathology 28: 451-474. Bejerman, N., Giolitti, F., de Breuil, S., and Lenardon, S. 2010. Molecular characterization of Sunflower chlorotic mottle virus: A member of a distinct species in the genus Potyvirus. Archives of Virology 155: 1331-1335. Birtic, S., and Kranner, I. 2006. Isolation of high-quality RNA from polyphenol-, polysaccharide- and lipid-rich seeds. Phytochemical Analysis 17: 144-148. Boyer, J. C., and Haenni, A. L. 1994. transcripts and cDNA clones of RNA viruses. Virology 198: 415-426. Brewer, H. C., Hird, D. L., Bailey, A. M., Seal, S. E., and Foster, G. D. 2018. A guide to the contained use of plant virus infectious clones. Plant Biotechnology Journal 16: 832-843. Castellano, M. A., and Parrella, G. 2002. Passiflora chlorotic spot a disease caused by a strain of Bean yellow mosaic virus in Passiflora coerulea in Italy. Journal of Plant Pathology 84: 139-139. Cerqueira-Silva, C. B. M., Moreira, C. N., Figueira, A. R., Correa, R. X., and Oliveira, A. C. 2008. Detection of a resistance gradient to Passion fruit woodiness virus and selection of 'yellow' passion fruit plants under field conditons. Genetics and Molecular Research 7: 1209-1216. Chang, C. A. 1992. Characterization and comparison of Passionfruit Mottle Virus, a Newly Recognized Potyvirus, with Passionfruit Woodiness Virus. Phytopathology 82: 1358-136. Chen, C. H. 2001. Analyses of the genomic sequence of the mild strain HA 5-1 of Papaya ringspot virus. Master thesis. Taichung: Chung Hsing University. Taiwan Chen, T. C., Huang, C. W., Kuo, Y. W., Liu, F. L., Yuan, C. H. H., Hsu, H. T., and Yeh, S. D. 2006. Identification of common epitopes on a conserved region of NSs proteins among tospoviruses of Watermelon silver mottle virus serogroup. Phytopathology 96: 1296-1304. Cheng, H. W., Chen, K. C., Raja, J. A. J., Li, J. X., and Yeh, S. D. An efficient tag derived from the common epitope of tospoviral NSs proteins for monitoring recombinant proteins expressed in both bacterial and plant systems. Journal of Biotechnology 164: 510-519. Chiang, C. H. 1995. Construction of in vitro and in vivo infectious transcripts of Papaya ringspot virus and analysis on pathogenicity of virus hybrids. In Research Institute of Plant Pathology (Taichung: National Chung Hsing University), pp. 92-124. Chiang, C. H., and Yeh, S. D. 1997. Infectivity assays of in vitro and in vivo transcripts of papaya ringspot potyvirus. Botainical Bulletin of Academia Sinica 38: 153-163. Chiang, C. H., Lee, C. Y., Wang, C. H., Jan, F. J., Lin, S. S., Chen, T. C., Joseph, A. J. R., and Yeh, S. D. 2007. Genetic analysis of an attenuated Papaya ringspot virus strain applied for cross-protection. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 118: 333-348. Chong, Y. H., Cheng, Y. H., Cheng, H. W., and Yeh, S.D. 2018. The virus causing passionfruit woodiness disease in Taiwan is reclassified as East Asian passiflora virus. Journal of General Plant Pathology 84: 208-220. Cronin, S., Verchot, J., Haldeman, C. R., Schaad, M. C., and Carrington, J. C. 1995. Long-distance movement factor: A transport function of the potyvirus helper component proteinase. Plant Cell 7: 549-559. Dassanayake, E. M., and Hicks,. R. G. T. 1992. Sri-Lankan passionfruit mottle virus, a potyvirus infecting golden passionfruit in Sri-lanka. Annals of Applied Biology 120: 459-469. De Wijs, J. 1974. A virus causing ringspot of Passiflora edulis in the Ivory Coast. Annals of Applied Biology 77: 33-40. Ding, S. W., Rathjen, J. P., Li, W. X., Swanson, R., Healy, H., and Symons, R. H. 1995. Efficient infection from cDNA clones of cucumber mosaic cucumovirus RNAs in a new plasmid vector. Journal of General Virology 76: 459-64. Ding, S. W., and Voinnet, O. 2007. Antiviral immunity directed by small RNAs. Cell 130: 413-426. Dolja, V. V., McBride, H.J., and Carrington, J.C. 1992. Tagging of plant potyvirus replication and movement by insertion of beta-glucuronidase into the viral polyprotein. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. USA 89: 10208-10212. Domier, L. L., Franklin, K. M., Hunt, A. G., Rhoads, R. E., and Shaw, J. G. 1989. Infectious in vitro transcripts from cloned cDNA of a potyvirus, Tobacco vein mottling virus. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. USA 86: 3509-3513. Elena, S. F., Bedhomme, S., Carrasco, P., Cuevas, J. M., de la Iglesia, F., Lafforgue, G., Lalic, J., Prosper, A., Tromas, N., and Zwart, M. P. 2011. The evolutionary genetics of emerging plant RNA viruses. Molecular Plant Microbe Interactions 24: 287-293. Elena, S. F., and Sanjuan, R. 2007. Virus evolution: Insights from an experimental approach. