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標題: 重省與跨越-論龔自珍思想中的「情」
Rethinking and Crossing-On the Issue of Sentiment in Gong Zizhen's Thought
作者: 陳木青
Chen, Mu-Ching
關鍵字: 龔自珍
Gong Zizhen
Respect of Sentiment
Forgiveness of Sentiment
Kidult Spirit
Impartiality and Privacy
摘要: 在近代時期,龔自珍是一位不可忽略的重要人物。他在經學上承接常州公羊學派,以經世濟民為志向;就文學而言,其展現的濃厚情感與救國情懷,更被後來文人推崇,甚至造成一股集龔詩句之風潮;思想方面,其對「情」亦有所思索與闡發,而這在以經學為主的龔自珍研究中,較少被專門、集中的探討,故本文希望藉此而對相關研究有所開拓。在龔自珍「情」之思想的相關研究中,多認為其承接晚明李贄的「童心說」,並具有反傳統、蔑視禮教、張揚個性情感之精神;然而,若從李、龔二人的論述來看,則可了解其受儒家道德良知的影響仍深,並作用於對「童心」的界定上。另外,若聚焦自珍對於「情」的論述,則可知其有著從「宥情」到「尊情」的思想歷程,並認為須以「無寄」、「無住」為尊,但其終極理想仍希望能調和情感,以達聖人守正之境。最後,本文亦藉「情」來觀照其對公、私意涵的思考,可知其批判「大公無私」之思維,認為「私」並非如此負面,甚至能藉「私」而達到更大範圍的公共利益。因此,此二者之界限便不再如此分明與絕對,而有著跨越的可能性。
Gong Zizhen has been regarded by contemporary literature as an important thinker in Qing dynasty. In classical studies, Gong inherited Gongyang studies of Changzhou School in order to achieve his statecraft. In the area of literature, Gong appeared his strong sentiments on his works, and this is why Gong was highly esteemed by other literati, in the sense that a wave of collecting the sentences of Gong's poems had been caused. From the aspect of thinking, Gong's discussion on the issue of sentiment, though being important in a philosophical sense, had seldom been paid attention, which is taken as a background in this paper to do a further study on Gong's thought. In researches of Gong's thought of sentiment, it has often been claimed that Li Zhi's theory of kidult spirit was the origin of Gong's thought, in the sense that both held an anti-tradition thesis and were full of feelings. But, it is also no doubt that Gong and Li were both deeply influenced by Confucian moral tradition, which was embodied in their definition of kidult spirit. Besides, based on Gong's statements, it can be seen that there is a process from "forgiveness of sentiment" to "respect of sentiment", towards the sage level in which sentiments and emotions would have been in a balanced state. This paper, based on the study of Gong's conception of sentiment, also provides a thinking to the relations between impartiality and privacy, arguing that in Gong's idea, privacy, apart from its negative aspect, can be considered a way to achieve public benefits. In this regard, instead of something contradictory as some common view, these two concepts may be available to cross each other.
Appears in Collections:興大中文學報 第44期



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