Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/10207
標題: 利用整數規劃配合基因演算法求解模板優化排列問題
Optimization of Formwork Planning with Integer Programming and Genetic Algorithm
作者: 朱祥德
Chu, Hsiang-Te
關鍵字: 組模計畫;Formwork Assembly;二維切割;物件排列;整數規劃;基因演算法;Two-Dimensional Cutting;Packing;Integer Programming;Genetic Algorithms
出版社: 土木工程學系所
引用: 1.張乃斌,「環境系統分析原理」,茂昌圖書有限公司,2002。 2.趙 楷,「二維物件排列問題之啟發式求解研究」,碩士論文,大葉大學工業工程與科技管理學系,2005。 3.吳泰熙、吳奕樺、張欽智,「以基因演算法求解單原片方形物件排列問題」,科學與工程技術期刊,第二卷,第三期,2006,第75-83頁。 4.吳泰熙、鄭豐聰、趙 楷,「以加入升溫機制之模擬退火演算法求解單原片方形物件排列問題」,技術學刊,第二十二卷,第三期,2007,第253-261頁。 5.林金面,「土木施工學」,文笙書局股份有限公司,2008。 6.謝肇欣,「應用二維切割方法求解鋁合金板材截剪問題」,碩士論文,逢甲大學工業工程與系統管理學系,2010。 7.黃智威,「整合施工時程於營建土石方運輸最佳化之研究」,碩士論文,中興大學土木工程學系,2012。 8.Babu, A. R., & Babu, N. R. “Effective nesting of rectangular parts in multiple rectangular sheets using genetic and heuristic algorithms.” International Journal of Production Research, 37(7), 1999, 1625-1643. 9.Wu, T. H., Chen, J. F., Low, C., & Tang, P. T. “Nesting of two-dimensional parts in multiple plates using hybrid algorithm.” International Journal of Production Research, 41(16), 2003, 3883-3900. 10.Benoist, T., Jeanjean, A., & Molin, P. “Minimum Formwork Stock problem on residential buildings construction sites.” 4OR, 7(3), 2009, 275-288. 11.Silva, E., Alvelos, F., & Valerio de Carvalho, J. M. “An integer programming model for two- and three-stage two-dimensional cutting stock problems.” European Journal of Operational Research, 2010, 205(3), 699-708. 12.Cui, Y., & Chen, Q. “Simple heuristic for the constrained two-dimensional cutting problem.” Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part B: Journal of Engineering Manufacture, 2012, 226(3), 565-572.
摘要: 
模板工程為建築工程中極為重要之工項。在高樓建築施工期間,結構體工程之工期約占總工期的70%,模板工程之工期約占結構體工程之工期的60%,故模板工程之工期占總工期高達40%,對進度影響相當大。再者因模板工人短缺,組模技術參差不齊,常造成模板材料過度裁切,無效率的組模,導致成本增加工期延誤。如何優化「組模計畫」,高效率地將一片片的原始模板材料,裁切並組合成灌漿前所需的整體模板,是一項非常困難的研究議題。
本論文乃是針對建築工程中樓板的組模,提出一套「組模計畫」最佳模式(Formwork Assembly Optimization,簡稱FAO)。FAO包括兩大求解步驟,第一步,先將清水模板初步以同方向排入設計的樓板中後,利用「整數規劃」完成不同尺寸樓板Y方向與X方向之邊緣需求的裁切最佳化。第二步,針對樓板尚未鋪設處,運用「基因演算法」搜尋近似最佳解。結合這兩大求解步驟,即為本研究之「組模計畫」最佳模式。
本研究之FAO已成功應用於竹北市某地下3層、地上24層,總樓地板面積合計23992.11m2之大樓興建工程。經實際驗證結果,運用FAO至少可以有效降低約10.34%的模板材料,並可提供承包商單一樓層清水模板鋪設之分區規劃建議,規劃各區域(戶)的模板可以如何擺放與裁切,會較省料。

Formwork engineering is an extremely important labor item in the construction. The period of structured construction in high buildings is approximately 70% of the total periods, and the period of formwork engineering in structured construction is about 60%. Therefore, the period of formwork engineering in the construction is more than 40%. It is a huge influence on the construction progress. Furthermore, due to the shortage of the templates workers and poor group mode technology, people cut template material excessively. The inefficient formwork assembly results in cost increasing and schedule delay. It is a very difficult research subject to efficiently improve the program of formwork assembly by cutting and combining the overall templates which are before grouting from pieces of original templates.
The article is based on the construction of formwork assembly to propose a program called Formwork Assembly Optimization (FAO). FAO includes two solution steps. First, put exposed forms into a designed floor in the same direction, and then, use integer programming to complete the optimization of a trim at different sizes of X and Y edges. Second, use genetic algorithms to search a near optimum solution of a not laying floor. FAO is formed from these two steps.
In Zhubei City, FAO has successfully applied to a building construction which has twenty seven floors including 3 underground floors and 23992.11 m2 total floor area. In the actual validation result, FAO can effectively reduce the cost of the form material at least about 10.34%, and provide the contractor a proposal of single floor exposed form paving. It tells people how to place and trim the templates to save template material.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/10207
其他識別: U0005-0907201309394200
Appears in Collections:土木工程學系所

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