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics 38: 27-52. English, J. J., Mueller, E., and Baulcombe, D. C. 1996. Suppression of Virus accumulation in transgenic plants exhibiting silencing of nuclear Genes. Plant Cell 8: 179-188. Fakhfakh, H., Vilaine, F., Makni, M., and Robaglisa, C. 1996. Cell free cloning and biloistic inoculation of an infectious cDNA of potato virus Y. Journal of General Virology 77: 519-523. Fauquet, C. M., Mayo, M. A., Maniloff, J., Desselberger, U., and Ball, L. A. 2005. Virus Taxonomy: Eighth Report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. Elsevier Academic Press, San Diego, California: 1162pp. Fitchen, J. H. and Beachy, R. N. 1993. Genetically engineered protection against viruses in transgenic plants. Annual Review of Microbiology 47: 739-763. Gal-On, A., Antignus, Y., Rosner, A., and Raccah, B. 1991. Infectious in-vitro RNA transcripts deried from cloned cDNA of the cucurbit potyvirus Zucchini yellow mosaic virus. Journal of General Virology 72: 2639-2644. Gal-On, A. 2000. A point mutation in the FRNK motif of the potyvirus helper component-protease gene alters symptom expression in cucurbits and elicits protection against the severe homologous virus. Phytopathology 90: 467-473. Gao, R., Tian, Y. P., Wang, J. Yin, X., Li, X. D., and Valkonen, J. P. T. 2012. Construction of an infectious cDNA clone and gene expression vector of Tobacco vein banding mosaic virus (genus Potyvirus). Virus Research 169: 276-81. Hily, J. M., Scorza, R., Webb, K., and Ravelonandro, M. 2005. Accumulation of the long class of siRNA is associated with resistance to Plum pox virus in a transgenic woody perennial plum tree. Molecular Plant Microbe Interaction 18: 794-799. Honey, S., Schneider, B. L., Schieltz, D. M., Yates, J. R., and Futcher, B. 2001. A novel multiple affinity purification tag and its use in identification of proteins associated with a cyclin-CDK complex. Nucleic Acids Research 29: E24. Hofius, D., Maier, A. T., Dietrich, C., Jungkunz, I., Börnke, F., Maiss, E., And Sonnewald, U. 2007. Capsid protein-mediated recruitment of host DnaJ-like proteins is required for Potato virus Y infection in tobacco Plants. Journal of Virology 81: 11870-11880. Hull, R. and Davies, J. W. 1992. Approaches to nonconventional control of plant virus disease. Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences 11: 17-33. Iwai, H. 1996. New Record of Passionfruit Woodiness Virus in Japan. Annals of the Phytopathologicial Society of Japan 62: 459-465. Iwai, H., Yamashita, Y., Nishi, N., and Nakamura, M. 2006. The potyvirus associated with the dappled fruit of Passiflora edulis in Kagoshima prefecture, Japan is the third strain of the proposed new species East Asian Passiflora virus (EAPV) phylogenetically distinguished from strains of Passion fruit woodiness virus. Archives of Virology 151: 811-8. Jan, F. J. and Yeh, S. D. 1995. Purification, in situ localization, and comparative serological properties of passionfruit woodiness virus-encoded amorphous inclusion protein and two other virus proteins. Phytopathology 85: 64-71. Jovel, J., Walker, M., and Sanfaçon, H. 2011. Salicylic acid-dependent Restriction of Tomato ringspot virus spread in tobacco is By a hypersensitive response, local RNA silencing, and moderate systemic Resistance. Molecular PlantMicrobe Interaction 24: 706-718. Kalantidis, K., Psaradakis, S., Tabler, M., and Tsagris, M. 2002. The occurrence of CMV-specific short RNAs in transgenic tobacco expressing virus-derived double-stranded RNA is indicative of resistance to the virus. Molecular Plant Microbe Interaction 15: 826-833. Kim, B., Masuta, C., Matsuura, H., Takahashi, H., and Inukai, T. 2008. Veinal necrosis induced by Turnip mosaic virus infection in Arabidopsis Is a form of defense response accompanying HR-like cell death. Molecular Plant Microbe Interaction 21: 260-268. Kung, Y. J., Lin, P. C., Yeh, S. D., Hong, S. F., Chua, N. H., Liu, L. Y., Lin, C. P., Huang, Y. H., Wu, H. W., Chen, C. C., and Lin, S. S. 2014. Genetic analyses of the FRNK motif function of Turnip mosaic virus uncover multiple and potentailly interactive pathways of cross-protection. Molecular Plant Microbe Interaction. 