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|標題:||Structure, mechanical properties and high temperature oxidation of Ti-Si-N and Ti-Al-Si-N thin films synthesized
by a cathodic arc deposition process
|關鍵字:||Ti-Si-N;Ti-Si-N;Ti-Al-Si-N;cathodic arc evaporation system;Nanocomposite;Superhard coating;Ti-Al-Si-N;陰極電弧沉積系統;奈米複合薄膜;超硬薄膜||出版社:||材料科學與工程學系所||引用:|| A. Raveh, I. Zukerman, R. Shneck, R. Avni, and I. Fried, “Thermal stability of nanostructured superhard coatings: A review”, Surface and Coatings Technology, Vol. 201, pp.6136-6142, 2007.  S. Vepřek, M.G.J. Veprek-Heijman, P. Karvankova, and J. Prochazka, “Different approaches to superhard coatings and nanocomposites”, Thin Solid Films, Vol. 476, pp. 1-29, 2005.  S. Vepřek, M. Haussmann, S. Reiprich, Li Shizhi, and J. Dian, “Novel thermodynamically stable and oxidation resistant superhard coating materials”, Surface and Coatings Technology, Vol. 86-87, pp. 394-401, 1996.  S. Vepřek, “Conventional and new approaches towards the design of novel superhard materials”, Surface and Coatings Technology, Vol. 97, pp. 15-22, 1997.  P. Hammer, A. Steiner, R. Villa, M. Baker, P. N. Gibson, J. Haupt, and W. 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本實驗利用陰極電弧沉積系統製備Ti-Si-N、TiSiN/CrN多層膜與Ti-Al-Si-N薄膜。沉積Ti-Si-N薄膜所使用的靶材為Ti80Si20合金靶，並在不同氮氣壓力下進行沉積。沉積薄膜的同時，利用光譜分析設備(OES)搜集電漿光譜訊號，顯示Ti-Si-N電漿中具有原子態、離子態與電荷的轉移的現象；且Si含量隨著氮氣流量的提升，由3.3 at.%增加至6.0 at.%。當Si含量為6.0 at.%時，Ti-Si-N薄膜的硬度可達45 GPa，殘留應力為-9.5 GPa。而將此試片經過600 ~ 800°C之高温氧化處理，利用XPS進行縱深分析，結果發現Ti-Si-N薄膜於600 ~ 700°C開始急劇氧化。
為了增加Ti-Si-N薄膜與基材間之附著力，利用CrN與基材間具有良好附著性的特性，做為Ti-Si-N的介層，與Ti-Si-N交替沉積，形成TiSiN/CrN多層膜。而TiSiN/CrN多層膜的製備亦使用Ti80Si20合金靶搭配Cr靶，並控制不同靶電流比值調整多層膜之週期厚度與Si含量，靶電流比I[TiSi] / I[Cr]分別為1.8, 1及 0.55，此外，雙層TiSiN/CrN薄膜則為對照組。由TEM影像可知，TiSiN/CrN多層膜之週期厚度依不同靶電流比分別為8.3 nm、6.2 nm與4.2 nm；Si含量也由4.7 at.%降至2.4 at.%，而雙層TiSiN/CrN薄膜的Si含量為7.0 at.%。機械性質方面，雙層TiSiN/CrN薄膜硬度為36±1 GPa，殘留應力為-7.25 GPa；週期厚度為8.3 nm之TiSiN/CrN多層膜具有較高的硬度與最低的殘留應力，分別為37±1 GPa與-1.6 GPa。至於磨耗性質，磨擦係數會隨著薄膜中化學組成之Cr含量增加而降低；而磨耗率以雙層TiSiN/CrN薄膜之18 × 10-5 mm3/min為最差，TiSiN/CrN-1.8多層膜之3.7 × 10-5 mm3/min為最佳。
Ti-Al-Si-N薄膜的製備即使用Al89Si11合金靶和Ti靶並通入氮氣進行沉積，相同地控制靶電流比I[AlSi] / I[Ti]以調整Ti-Al-Si-N薄膜中(Al + Si)含量。由薄膜之化學組成可知(Al+Si)含量隨靶電流比I[AlSi]/I[Ti]的增加，由10.3 at.%提升至30.4 at.%，其中Si含量的變化量不大，僅由1.2 at.%增加至4.4 at.%。由X光繞射的結果發現，當(Al + Si)/(Ti + Al + Si) > 0.58，將會析出fcc-AlN與hcp-AlN；且Ti-Al-Si-N晶粒尺寸隨(Al + Si)含量增加，由8 nm降至2.8 nm。機械性質方面，硬度值隨著(Al + Si)含量增加而提升，可達39.3 GPa，當(Al + Si)/(Ti + Al + Si) > 0.4，AlN相的出現造成硬度的下降；殘留應力也隨之下降，(Al + Si)/(Ti + Al + Si) = 0.58時，殘留應力為最低，-3.7 GPa。進一步利用TGD進行重量與温度之量測，觀察氧化行為，結果顯示，隨著(Al + Si)含量增加，AlN相的生成可提高熱穩定性，其抗氧化温度可提升至1115.8°C。
Ti-Si-N, multilayered TiSiN/CrN, and Ti-Al-Si-N coatings were synthesized by cathodic arc evaporation with plasma-enhancing filter duct, in this study. Ti80Si20 alloy were adopted as the cathodic material to evaporate Ti-Si-N coatings with different nitrogen pressure. Optical emission study revealed that excitation, ionization and charge transfer reactions of the Ti-Si-N plasma occurred during the Ti-Si-N deposition process. The chemical content of Si varied from 3.3 to 6.0 at% in Ti-Si-N depending on the nitrogen partial pressure of the reaction chamber. Among the studied Ti-Si-N coatings, the Ti-Si-N with 6 at.% Si possessed the highest hardness of 45 GPa and the residual stress of -9.5 GPa. After oxidation between 600 ~ 800°C for 2 hours, it found the Ti-Si-N with 6 at.% Si started to oxidize among 600 ~ 700°C, analysed with depth profile of XPS.
