Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/98174
標題: 溫室栽培西洋南瓜(Cucurbita maxima L.)整枝技術之研究
Study of pruning technique of winter squash (Cucurbita maxima L.) cultured in greenhouse
作者: 梁桂嘉
Guei-Jia Liang
關鍵字: 西洋南瓜
光合作用
果上留葉數
落蔓
winter squash
photosynthesis
leaves above fruit
lowering and leaning
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摘要: 西洋南瓜(Cucurbita maxima L.)於台灣漸受歡迎,設施中直立式栽培穩定產量及品質。本論文旨在增進西洋南瓜設施內生產效率,比較不同品種之栽培性狀,確定合適之留果節位和果上葉數及落蔓栽培之技術。 了解六品種西洋南瓜'小黑'、'丘桑'、'東英'、'朱光'、'砂糖'及'李白'各階段生長及葉片光合作用特性,定植後70天光合作用速率,以'小黑'、'東英'、'李白'及'丘桑'顯著最高,其值分別為14.02、13.06、12.33及12.19 μmol CO2/m2∙s。光合作用日變化上,'東英'及'砂糖'於上午9點光合作用速率達高峰,'小黑'、'丘桑'、'李白'及'朱光'則於上午10點達高峰,上午11點後各品種光合作用速率快速降低,於下午1點光合作用速率皆小於3 μmol CO2/m2∙s。'東英'基部第1~5片葉,'小黑'基部第4~8片葉有顯著較低之光合作用速率,推測已老化。 '東英'及'小黑'定植後首朵雌花在第30天開放,其餘在35~37天。西洋南瓜果實授粉後第3~10天為果實快速膨大期,第27天膨大漸緩,第48天果重分三群,'李白'及'丘桑'最大,'東英'及'朱光'次之,'砂糖'及'小黑'最小,值為1203、1106及870、687及353、217 cm3。可溶性糖及總可溶性固形物以'東英'顯著最高,值為630.6 g/kg及13.3%,澱粉含量以'李白'顯著最高,值為193.7 g/kg。 以'東英'及'小黑'為材料,調查留葉數及著果位置(H:16~20 and L:10~15)對植株及果實生長之影響。定植後第65天調查全株葉面積,高節位留20片葉(H20)於'東英'及'小黑'值分別為10049及17328 cm2,顯著最高。'東英'果實體積變化,授粉後14~25天處理間增幅即有明顯差異,兩品種皆以高節位顯著較低節位留果者大。果重上,隨著果節位及果上葉數升高而增加,其中以高節位留20片葉(H20)顯著最高,'東英'及'小黑'值為915及435 g。葉面積果實重量比上,兩品種皆以L10顯著最高,值分別為1.21及0.56 kg/m2。'東英'總可溶性固形物隨果上葉數升高而增加,以低節位留20片葉(L20)顯著最高、高節位留20片葉(H20)次之,值分別為12.7%及12.0%。'小黑'處理間無顯著差異,值在11.3~13.0%之間。 '東英'及'小黑'落蔓處理以不同之果下留葉數(0、2、4片葉)及摘心(CH)、不摘心(LO),並與不落蔓(Control)進行比較。葉鮮重上,'東英'及'小黑'皆以CH-4顯著最高,值分別為622.9及687.8 g。植株打頂時間上,'東英'及'小黑'摘心處理皆顯著大於不摘心,打頂時間分別延後10及14.4天。果實採收前調查植株葉片螢光產量,'東英'及'小黑'之CH-4處理皆顯著高於對照組,值分別為0.864及0.857。於授粉後第3天進行全株葉面積之調查,兩品種落蔓栽培摘心處理皆顯著高於不摘心,增幅在57~158%之間。CH-4處理對果實生長及品質有顯著影響,'東英'及'小黑'單株產量值分別為1573、2060 g/plant,葉面積果實重量比值為0.95及1.07 kg/m2,果實可溶性固形物,兩品種分別為12.7及14.4 °Brix。
The vertical trellising of winter squash (Cucurbita maxima L.) in greenhouses generally provides fruits with stable yield and quality in Taiwan. This study investigated the factors improving efficiency of crop production in greenhouse, including cultivars, fruiting site, leaf number and lowering technique. Plant growth, photosynthetic characteristics and fruit quality of winter squash 'Black lamp', 'Tastemaker', 'East elite', 'Julius', 'Sugar' and 'Lyric' were surveyed. The photosynthetic rate (Pn) was measured on 70th day after planting. The Pn of 'Black lamp', 'East elite', 'Lyric' and 'Tastemaker' increased significantly; their values being 14.02, 13.06, 12.33 and 12.19 μmolCO2/m2∙s, respectively. With regards to the diurnal patterns of photosynthesis, 'East elite' and 'Sugar' reached the peak at 9 a.m. while the 'Black lamp', 'Tastemaker', 'Lyric' and 'Julius' reached peak at 10 a.m.. The Pn of six cultivars decreased sharply after 11 a.m., all reaching smaller than 3 μmolCO2/m2∙s values by 1 p.m.. The CO2 assimilation on different nodes was examined; the 1~5th leaves of 'East elite' and 4~8th leaves of 'Black lamp' decreased significantly because of ageing in leaves. The first pistillate flower of 'East elite' and 'Black lamp' bloomed on 30th day after planting, while other cultivars bloomed on 35~37th day after planting. The fruit of six cultivars grew rapidly on 3~10th day after pollination, stopping growth on 27th day after pollination. The six cultivars were classified by size of fruit on 48th day after pollination. 'Lyric' and 'Tastemaker' were the biggest group, their values being 1203 and 1106 cm3, respectively. The second group 'East elite' and 'Julius' had values of 870 and 687 cm3. 