27: 944-955. Lakatos, L., Csorba, T., Pantaleo, V., Chapman, E. J., Carrington, J. C., Liu, Y. P., Dolja, V. V., Calvino, L. F., Lopez-Moya, J. J., and Burgyan, J. 2006. Small RNA binding is a common strategy to suppress RNA silencing by several viral suppressors. The EMBO Journal 25: 2768-2780. Lellis, A. D., Kasschau, K. D., Whitham, S. A., and Carrington, J. C. 2002. Loss-of-susceptibility mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana reveal an essential Role for eIF(iso)4E during potyvirus infection. Current Biology 12: 1046-1051. Lin, S. S., Roger, F. H. and Yeh, S. D. 2002. Construction of in vivo and in vitro infectious transcripts of a Taiwan strain of Zucchini yellow mosaic virus. Botanical Bulletin of Academia Sinica 43: 261-269. Lin, S. S., Wu, H. W., Jan, F. J., Hou, R. F., and Yeh, S. D. 2007a. Modifications of the helper component-protease of Zucchini yellow mosaic virus for generation of attenuated mutants for cross protection against severe infection. Phytopathology 97: 287-296. Lin, S. S., Henriques, R., Wu, H. W., Niu, Q. W., Yeh, S. D. and Chua, N. H. 2007b. Strategies and mechanism of plant virus resistance. Plant Biotechnology Reports 1: 125-134. Lin, T. T., and Yeh, S. D., 2016. Generation of useful mild virus strains by modification of pathogenicity factor HC-Pro of Papaya ringspot virus for solving the problem of strain-specific cross protection. Master thesis. Taichung: Chung Hsing University. Taiwan. López-Moya, J. J., and Garcia, J. A. 2000. Construction of a stable and highly infectious intron-containing cDNA clone of plum pox potyvirus and its use to infect plants by particle bombardment. Virus Research 68: 99-107. Love, A. J., Geri, C., Laird, J., Carr, C., Yun, B. W., Loake, G. J., Tada, Y., Sadanandom, A., and Milner, J. J. 2012. Cauliflower mosaic virus protein P6 inhibits signaling responses to salicylic acid and regulates innate Immunity. PLoS One 7: e47535. Published online. Lu, B., Stubbs, G., and Culver, J. N. 1988. Coat protein interactions Involved in tobacco mosaic tobamovirus cross-protection. Virology 248: 188-198. MacFarlane, S. A., Gilmer, D., and Davies, J. W. 1992. Efficient inoculation with CaMV 35S promoter-driven DNA clones of the tobravirus PEBV. Virology 187: 829-831. Maliogka, V. I., Salvador, B., Carbonell, A., Saenz, P., Leon, D. S., Oliveros, J. C., Delgadillo, M. O., Garcia, J. A., and Simon-Mateo, C. 2012. Virus variants with differences in the P1 protein coexist in a Plum pox virus population And display particular host-dependent pathogenicity features. Molecular Plant Pathology 13: 877-886. Nagyova, A., and Subr, Z. 2007. Infectious full-length clones of plant viruses and their use for construction of viral vectors. Acta Virologica 51: 223-237. Nicolas, O., Pirone, T. P., and Hellmann, G. M. 1996. Construction and anlaysis of infectious transcripts from a resistance breaking strain of tobacco vein mottling potyvirus. Archives of Virology 141: 1535-1552. Novaes, Q. S., and Rezende, J. A. M. 2003. Selected mild strains of Passionfruit woodiness virus (PWV) fail to protect pre-immunized vines in Brazil. Scientia Agricola 60: 699-708. Olsen, B. S., and Johansen, I. E. 2001. Nucleotide sequence and infectious cDNA clone of the L1 isolate of Pea seed-borne mosaic potyvirus. Archives of Virology 146: 15-25. Osbourn, J. K., Sarkar, S., and Wilson, T. M. 1990. Complementation of Coat protein-defective TMV mutants in transgenic tobacco plant expressing TMV coat protein. Virology 179: 921-925. Pares, R. D., Martin, A. B., and Fitzell, R. D. 1985. Virus-induced tip necrosis of passionfruit (passiflora edulis sims.). Australian Plant Pathology 14: 76-78. Pasin, F., Simon-Mateo, C., and Garcia, J. A. 2014. The hypervariable amino-terminus of P1 protease modulates potyviral replication and host defense responses. PLoS Pathogens 10: e1003985. Published online. Peasly, D., and Fitzell, R. D. 1981. Passionfruit industry benefits through scion wood scheme. Agriculture Gazette 92: 5-8. Pleše, N., and Wrischer, M. 1984. A mixed infection of Passiflora caerulea L. with two viruses. Acta Botanica Croatica 43: 1-6. Prins, M., and Goldbach, R. 1996. RNA-mediated virus resistance in Transgenic plants. Archives of Virology 141: 2259-2276. Puurand, U., Valkonen, J. P. T., Makinen, K., Rabenstein, F., and Saarma, M. 1996. Infectious in vitro transcripts from cloned cDNA of the potato A potyvirus. Virus Research 40: 135-140. Rezende, J. A. M., and Fischer, I. H. 2008. Disease of passion flower. Pest Technology, Global