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Anglo-Iranian Negotiations for Alliance in 1916
Treaty of Torkmanchai of 1828
Anglo-Russian Convention of 1907
This article argues that the negotiations between Britain and Iran in 1916. Since the nineteenth century, Britain and Russia had had their spheres of influence in Iran. Ironically, Britain and Russia had a principle of 'maintenance of the independence and integrity of Iran' in order to avoid from conflicts. Eventually, Iran hardly maintained its independence and integrity owing to pressures from the two European powers. During the First World War, in previous studies, the Iranian government was weaker, and made no efforts to resist to Britain and Russia. However, original documents tell a different side of history. At the outbreak of the war in 1914, the Iranian Shah declared neutrality, in order to eliminate possibilities of foreign intervention. Nevertheless, Britain and Russia were still suspicious to Iran, especially when the Germans were more and more influential in the Persian Gulf, where the British traditionally had its special interests. Eventually Britain suggested to Iran an alliance, which was to stop Iran from being an ally of the German side. However, in early 1916, Iran's proposal for alliance showed their will for Iran's independence and integrity, which was always their goal to be achieved. The result ended by a counter-proposal of Russia, followed by Britain, and in the end the alliance failed.
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