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Effects of Osmotic Pretreatment and Hot Air Drying on Quality of Drying Pineapple.
Hot air drying
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為了瞭解酵素在不同溫度下之活性變化，分別將鳳梨果肉浸泡於40、50、60、70、80℃蒸餾水中水浴30分，隨後調查酵素活性。其酵素活性不論是POD 或是 PPO皆隨溫度增加而下降，在70℃以達相對低之活性。此外經由80℃高溫殺菁後，在置於75℃下乾燥，其外觀顏色仍呈現黑褐色，因此推斷鳳梨於熱風乾燥過程中褐化可能屬於非酵素褐化。
In recent years, the average annual output of pineapple is about 440,000 metric tons, and there is a gradual increase. Although the sales volume has increased year by year in the past five years, it is only 5.5% of the annual output, so it is still mainly domestic sales. Pineapple is a tropical fruit that is not resistant to low temperature storage. Long-term storage at low temperatures can easily lead to cold damage, that is, internal browning, which seriously affects consumers' perception. Therefore, further processing is required to improve the problem of not being able to withstand long-term storage. Drying is the most commonly used processing method. The drying rate and the quality after drying are factors that the producers use and consumers decide to purchase. Therefore, the test is carried out at different temperatures (45, 55, 65, 75 ° C) and thick- ness (0.5, respectively). Combined drying experiment of 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 cm). It can be obtained from the test results. The hot air drying of pineapple at 65 °C can effectively shorten the drying time to one day, and it has a slight browning phenomenon after proc- essing. Compared with 65 °C, it has a poor appearance color at 75 °C, due to high temperature or low temperature. Long-term processing has a browning phenomenon, so it is necessary to investigate the cause of browning during drying. In order to understand the activity changes of the enzyme at different temperatures, the pineapple pulp was soaked in 40, 50, 60, 70, 80 ° C distilled water for 30 minutes, and then the enzyme activity was investigated. Its enzyme activity, whether it is POD or PPO, decreases with increasing temperature and reaches a relatively low activity at 70 °C. In addition, after killing the cyanine at a high temperature of 80 ° C, it is dried at 75 ° C, and its appearance color is still dark brown. Therefore, it is inferred that browning of pineapple during hot air drying may belong to non-enzymatic browning. In order to reduce browning, pretreatment is required before drying, and osmotic dehydration is the most common pretreatment. Oxygen is blocked by the osmotic process to prevent enzymes and non-enzymatic reactions, while retaining the appe- arance color of the dried product. Shorten the effect of drying time. In this experiment, different sucrose (black sugar, granulated sugar, rock sugar, fine granulated sugar) was used as a penetrating agent to investigate the effect of different sucrose on the appea- rance after drying. From the test results, the refined granulated sugar and rock sugar have better appearance color, considering the cost problem. Refined sugar is used as a follow-up penetrant. The permeate concentration affects the time required for subse- quent processing. Therefore, the test is carried out by osmotic dehydration at 30°, 40°, 50°, 60°, 70° different sucrose concentrations for 4 hours. From the test results, 50% sucrose solution is obtained as the permeate. Dewatering at room temperature for 4 hours provides better processing benefits. Because the sugar enters the product during the osmotic process, resulting in poor food quality, this experiment additionally adds different additives( 2% salt, 2% vitamin C, 0.75% SD and 10% honey) to increase the flavor and investigate impact of its at appearance after drying. The test results can be obtained by adding 0.75% SD, 10% honey and 2% salt to have a better appearance. In terms of flavor, 10% honey is used as an infiltration pretreatment of pineapple to produce a pineapple with better eating quality. It can be obtained from the test results, and the sucrose permeate containing 10% honey is permeated and dehydrated at room temperature for 4 hours, and dried by hot air at 65 ° C to obtain a better dry appearance and edible quality.
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