science book. Rezende, J. A. M., Yuki, V. A., Veja, J., Scagliusi, S. M. M., Borba, L. S., and Costa, A. S. 1994. Isolados fracos do potyvirus do mosiaco da abobrinha presents em bolhas atuam na premunizacao. Fitopatologia Brasileira 18: 55-61. Riechmann, J. L., Lain, S., and Garcia, J. A 1989. The genome-linked protein and 5' end RNA sequence of plum pox potyvirs. Journal of General Virology 70: 2785-2790. Riechmann, J. L., Lain, S., and Garcia, J. A. 1990. Infectious in-vitro transcripts from a plum pox potyvirus complementary DNA clone. Virology 177: 710-716. Routzahn, K. M., and Waugh, D. S. 2002. Differential effects of supplementary affinity tags on the solubility of MBP fusion proteins. Journal of Structural and Functional Genomics 2: 83-92. Ruiz-Ferrer, V., and Voinnet, O. 2009. Role of plant small RNAs in biotic stress responses. Annual Review of Plant Biology 60: 485-510. Sahana, N., Kaur, H., Jain, R. K., Palukaitis, P., Canto, T., and Praveen S. 2014. The asparagine residue in the FRNK box of potyviral helper-compnent protease is critical for its small RNA binding and subcellular localization. Journal of General Virology 95: 1167-1177. Salvador, B., Saenz, P., Yanguez, E., Quiot, J. B., Quiot, L., Delgadillo, M. O., Garcia, J. A., and Simon-Mateo, C. 2008. Host-specific effect of P1 exchange between two potyviruses. Molecular Plant Pathology 9: 147-155. Shiboleth, Y. M., Haronsky, E., Leibman, D., Arazi, T., Wassenegger, M., Whitham, S. A., Gaba, V. and Gal-On, A. 2007. The conserved FRNK box in HC-Pro, a plant viral suppressor of gene silencing, is required for small RNA binding and mediates symptom development. Journal of Virology 81: 13135-13148. Shu, C. W., Sun, S., Chen, J. L., Chen, J. Y., and Zhou, E. X. 2014. Comparison of different methods for total RNA extraction from sclerotia of Rhizoctonia solani. Electronic Journal of Biotechnology. 17: 50-54. Simón-Mateo, C., and García, J. A. 2011. Antiviral strategies in plants Based on RNA silencing. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 1809: 722-731. Valli, A., Lopez-Moya, J. J., and Garcia, J. A. 2007. Recombination and gene duplication in The evolutionary diversification of P1 proteins in the family Potyviridae. Journal of General Virology 88: 1016-1028. Wang, M. B., Masuta, C., Smith, N. A., and Shimura, H. 2012. RNA silencing and plant viral diseases. Molecular Plant Microbe Interaction 10: 1275-1285. Weber, H., Haeckel, P., and Pfitzner, A. J. P. 1992. A cDNA clone of Tomato mosaic virus is infectious in plants. Journal of virology 66: 3909-3912. Wu, H. W., Lin, S. S., Chen, K. C., Yeh, S. D., and Chua, N. H. 2009. Discriminating mutations of HC-Pro of Zucchini yellow mosaic virus with differential effects on small RNA pathways involved in viral pathogenicity and symptom development. Molecular Plant Microbe Interaction 23: 17-28. Yang, Y., Gong, J., Li, H., Li, C., Wang, D., Li, K., and Zhi, H. 2011. Identification of a novel Soybean mosaic virus isolate in China that contains a unique 5' Terminus sharing high Sequence homology with Bean common mosaic virus. Virus Research 157: 13-18. Yeh, S. D., and Gonsalves, D. 1984. Evaluation of induced of Papaya ringspot virus for control by cross protection. Phytopathology 74: 1086-1091. Yeh, S. D., Chen, C. C., Raja, J. A. J., and Huang, C. H. 2011. Cross-protection effectiveness of attenuated variants of Turnip mosaic virus with mutations in a conserved motif of the N-terminal region of HC-Pro. XV International Congress of Virology. Zhu, S., Jeong, R. D., Venugopal, S. C., Lapchyk, L., Navarre, D., Kachroo, A., and Kachroo, P. 2011. SAG101 forms a ternary complex with EDS1 And PAD4 and is required for resistance signaling against Turnip crinkle virus. PLoS Pathog. 7:e1002318. Published online. Ziebell, H., and Carr, J. P. 2010. Cross-protection: A century of mystery. Advances in Virus Research 76: 211-264. Adams MJ, Antoniw JF, Fauquet CM (2005) Molecular criteria for genus and species discrimination within the family Potyviridae. Arch Virol 150:459-479. Adams MJ, Zerbini F M, French R, Rabenstein F, Stenger DC, Valkonen JPT (2012) Family Potyviridae. In: Virus taxonomy: Ninth report of the international committee on taxonomy of viruses (AMQ King, MJ Adams, EB Carstens, EJ Lefkowich, eds) Elsevier Academic Press, San Diego, USA. pp. 1069-1089. Bernacci, L. C., Soares-Scott, M. D., Junqueira, N. T. V., Passos, I. R. D. S., and Meletti, L. M. M. 