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標題: 從重「情韻」到好「高大」:論陸時雍、沈德潛詩學承變關係
From Accepting “Elegant Subtlety” to Preferring “Great Momentum”-On the Relationship between Lu Shiyon’s and Shen Deqian’s Poetics
作者: 張俐盈
Chang, Li-Ying
關鍵字: 陸時雍
Lu Shiyon
Shen Deqian
Elegant Subtlety
Great Momentum
摘要: 陸時雍為晚明一介布衣,其詩學著作《詩鏡》刊行於崇禎年間,但在當時鮮 見討論。清初王士禎雖提倡神韻說,卻不曾提及《詩鏡》。直到清中葉沈德潛的詩 學著作中,屢見暗襲或引用《詩鏡》之文字。然一般討論沈德潛詩學淵源,多關 注其與前後七子、王士禎及葉燮之關係,鮮少提及與陸氏《詩鏡》之關聯。有鑑 於此,本文為明清批評史提供一特殊的觀察視角:首先,指出陸時雍反對過求, 主張情真、韻長的審美標準,為沈氏詩學注入靈變自然之活泉;其次,沈德潛從 《詩鏡》中擷取如「鞭撻海嶽」等,屬於「沉著痛快」一脈的品評語料,也彰顯 陸氏神韻詩學之外的多元價值。最後,透過對重要詩家的選評比較,可知沈德潛 為因應時代需求,重視雅正高大優先於神韻,從而開展出與陸時雍詩學相異的新 面貌。
As a commoner during the late period of Ming dynasty, mainly the period of Emperor Chong Zheng, Lu Shiyon had, with less attention, published his own poetic work titled “The Poetry Mirror” (Shijing). Lu’s Shijing had never been mentioned even in the works of Wang Shizhen who held the theory of “spiritual resonance” (shen yun 神韻) until the middle period of Qing dynasty, when Shen Deqian published a great amount of poetry writings in which some contents of Shijing were inherited in an implicit way or even explicitly quoted. But, as is well known, Shen’s poetic has commonly been taken as inheriting the latter seven masters, Wang Shizhen, or Ye Xie, and no influence from Shijing has been appreciated so far. In this regard, under the background of the history of Chinese literary criticism during Ming-Qing period, this article aims at providing a new perspective for the issue mentioned above. First, it will be pointed out that it must be Lu Shiyon’s standpoint that he holds an aesthetic criterion like keeping one’s nature to be genuine (qing zhen 情真) or keeping one’s charm continuously (yun chang韻長), which make Shen’s poetic much more vivid and natural. Second, it will be argued that Shen applies several materials from Shijing to his own poetic, with an aim pertaining to an achievement of pluralistic values. Last but not least, based on a comparison between selected commentary texts by several important poets, this article will point out that in response to the needs of his age, Shen sees the value of “great momentum” (gao da 高大) as higher than that of “spiritual resonance” (shen yun 神韻), and in this sense Shen can be said to walk a road different from Lu Shiyon’s poetic.
Appears in Collections:興大中文學報 第45期



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