Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/98210
標題: 可逆式資訊隱藏技術之研究
The Study of Reversible Data Hiding Mechanisms
作者: 吳昌翰
Chang-Han Wu
關鍵字: 可逆式資訊隱藏
頻率編碼
相似性
雙偽裝影像
Reversible data hiding
Frequency-based encoding
Similarity
Dual stego images
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Wu, 'A DNA-based data hiding technique with low modification rates,' Multimedia Tools and Applications, vol. 70, no. 3, pp. 1439-1451, 2014. [16] C. Qin, C. C. Chang, and Y. C. Chen, 'Efficient reversible data hiding for VQ-compressed images based on index mapping mechanism,' Signal Processing, vol. 93, no. 9, pp. 2687-2695, 2013. [17] C. Qin, C. C. Chang, and Y. P. Chiu, 'A novel joint data-hiding and compression scheme based on SMVQ and image inpainting,' IEEE Transactions on Image Processing, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 969-978, 2014. [18] C. F. Lee, C. C. Chang, and K. H. Wang, 'An improvement of EMD embedding method for large payloads by pixel segmentation strategy,' Journal of Image and Vision Computing, vol. 26, no. 12, pp. 1670-1676, 2008. [19] J. Mielikainen, 'LSB matching revisited,' IEEE Signal Processing Letters, vol. 13, no. 5, pp. 285-287, 2006. [20] J. Tian, 'Reversible data embedding using a difference expansion,' IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology, vol. 13, no. 8, pp. 890-896, 2003. [21] Z. Ni, Y. Q. Shi, N. Ansari, and W. Su, 'Reversible data hiding', I IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology, vol. 16, no. 3, pp.354-362, 2006. [22] D. M. Thodi and J. J. Rodriguez, 'Expansion embedding techniques for reversible watermarking,' IEEE Transactions on Image Processing, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 721-730, 2007. [23] T. C. Lu, J. H. Wu, and C. C. Huang, 'Dual-image-based reversible data hiding method using center folding strategy,' Signal Processing, vol. 15, pp. 195-213, 2015. [24] M. Wu, 'Joint security and robustness enhancement for quantization based data embedding,' IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology, vol.13, no. 8, pp. 831-841, 2003. [25] B. Chen and G. W. Wornell, 'Quantization index modulation: a class of provable good methods for digital watermarking and information embedding,' IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, vol. 47, pp. 1428-1443, 2001. [26] J. J. Eggers, R. Bauml, R. Tzschoppe, and B. Girod, 'Data hiding on 3_D triangle meshes', IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, vol. 51, no. 4, pp. 1003-1019, 2003. [27] M. M Yeung and F. Mintzer, 'An invisible watermarking technique for image verification,' in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Image Processing, vol. 2, Santa Barbara, CA, pp. 680-683, 1997. [28] C. W. Honsinger, P. W. Jones, M. Rabbani, and J. C. Stoffel, 'Lossless recovery of an original image containing embedded data,' US Patent Application, 6,278,791, 2001. [29] C. D. Vleeschouwer, J. F. Delaigle, and B. Macq, 'Circular interpretation of bijective transformation in lossless watermarking for media asset management,' IEEE Transactions on Multimedia, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 97-105, 2003. [30] J. Fridrich, J. Goljan, and R. Du, 'Invertible authentication watermark for JPEG images,' in Proceedings of the SPIE Conference on Security and Watermarking of Multimedia Content, San Jose, CA, pp. 223-227, 2001. [31] C. F. Lee, K. H. Wang, C. C. Chang, and Y. L. Huang, 'A reversible data hiding scheme based on dual steganographic images,' in Proceedings of the 3rd international conference on ubiquitous information management and communication, pp. 228-237, 2009. [32] C. F. Lee and Y. L. Huang, 'Reversible data hiding scheme based on dual stegano-images using orientation combinations,' Telecommunication Systems, vol. 52, no. 4, pp. 2237-2247, 2013. [33] G. B. Horng, Y. H. Huang, C. C. Chang, and Y. Liu, '(k, n)-image reversible data hiding,' Journal of Information Hiding and Multimedia Signal Processing, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 152-164, 2014. [34] C. C. Chang, T. C. Lu, G. B. Horng, Y. H. Huang, and Y. M. 