2008. Passiflora edulis Sims: the correct taxonomic way to cite the yellow passion fruit (and of other colors). Revista Brasileira de Fruticultura 30: 566-576. Castellano, M. A., and Parrella, G. 2002. Passiflora chlorotic spot a disease caused by a strain of Bean yellow mosaic virus in Passiflora coerulea in Italy. Journal of Plant Pathology 84(2): 139-139. Chang, C. A. 1992. Characterization and comparison of Passionfruit Mottle Virus, a Newly Recognized Potyvirus, with Passionfruit Woodiness Virus. Phytopathology 82: 1358-136. Chang, C. A., Chen, C. C., Deng, T. C., and Zettler, F. W. 1996. Characterization of passionfruit crinkle potyvirus-a newly found virus infecting passionfruit. Plant Protection Bulletin 38:339-354. Chang, C. A., and Lin, H. H. 1989. Passionfruit crinkle virus, a new potyvirus isolated from passionfruit in Taiwan. Plant Protection Bulletin 31:409-410. Chang, C. A., Wang, H. C., Chen, Y. L., and Chou, T.Y. 1981. The investigation and identification of virus disease of passionfruit in Taiwan. Plant Protection Bulletin 23:267. Chen, J., Chen, J., Chen, J., and Adams, M. J. 2001. Molecular characterization of an isolate of Dasheen mosaic virus from Zantedeschia aethiopica in China and comparisons in the genus Potyvirus. Archives of Virology 146: 1821-1829. Chen, C. H. 2001. Analyses of the genomic sequence of the mild strain HA 5-1 of Papaya ringspot virus. Master thesis. Taichung: Chung Hsing University. Taiwan Cheng, Y. H., Deng, T. C., Chen, C. C., Chiang, C. H., and Chang, C. A. 2014. First report of Euphorbia leaf curl virus and Papaya leaf curl Guangdong virus on passion fruit in Taiwan. Plant Disease 98:1746 Chiemsombat, P., Prammanee, S., and Pipattanawong, N. 2014. Occurence of Telosma mosaic virus causing passion fruit sever mosaic disease in Thailand and immunostrip test for rapid virus detection. Crop protection 63: 41-47. Chong, Y. H., Cheng, Y. H., Cheng, H. W., and Yeh, S.D. 2018. The virus causing passionfruit woodiness disease in Taiwan is reclassified as East Asian passiflora virus. Journal of General Plant Pathology 84: 208-220. Colinet, D., Kummert, J., Lepoivre, P., and Semal, J. 1993. Identification of distict potyviruses in mixedly-infected sweetpotato by the polymerase chain reaction with degenerate primers. Phytopathology 84 65-69. Coutts BA, Kehoe MA, Webster CG, Wylie SJ, Jones RAC (2011) Indigenous and Introduced Potyviruses of Legumes and Passiflora Spp. From Australia: Biological Properties and Comparison of Coat Protein Nucleotide Sequences. Arch Virol, 156: 1757-1774. Dassanayake, E. M., and Hicks,. R. G. T. 1992. Sri-Lankan passionfruit mottle virus, a potyvirus infecting golden passionfruit in Sri-lanka. Annals of Applied Biology 120: 459-469. De Wijs, J. 1974. A virus causing ringspot of Passiflora edulis in the Ivory Coast. Annals of Applied Biology 77: 33-40. Farreyrol, K., Pearson, M. N., Grisoni, M., Cohen, D., and Beck, D. 2006. Vanilla mosaic virus isolates from French Polynesia and the Cook Islands are Dasheen mosaic virus strains that exclusively infect vanilla. Archives of Virology 151: 905-919. Fontenele, R. S., Abreu, R. A., Lamas, N. S., Alves-Freitas, D. M. T., Vidal, A. H., Poppiel, R. R., Melo, F. L., Lacorte, C., Martin, D. P., Campos, M. A., Varsani, A., and Ribeiro, S. G. 2018. Passion fruit chlorotic mottle virus: Molecular characterization of a new divergent Geminivirus in Brazil. Viruses 10: 169. Geysen, H. M., Mason, T. J., and Rodda, S. J. 1988. Cognitive features of continuous antigenic determinants. Journal of Molecular Recognition 1: 32-41. Gioria, R. 2003. Biological, serological and molecular characterization of an isolate of passion fruit woodiness virus (PWV) that infect some cucurbit plants systemically. Doctoral thesis. University of San Paulo, San Paulo, Brazil. Ha, C., Coombs, S., Revill, P. A., Harding, R. M., Vu, M., and Dale, J. L. 2008. Design and application of two novel degenerate primer pairs for the detection and complete genomic characterization of potyviruses. Archives of Virology 153: 25-36. Iwai, H., Terahara, R., Yamashita, Y., Ueda, S., and Nakamura, M. 2006a. Complete nucleotide sequence of the genomic RNA of an Amami-O-Shima strain of East Asian passiflora potyvirus. Archives of Virology 151: 1457-1460. Iwai H., Yamashita, Y., Nishi, N., and Nakamura, M. 2006b. The potyvirus associated with the dappled fruit of Passiflora edulis in Kagoshima Prefecture, Japan is the third