CrN was employed as an interlayer to form a TiSiN/CrN periodical structure due to its good adhesion strength. The Ti/Si (80/20 at.%) and chromium targets (diameter = 100 mm) were used as the cathodic materials. For the multilayered TiSiN/CrN film, CrN was deposited as an interlayer about 300 nm to enhance the adhesion strength between the substrate and TiSiN film. The dual-layered TiSiN was deposited at a N2 pressure of 4 Pa and the Ti/Si (80/20 at.%) cathode current was 90 A. For the deposition of multilayered TiSiN/CrN coatings, the different periodic thickness of multilayered TiSiN/CrN coating was decided by the alteration of Ti/Si and chromium cathode current, and the ratios of TiSi/Cr cathode current (I[TiSi]/I[Cr]) were 1.8, 1, and 0.55. The rotational speed of the substrate holder was fixed at 2 rpm for all samples. It found the multilayered TiSiN/CrN coatings deposited at different I[TiSi]/I[Cr] cathode current ratios of 1.8, 1.0, and 0.55 possessed different multilayer periods (Λ) of 8.3 nm, 6.2 nm, and 4.2 nm. From the XRD analyses, it showed that the residual stress of the dual-layered TiSiN was −7.25 GPa. The multilayered TiSiN/CrN-8.3 coating possesses the highest hardness of 37± 2 GPa and elastic modulus of 396±20 GPa, and the lowest residual stress of −1.60 GPa among the deposited coatings. The multilayered coating design of TiSiN/CrN can lower the residual stress substantially. For tribological analyses, the dual-layered TiSiN/CrN coating possessed the highest wear rate of 18 × 10-5 mm3/min, and the multilayered TiSiN/CrN-8.3 coating possessed the lowest wear rate of 3.7 × 10-5 mm3/min. In addition, the friction coefficient of dual-layered and multilayered TiSiN/CrN were decreased with the higher Cr content of coating.
Ti-Al-Si-N coatings were synthesized by cathodic arc evaporation with titanium and Al/Si (89/11 at.%), and the ratios of AlSi/Ti cathode current (I[AlSi]/I[Ti]) were 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, and 2.5. The (Al + Si) content in coating was decided by the alteration of Al/Si and titanium cathode current. The results showed the (Al + Si) content was varied from 10.3 at.% to 30.4 at.%, with the ratios of AlSi/Ti cathode current increasing. It was found fcc-AlN and hcp-AlN were precipitated from Ti-Al-Si-N structure, while (Al + Si)/(Ti + Al + Si) > 0.58. In addition, the grain size of Ti-Al-Si-N decreased from 8 to 2.8 nm with (Al + Si) content increasing. Among Ti-Al-Si-N coatings, the highest hardness of 39.3 GPa was obtained with (Al + Si)/(Ti + Al + Si) equal of 0.4. However, the precipitation of AlN caused the hardness and residual stress decrease. Ti-Al-Si-N coating possessed the lowest residual stress of -3.7 GPa, while (Al + Si)/(Ti + Al + Si) about 0.58. Besides, TGA was adopted to investigate the oxidative behavior of Ti-Al-Si-N coatings at elevated temperature. It showed the precipitation of AlN was benefit increasing thermal stability to 1115.8°C.
Comparison with results, Ti-Si-N coating possessed higher hardness than Ti-Al-Si-N coating. It can be improved the adhesion between Ti-Si-N coating and substrate with interlay of CrN. Therefore, the design of multilayered TiSiN/CrN have the ability to improve wear performance. As to the Ti-Al-Si-N coatings, the precipitation of AlN contributed the oxidative resistance in spite of destroying of hardness decrease.
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