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The influence of the moisture content on the velocity measurement of stress waves propagating in the interior and along the surface of concrete
|關鍵字:||超音波法;ultrasonic pulse velocity;敲擊回音法;Impact-Echo method||出版社:||土木工程學系所||引用:|| ASTM C 597, "Standard Test Method for Pulse Velocity Through Concrete," Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol. 04.02.  ASTM C 1383 (1998). "Standard Test Method for Measuring the P-Wave Speed and the Thickness of Concrete Plates Using the Inpact-Echo Method" Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol. 04.02.,1998.  賴朝鵬,” 混凝土材料組成對其流動性質與波傳行為之影響”,中興大 學,1999.  郭世芳,”探討超音波速度與混凝土抗壓強度之關係與其應用”, 國立中興大學土木工程學系博士論文，2006 年7月。  詹智捷,”混凝土含水狀態之量測與超音波波速關係之建立” ,中興大學,2010.  ACI Committee 228 Report (1996). In-Place Methods to Estimate Concrete Strength, ACI Standard ACI 228.1R-95, 1996  Pessiki Stephen and Johnson, Matthew R. (1996).“Nondestructive Evaluation of Early-age Concrete Strength In Plate Structures by the Impact-Echo Method,” ACI Materials Journal, Vol. 93, No.3, 1996, pp.260-271.  Anderson David, A. and Seals Roger, K. (1981).“Pulse Velocity as a Predictor of 28- and 90-Day Strength”, ACI Materials Journal, Vol.78, No.2,March-April 1981, pp.116-122.  Kaplan, M.F. (1958).“Compressive Strength and Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity Relationships for Concrete in Columns”, Journal of ACI, Vol.54, No.8,February 1958, pp. 675-688.  Sturrup, V.R., Vecchio, F.J., and Caratin, H. (1984).“Pulse Velocity as a Measure of Concrete Compressive Strength”, In Situ/Nondestructive Testing of Concrete, ACI SP-82, 1984; pp. 201-227  Kaplan, M.F. (1952).“Effects of Incomplete Consolidation on Compressive and Flexural Strength, Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity, and Dynamic Modulus of Elasticity of Concrete”, Journal of ACI, Vol.56, No.9, March, 1952, pp.853-867.  Popovics, S. (1987).“A Hypothesis Concrete the Effects of Macro-Porosity on Mechanical Properties of Concrete”, Fracture of Concrete and Rock,SEM-RILEM International Conference, June 1987,Houston Texas,pp.170-174.  Lin, Y., Kuo, S.F., Hsiao, C., and Lai, C.P., “Investigation of Pulse Velocity-Strength Relationship of Hardened Concrete,” ACI Materials Journal, Vol. 104, No. 4, 2007, pp. 344-350.  Naik, T.R., and Malhotra, V.M. (1991).“The Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity Method”, Chapter 7 in CRC Handbook on Nondestructive Testing of Concrete, V.M. Malhotra and N.J. carino, Eds., CRC Press, Boca raton, FL,1991, pp.169-188.  Sandor Popovics, L. Joseph Rose, and John S. Popovics, “The Behavior of Ultrasonic Pulses in Concrete,” Cement and Concrete Research, Vol. 20, No.2, 1990, pp.259-270.  Bungey, J.H. (1982). "Testing of Concrete in Structures," Surrey University Press, Glasgow, 1982, pp. 207. 26. Popovics, S. (1987).“A Hypothesis Concrete the Effects of Macro-Porosity on Mechanical Properties of Concrete”, Fracture of Concrete and Rock.  Malhotra, V.M. (1976).“Testing Hardened Concrete : Nondestructive Methods,” ACI Monograph, No. 9, American Concrete Institute/Iowa State University Press, Detroit, 1976, pp. 204.  ASTM C 805, "Standard Test Method for Rebound Number of Hardened Concrete," Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol. 04.02.||摘要:||
The main purpose of this thesis is to explore the effect of different moisture content on the concrete surface and internal stress wave velocity. The experimental specimens used in the study were made of ordinary concrete with three water-cement ratios of 0.3, 0.5, and 0.7 and a constant cement paste volume fraction of 42%. For comparison, mortar specimens with a cement-water ratio of 0.5 were also made. All the specimens were square bars with dimensions of 36 * 10 * 10 cm. After construction, the specimens were cured in water at 23�C. At an age of 28 days, the specimens were placed in indoor environment and the wave velocity measurements were carried out by UPV, IE-V, IE-PV, and IE-PVD methods till the indoor natural dry condition of the specimens reached 34 days. Then, the specimens were placed in an oven with a temperature of 105 � 5 �C to dry the free water in concrete and the velocity measurements were performed at 1, 6, 12, 24, 48, and 72 hours after the oven dry started.
The experimental results show that the relationship between the concrete surface and internal velocity tends to be steady in the drying process of different proportions of the concrete specimens, whether it is air-dried or oven-dried state, the reduction in the surface or internal velocity has nothing to do with the measurement methods. It is also shown that the wave velocity reduction is sharp before the saturation of the specimen dropped to 60%. In addition, there is a certain conversion relationship among the UPV, IE-PV, and IE-PVD. The conversion relationship can be adopted to obtain the internal UPV of concrete if the surface wave velocity is measured practically.
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