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摘要: 資訊隱藏即是將機密資料藏入偽裝隱蔽物內,使未被授權的對象無法有效地於媒體中偵測得知機密資料。然資訊藏量與偽裝隱蔽物品質是很難取捨的問題,如何在資訊藏量與影像品質中取得平衡,一直是學者們努力的目標。 常見的可逆式資訊隱藏主要分為四類:差值擴張法、直方圖位移法、預測運算法與雙偽裝影像法。其中雙偽裝影像法除了有效減低負載影像的失真程度外,更有效避免了像素溢位問題,為學界熱烈研究的一個方向。後續發展的中間對折策略運用雙偽裝影像法,其配合調整藏入資料的範圍,更減輕了資料藏入後對載體的失真影響。然而,前述方法在頻繁出現大數值狀況下,均有著影像品質急遽衰退的問題。 本論文提出三種編碼方式,有效降低在編碼階段造成修改量過大的問題。其一為「頻率編碼策略」,經由統計原本預嵌入值的出現頻率,有效減少最大值頻率進而減緩嵌入後圖形的變異程度。此法所獲得的PSNR值較前人提出的方法為高,在較為平滑的機密圖像上,更有著明顯的效益。 其二為為「似性編碼法」,藉由整合鄰近像素的相似性以及出現頻率等考量,應用編碼簿適當的處理相鄰像素為較小的編碼值,進而有效的維持較高偽裝影像品質。實驗結果證明,在大多數的圖像中,似性編碼法的PSNR值相較類同的研究有著大幅的精進。 第三個方法為一種動態編碼策略,此法不僅可有效的降低編碼過程最大值出現的頻率,更可以即時的進行編碼與解譯的動作。藉由此種特性,動態編碼策略更有著多樣化的應用層面。 未來,吾人將進一步的分析複雜圖像的相關編碼相關參數與演算法,進而提升偽裝影像的品質。亦考量將相關演算法整合水印相關應用,以期提升演算法的強健性。
Data hiding is a scheme that embeds secret data in cover media. With the scheme, hackers cannot efficiently detect the secret data from the stego-media. Over the past decade, many techniques have been proposed for data hiding. However, most of them suffer from the problem of trade-off between payload and image distortion. There are four types of reversible data embedding methods, such as difference expansion, histogram shifting, prediction error expansion, and dual-image hiding scheme. The dual-image hiding scheme is the one that could generate slightly image distortion and avoids the underflow and overflow problems. Based on dual-image hiding scheme, Center Folding Strategy (CFS) takes the median to reduce each decimal digit for decreasing the modification level. Thus, embedding the transferred digits into the cover image does not lead to the acute distortion of the image. However, both of dual-image hiding scheme and CFS cannot reduce the frequent occurrence of the maximum absolute value, and this disadvantage diminishes the visual quality of the resulting stego-image. In the dissertation, three encoding methods are proposed to effectively decrease the modification level in the data embedding stage. One of them is the frequency-based encoding method that decreases the occurrence of the larger absolute digit and the level of modifications. The PSNR value of the frequency-based encoding method increases significantly in comparison with the previous methods. For smooth secret images, the image quality of the scheme is higher than those obtained from other methods. The second scheme is the similarity-based encoding method that integrates with the neighboring pixel similarity and the frequency-based encoding method, and then by utilizing the similarity of adjacent pixels of the codebook as the smaller coding value, the method further enhances the quality of stego-images. Experimental results show that the PSNR value of the similarity-based method in most images is higher than that of other similar studies. The third method is a dynamic encoding strategy. The strategy not only reduces the frequency of occurrence of the largest value but processes all the procedures of data encoding and transmits them immediately. With the advantage of the dynamic encoding technique, the proposed strategy has wide applications. In the future, the correlation coefficient among the embedding algorithm in the complex images will be analyzed to further enhance the quality of the embedded images. In addition, the proposed method integrated with the watermarking scheme will be studied to achieve a higher degree of robustness.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/98210
文章公開時間: 2018-08-17
Appears in Collections:資訊科學與工程學系所

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