'Sugar' and 'Black lamp' were the smallest group, their values being 353 and 217 cm3, respectively. The soluble sugar and total soluble solid (TSS) content of 'East elite' was significantly elevated, their values were 630.6 g/kg and 13.3%, respectively. The starch content of 'Lyric' was the highest (193.7 g/kg). The plant growth and fruit growth of winter squash 'East elite' and 'Black lamp' with number of leaves left above fruit and fruiting site (H:16~20 and L:10~15) were examined. Leaf area of plants were surveyed on 65th day after planting. The leaf area of 'East elite' and 'Black lamp' plants with the treatment of '20 leaves left above the high fruiting site' (H20) was significantly higher with values of 10049 and 17328 cm2, respectively. The fruit size growth rate of 'East elite' increased significantly on 14~25th day after pollination, and the treatments of leaves retained at high fruiting site were significantly larger than the treatments of leaves retained at lower fruiting site. The fruit weight along with the fruiting site and the number of the leaves above fruit increased. The treatment of H20 of these two cultivars ('East elite' and 'Black lamp') was significantly high on fruit weight, and their values were 915 and 435 g, respectively. The leaf area fruit weight ratio of plants treated with '10 leaves left above the lower fruiting site' (L10) for these two cultivars increased significantly; their values being 1.21 and 0.56 kg/m2, respectively. The TSS content of 'East elite' increased and the number of the leaves above fruit was greater. The TSS content of plant with treatment of '20 leaves left above the lower fruiting site' (L20) was the highest, followed by those treated with H20; and their values were 12.7% and 12.0%, respectively. The TSS content of 'Black lamp' did not show a significant difference between treatments; their values were within 11.3%~13.0%. The different number of the leaves (0, 2 and 4) left below fruit of 'East elite' and 'Black lamp' with topping and leaving lateral shoot before lowering and leaning (CH) or without topping (LO) were compared with no lowering and leaning process (Control). The fresh leaves weight of 'East elite' and 'Black lamp' of CH-4 increased significantly, their values were 622.9 and 687.8 g. The delay to topping for two cultivars with CH treatments was significantly longer than with the treatments of LO, the 'East elite' and 'Black lamp' delayed 10 and 14.4 days to topping, respectively. The yield of fluorescence of two cultivars was estimated before harvest; and results show that CH-4 treatment significantly increased compared to that of the control, which were 0.864 and 0.857, respectively. The leaf area of two cultivars was investigated on 3rd day after pollination. The two cultivars with CH treatments had significantly higher leaf area than with LO treatments; the growing rates were within 57%~158%. The fruit growth and quality of plants with CH-4 treatment were significantly greater; the values of 'East elite' and 'Black lamp' plant yield were 1573 and 2060 g/plant, respectively, the leaf area fruit weight ratio values were 0.95 and 1.07 kg/m2, respectively; and the values of TSS content were 12.7 and 14.4 °Brix, respectively.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/98174
文章公開時間: 2018-08-28
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