strain of the proposed new species East Asian passiflora virus (EAPV) phylogenetically distinguished from strains of Passion fruit woodiness virus. Archives of Virology 151:811–818. Larkin, M. A., Blackshields, G., Brown, N. P., Chenna, R., McGettigan, P. A., McWilliam, H., Valentin, F., Wallace, I. M., Wilm, A., Lopez, R., Thompson, J. D., Gibson, T. J., and Higgins, D. G. 2007. Clustal W and Clustal X version 2.0. Bioinformatics 23:2947-2948. Latorre, B. A., and Flores, V. 1985. Strain identification and cross-protection of potato virus Y affecting tobacco in Chile. Plant Disease 69: 930-932. Lin, S. S., Wu, H. W., Jan, F. J., Hou, R. F., and Yeh, S. D. 2007. Modifications of the helper component-protease of Zucchini yellow mosaic virus for generation of attenuated mutants for cross protection against severe infection. Phytopathology 97: 287-296. Matthews, R. E. F. 1949. Studies on potato virus X II. Criteria of relationships between strains. Annals of Applied Biology 36: 460-474. McKnight, T. 1953. The woodiness virus of the passion vine. Journal of Agricultural Science 10: 4-35. Nascimento, A. V. S., Santana, E. N., Braz, A. S. K., Alfenas, P. F., Pio-Ribeiro, G., Andrade, G. P., de Carvalho, M. G., Zerbini, F. M. 2006. Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV) is widespread in passionfruit in Brazil and causes passionfruit woodiness disease. Archives of Virology 151:1797-1809. Nattrass, R. M. 1944. The transmission of the virus of the 'woodiness' disease of passion fruit (Passiflora edulis) by single leaf grafts. Annals of applied biology 31: 310-311. Nelson, M. R., and Wheeler, R. E. 1978. Biological and serological characterization and separation of potyviruses that infect peppers. Phytopathology 68: 979-984. Nguyen, T. D., Burgess, T., Dau, V. T., Le, V. Q., Trinh, T. L., Pham, T. L., and Burgess, L. W. 2015. Phytophtora stem rot of purple passionfruit in Vietnam. Australasian Plant Disease Notes 10: 35 Pares, R. D., Martin, A. B., and Fitzell, R. D. 1985. Virus-induced tip necrosis of passionfruit (Passiflora edulis Sims). Australia Plant Pathology 14: 76-78. Skepper, J. H., and Powell, J. M. 2008. Ultrastructural immunochemistry (Immunostaining of London Resin (LR) White section for TEM). Cold Sping Harbor Protocols doi: 1101/pdb.prot5016. Song, Y. S., and Ryu, K. H., 2011. The complete genome sequence and genome structure of passion fruit mosaic virus. Archives of Virology 156: 1093-1095. Song, Y. S., Min, B. E., Hong, J. S., Rhie, M. J., Kim, M. J., and Ryu, K. H. 2006. Molecular evidence supporting the confirmation of Maracuja mosaic virus as a species of the genus Tobamovirus and production of an infectious cDNA transcript. Archives of Virology 151: 2337-2348. Spiegel, S., Zeidan, M., Sobolev, I., Beckelman, Y., Holdengreber, V., Tam, Y., Bar Joseph, M., Lipsker, Z., and Gera, A. 2007. The complete nucleotide sequence of Passiflora latent virus and its phylogenetic relationship to other carlaviruses. Archives of Virology 152: 181-189. Stobbe, A. H., Melcher, U., Palmer, M. W., Roossinck, M. J., and Shen, G. 2012. Co-divergence and host-switching in the evolution of tobamoviruses. Journal of General Virology 93: 408-418. Tamura, K., Stecher, G., Peterson, D., Filipski, A., and Kumar, S. 2013. MEGA6: Molecular evolutionary genetics analysis version 6.0. Molecular Biology and Evolution 30:2725-2729. Tribbick, G. 2002. Multipin peptide libraries for antibody and receptor epitope screening and characterization. Journal of Immunological Methods 267: 27-35. Wylie, S. J., and Jones, M.G. 2011. The complete genome sequence of a Passionfruit woodiness virus isolate from Australia determined using deep sequencing, and its relationship to other potyviruses. Archives of Virology 156:479-482. Yang, K., Yan, H. X., Song, L., Jin, P. F., Miao, W. G., and Cui, H. G. 2018. Analysis of the complete genome sequence of a potyvirus from passion fruit suggests its taxonomic classification as a member of a new species. Archieves of virology doi: 10.1007/s00705-018-3885-8. (Epub ahead of print). Yeh, S. D., and Gonsalves, D. 1984. Evaluation of induced of Papaya ringspot virus for control by cross protection. Phytopathology 74: 1086-1091. Zheng, H., Chen, J., Chen, J., Adams, M. J., and Hou, M. 2002. Bean common mosaic virus isoaltes causing different symptoms in asparagus bean in China differ greatly in the 5'-parts of their genomes. Archives of Virology 147: 1257-1262.
