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標題: 1916年英俄與伊朗的結盟交涉
Anglo-Iranian Negotiations for Alliance in 1916
作者: 陳立樵
Chen, Li-chiao
關鍵字: 葛雷
Edward Grey
Serge Sazonov
Mostowfi al-Mamalek
Treaty of Torkmanchai of 1828
Anglo-Russian Convention of 1907
摘要: 本文探討一次大戰時期,1916年英俄兩國與伊朗進行結盟的交涉。自19世紀以來,英國與俄國在伊朗爭奪勢力範圍,但在避免雙方利益直接衝突之下,以「維護伊朗主權獨立與領土完整」為原則,致力於達到權力平衡的目的。然而現實的情況是,當伊朗試圖維護自身的獨立自主時,英俄卻多次介入,以致於伊朗受到英俄的長期箝制。一戰爆發之後,伊朗國王宣布中立,試圖藉著歐洲戰局而獲得獨立自主、擺脫強權干涉與避免戰爭波及。不過,英俄兩國與德國及鄂圖曼帝國交戰時,不僅戰場蔓延到伊朗境內,外交角力也在伊朗展開。1915年年底,英國為防範任何伊朗可能向德國靠攏的可能性,向伊朗提出結盟的要求。1916年年初,伊朗首相提出了結盟的條件,但條文中強力捍衛主權獨立,過去伊朗在英俄壓力之下不得不默許、甚至同意的條約,此時都要取消或重新修訂。許多研究稱伊朗政府衰敗沒有作為,但檔案記載並非如此,反而是相當維護自身權益。在英國外交部與駐伊公使的電報之中,看到英國(包括俄國)都不願意放下在伊朗的特權。於是,1916年的結盟一事,在伊朗與英俄三方都堅持立場的情況下,沒有達成共識。
This article argues that the negotiations between Britain and Iran in 1916. Since the nineteenth century, Britain and Russia had had their spheres of influence in Iran. Ironically, Britain and Russia had a principle of 'maintenance of the independence and integrity of Iran' in order to avoid from conflicts. Eventually, Iran hardly maintained its independence and integrity owing to pressures from the two European powers. During the First World War, in previous studies, the Iranian government was weaker, and made no efforts to resist to Britain and Russia. However, original documents tell a different side of history. At the outbreak of the war in 1914, the Iranian Shah declared neutrality, in order to eliminate possibilities of foreign intervention. Nevertheless, Britain and Russia were still suspicious to Iran, especially when the Germans were more and more influential in the Persian Gulf, where the British traditionally had its special interests. Eventually Britain suggested to Iran an alliance, which was to stop Iran from being an ally of the German side. However, in early 1916, Iran's proposal for alliance showed their will for Iran's independence and integrity, which was always their goal to be achieved. The result ended by a counter-proposal of Russia, followed by Britain, and in the end the alliance failed.
Appears in Collections:第32期



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