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標題: Effects of beta-Adrenergic Blockade on Metabolic and Inflammatory Responses in a Rat Model of Ischemic Stroke
作者: Shih-Yi Lin 
Ya-Yu Wang 
Cheng-Yi Chang 
Chih-Cheng Wu 
Wen-Ying Chen 
Yu-Hsiang Kuan 
Su-Lan Liao 
Chun-Jung Chen 
關鍵字: adrenergic system;microglia polarization;neuroinflammation;stroke
Ischemic stroke provokes an inflammatory response concurrent with both sympathetic nervous system activation and hyperglycemia. Currently, their crosstalk and consequences in stroke outcomes are of clinical attraction. We have provided experimental evidence showing the suppressive effects of the nonselective β-adrenoreceptor antagonist propranolol on hyperglycemia, inflammation, and brain injury in a rat model experiencing cerebral ischemia. Pretreatment with propranolol protected against postischemic brain infarction, edema, and apoptosis. The neuroprotection caused by propranolol was accompanied by a reduction in fasting glucose, fasting insulin, glucose tolerance impairment, plasma C-reactive protein, plasma free fatty acids, plasma corticosterone, brain oxidative stress, and brain inflammation. Pretreatment with insulin alleviated-while glucose augmented-postischemic brain injury and inflammation. Additionally, the impairment of insulin signaling in the gastrocnemius muscles was noted in rats with cerebral ischemia, with propranolol improving the impairment by reducing oxidative stress and tumor necrosis factor-α signaling. The anti-inflammatory effects of propranolol were further demonstrated in isoproterenol-stimulated BV2 and RAW264.7 cells through its ability to decrease cytokine production. Despite their potential benefits, stroke-associated hyperglycemia and inflammation are commonly linked with harmful consequences. Our findings provide new insight into the anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective, and hypoglycemic mechanisms of propranolol in combating neurodegenerative diseases, such as stroke.
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