摘要: 百香果(Passiflora edulis Sims; Passifloraceae)又稱時計果,原生於南美巴西,由於其營養豐富,果汁香味濃郁,而在許多熱帶以及亞熱帶國家深受喜愛。其中在臺灣以具自交親和性的紫色種百香果為母本與自交不親和性的黃色種百香果為父本雜交,選育出園藝性狀優異且具自交親和性之台農一號在亞洲地區最廣為栽種以及食用。本研究透過分子生物學對病毒的 coat protein (CP) 以及病毒全基因體序列的分析鑒定,發現臺灣的百香果病毒屬於 East Asian passiflora virus (EAPV),越南的百香果病毒則為一未被報導的馬鈴薯Y群病毒 (potyvirus),命名為越南百香果病毒,Passionfruit Vietnam virus (PVNV)。另外,也建構了EAPV 具感染力轉錄體,並透過在病毒的致病基因 HC-Pro 上進行胺基酸點突變而產生輕症病毒。此輕症病毒經過在黃色種百香果宿主上的測試證明具有交互保護的能力。 本論文第一章節主要為前人研究及探討,第二章節為臺灣百香果木質化病毒之重新鑒定。此研究主要是利用分子生物學對臺灣四個會導致百香果木質化的不同病毒株 (strain),Poty-TW、 Poty-0920-6、Poty-dpd 及 Poty-pt 進行 CP 以及病毒全基因序列的分析。結果顯示 Poty-TW 及 Poty-0920-6的 CP 核苷酸/胺基酸基因序列與日本所發表EAPV-AO的相似度分別為 97.7/95.9 以及98.5/97.2%,Poty-dpd 及 Poty-pt 的CP核苷酸/氨基酸基因序列與日本所發表EAPV-IB的相似度分別為95.3/96.2 及 94.9/97.6%。透過對病毒全基因序列比對結果顯示,臺灣的四個病毒株分別與日本的 EAPV-AO (TW 以及 0920-6 病毒株 > 98%) 及 EAPV-IB (dpd 以及 pt 病毒株 > 88%)具有很高的核苷酸相似度。然而,臺灣的百香果木質化相關病毒之 CP 核苷酸序列與澳洲所發表的 Passionfruit woodiness virus (PWV) CP 核苷酸序列相似度僅為 67.6-69.4%,根據國際病毒分類委員會 (ICTV) 的標準,此序列相似度並未大於76%,而無法將臺灣的百香果木質化相關病毒歸納為 PWV。因此,此研究重新將臺灣百香果木質化相關病毒歸納為 EAPV 。 本論文第三章節的研究為依據已解序之 EAPV-TW 病毒全長 cDNA 以 Cauliflower mosaic virus 的 35S 啓動子 (35S promoter) 啓動轉錄出全長病毒 RNA,再以 nos 終結子進行轉錄終結,產生生體内 (in vivo)具感染力轉錄體。後續利用此 EAPV-TW 具感染力轉錄體進行致病因子HC-Pro基因上四個胺基酸,Phe8→Ile8 (I8) 、 Arg181→Ile181 (I181)、 Phe205→Leu205 (L205) 以及 Glu397→Asn397 (N397) 的突變後,接種並分析其病徵表現、不同時間點病毒濃度的改變以及病毒小干擾 RNA (siRNA)的濃度變化。此分析結果顯示二突變株 EAPV-I8 N397 以及 EAPV-I181 N397 具有在菸草以及百香果上產生輕症病徵的特性,且病毒濃度能維持在相對低但穩定的水平,因此對此二突變株進行交互保護能力的分析。實驗利用二無法順利累積病毒濃度的突變株 EAPV-I8 I181 以及 EAPV-I181 L205 為對照組。經過在菸草以及百香果上測試發現,輕症病毒株 EAPV-I181 N397 在此二宿主上對於野生型EAPV-TW-nss 具有良好的 (100%保護) 交互保護能力,而輕症病毒株 EAPV-I8 I181 則僅於百香果上具有交互保護效果 (於菸草上 0% 保護效果) 。 實驗隨即以臺灣所發表的另一隻百香果木質化病毒株 EAPV-dpd 進行交互保護測試,結果顯示所有的輕症病毒株都無法在菸草或百香果上提供交互保護的效果。此結果證明交互保護具有高度品種專一性,利用複合型病毒 (chimeric virus) 携帶兩種病毒株序列將會是一個解決交互保護品種專一性的策略。 論文第四章節研究包含了於越南中北部的桂峰區以及中南部的得農山區的百香果田進行百香果木質化染病材料的收集,并且對此二地區的百香果木質化相關病毒進行生物學以及分子生物學的分析鑒定。寄主範圍實驗顯示越南的百香果木質化相關病毒祇能於藜科植物以及西番連科植物進行感染。經電子顯微鏡可觀察到感染的百香果葉片細胞具有長750 nm典型的 potyvirus 病毒顆粒以及 potyvirus 感染後所產生的病毒内含體。對病毒的CP基因以及全長基因體核苷酸序列進行演化樹分析發現,越南百香果木質化相關的病毒與夜來香嵌紋病毒 (Telosma mosaic virus, TeMV) 最爲相近。然而其序列相似度並未達到ICTV制定的標準 (大於76% 核苷酸相似度) ,因此本研究將此病毒命名為越南百香果病毒 (Passionfruit Vietnam potyvirus, PVNV) 。 本研究對於未來東南亞國家在百香果病害相關資訊具有很大的參考以及應用價值,透過瞭解感染百香果的病毒進而研發出有效的病害管理機制。
Passionfruit (Passiflora edulis Sims; Passifloraceae) has become an economically important and popular fruit crop in many tropical and sub-tropical countries. The cultivar purple hybride Tainung no. 1 (TN-1, a hybrid of Passiflora edulis Sims x P. edulis f. flavicarpa Degener) has become the popular and high-demand variety over South East Asian countries recently. In this study, the molecular characteristics of Passionfruit woodiness disease (PWD) associated viruses from Taiwan and Vietnam were analyzed by the assessment of genetic variablility on the nucleotide sequences of coat protein (CP) gene and the complete viral genome. Results revealed that PWD-associated virus in Taiwan is a strain of East Asian passiflora virus (EAPV) while the PWD-associted virus in Vietnam is a new potyvirus, named Passionfruit Vietnam virus (PVNV). The infectious clone of EAPV was constructed and further engineered into mild strain through modification of the pathogenicity determinant HC-Pro gene. Finally, EAPV mild strain was able to provide cross-protection against parental EAPV strain on plants of golden passionfruit. Chapter 1 includes all relevant references as a guideline for better understanding of this study. This chapter is written in Chinese to meet the official requirement of National Chung Hsing University while the rest of the chapters are written in English. Chapter 2 described the reclassification of PWD Taiwan virus as a strain of EAPV. In this chapter, the genomes of four potyvirus isolates, originally collected from passionfruit orchards in Taiwan designated as Poty-TW, Poty-0920-6, Poty-dpd and Poty-pt, were