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標題: beta-Funaltrexamine Displayed Anti-Inflammatory and Neuroprotective Effects in Cells and Rat Model of Stroke
作者: Chih-Cheng Wu 
Cheng-Yi Chang 
Kuei-Chung Shih 
Chih-Jen Hung 
Ya-Yu Wang 
Shih-Yi Lin 
Wen-Ying Chen 
Yu-Hsiang Kuan 
Su-Lan Liao 
Wen-Yi Wang 
Chun-Jung Chen 
關鍵字: microglia polarization;neuroinflammation;opioid;stroke
Chronic treatment involving opioids exacerbates both the risk and severity of ischemic stroke. We have provided experimental evidence showing the anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects of the μ opioid receptor antagonist β-funaltrexamine for neurodegenerative diseases in rat neuron/glia cultures and a rat model of cerebral Ischemia/Reperfusion (I/R) injury. Independent of in vitro Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)/interferon (IFN-γ)-stimulated neuron/glia cultures and in vivo cerebral I/R injury in Sprague–Dawley rats, β-funaltrexamine downregulated neuroinflammation and ameliorated neuronal degeneration. Alterations in microglia polarization favoring the classical activation state occurred in LPS/IFN-γ-stimulated neuron/glia cultures and cerebral I/R-injured cortical brains. β-funaltrexamine shifted the polarization of microglia towards the anti-inflammatory phenotype, as evidenced by decreased nitric oxide, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, and prostaglandin E2, along with increased CD163 and arginase 1. Mechanistic studies showed that the suppression of microglia pro-inflammatory polarization by β-funaltrexamine was accompanied by the reduction of NF-κB, AP-1, cyclic AMP response element-binding protein, along with signal transducers and activators of transcription transcriptional activities and associated upstream activators. The effects of β-funaltrexamine are closely linked with its action on neuroinflammation by switching microglia polarization from pro-inflammatory towards anti-inflammatory phenotypes. These findings provide new insights into the anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective mechanisms of β-funaltrexamine in combating neurodegenerative diseases, such as stroke.
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