sequenced for molecular characterization. The results revealed that the CP genes of Poty-TW and Poty-0920-6 share nucleotide (nt) identities/amino acid (aa) identities of 97.7/95.9 and 98.5/97.2%, respectively, with that of EAPV isolate AO of Japan, and the CP genes of Poty-dpd and Poty-pt share nt/aa identities of 95.3/96.2 and 94.9/97.6% respectively, with that of EAPV isolate IB of Japan. The complete genomic sequences of PWD-associate viruses in Taiwan also share high degrees of homology with that of EAPV-AO (TW and 0920-6 isolates > 98%) and EAPV-IB (dpd and pt isolates > 88%). However, the CP genes of the four PWD-associated viruses from Taiwan share only 67.6–69.4% nt identities with that of PWV Australia MU isolate, does not satisfy the ICTV criteria (> 76%) to be enjoyed as a strain of PWV. Hence, the major potyvirus causing PWD in Taiwan is reclassified as EAPV (EAPV-TW, EAPV-0920-6, EAPV-dpd and EAPV-pt). In chapter 3, the complete viral cDNA of EAPV Taiwan strain (EAPV-TW) was constructed into an infectious clone driven by a Cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter and terminated by a nopaline synthase terminator. Four amino acid changes, Phe8→Ile8 (I8), Arg181→Ile181 (I181), Phe205→Leu205 (L205), and Glu397→Asn397 (N397), were conducted on the conserved motifs of the EAPV-TW HC-Pro to generate single or double EAPV mutants. Based on symptom development, dynamics of virus titer at different time points after infection and siRNA accumulation assay, two mutants EAPV-I8 N397 and EAPV-I181 N397 that developed mild symptom on plants of Nicotiana benthamiana and golden passionfruits with virus titer of zigzag pattern at different time points were selected for cross-protection assay, while two mutants EAPV-I8 I181 and EAPV-I181 L205 were used as controls. Results showed that, mild strain EAPV-I181 N397 conferred complete cross-protection against the homologous nss tagged EAPV-TW (EAPV-TW-nss) on N. benthamiana plants (100% protection rate) and golden passionfruit plants (100% protection rate) while EAPV-I8 N397 only provided high protection rate against EAPV-TW-nss on golden passionfruit plants (90% protection rate), but not the N. benthamiana plants (0% protection rate). When challanged with another EAPV strain, EAPV-dpd, both mild strains showed superinfection regardless on plants of N. benthamiana or golden passionfruit. We concluded that cross protection of EAPV is highly strain specific, a chimeric EAPV mild strain carrying heterologous gene from another EAPV strain could be an optimal solution to solve the problem of strain specificity. Chapter 4 includes the collection of PWD-associated disease samples from northern central, Que Phong area and southern central, Dak Nong area in Vietnam. The host range result showed that only species in the families Chenopodiaceae and Passifloraceae were susceptible and electron microscopy revealed the typical flexuous filaments of ca. 750 nm long and pinwheel inclusion bodies in the cytoplasm of infected cells from plants of gold passionfruit. Molecular and phylogenic analyses of coat protein (CP) gene and viral full length genomic sequence showed that this PWD-associated Vietnam virus is placed in a distinct clade but closely related to Telosma mosaic virus (TeMV), however, the sequence identity does not satisfy the criteria of ICTV to be regarded as the same virus, the name Passionfruit Vietnam potyvirus (PVNV) is proposed for this virus. All these findings are considered important for a better understanding of the viral disease situation on passionfruit in South East Asian countries and for the development of effective disease management strategies.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/98164
文章公開時間: 2018-12-05
Appears in Collections:植物病理學系

文件中的檔案:

取得全文請前往華藝線上圖書館



Items in DSpace are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.