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|標題:||Improved Performance of AlGaInP Light-Emitting Diodes Using Various Process Techniques
|關鍵字:||lGaInP;磷化鋁鎵銦;light-emitting diode (LED);indium-tin oxide (ITO);omni-directional reflector (ODR);current-spreading layer;textured surface;發光二極體;氧化銦鍚;全反射角的高反射鏡面;電流分佈層;粗化表面||出版社:||材料科學與工程學系所||引用:|| N. Holonyak, Jr. and S. F. Bevacqua, “Coherent (visible) light emission from Ga(As1-xPx) junctions,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 1, pp. 82-83, 1962.  R. A. Logan, H. G. White and W. Wiegmann, “Efficient green electroluminescence in nitrogen-doped GaP p-n junctions,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 13, pp. 139-141, 1968.  Zh. I. Alferov, V. M. Andreev, D. Z. Garbuzov and V. D. Rumyantsev, “Internal quantum efficiency (100per cent) of radiative recombination in three-layer AlAs-GaAs heterojunction light-emitting diodes,” Sov. Phys. Semicond., vol. 9, pp. 305-309, 1975.  C. P. Kuo, R. M. Fletcher, T. D. Osentowski, M. C. Lardizabal, M. G. Craford, and V. M. Robbins, “High performance AlGaInP visible light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 57, pp. 2937-2939, 1990.  H. Sugawara, M. 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近年來，化合物半導體的研究及應用更是受到各界的矚目，也是當前國家所要全力推動的重點科技項目之一。其中以大量地應用在通訊，照明，交通等方面之磷化鋁鎵銦發光二極體(AlGaInP light-emitting diode)為大家所熟知，其發出的光波段則介於可見光區中的紅~黃綠光區。
(一) 成功製作具有全反射角的高反射鏡面(omni-directional reflector; ODR)結構與氧化銦鍚電流分佈層的大尺寸垂直發光二極體。其中ODR結構包含p型磷化鎵、分散式的金鈹合金當歐姆接觸點、低折射率的中間層氧化銦鍚及金屬層銀。並且將散熱矽基板黏貼至具有ODR反射鏡面的發光二極體上。ODR反射鏡面發光二極體在650 mA時，產生最大輸出功率304 mW，而外部量子文效率在100 mA時，可達到31.8 %，這是因為具有全反射角的高反射鏡面所造成的。
(二) 利用具全反射角的高反射鏡面結構之四元發光二極體(具散熱矽基板)，來製作具表面粗化之高功率發光二極體，由於粗化表面，這樣更能將高功率發光二極體的亮度大幅提升。二維波浪粗化結構是利用黃光及非等向性蝕刻技術製造而成。粗化結構雖然因為電流堵塞造成順向電壓輕微上升，但是輸出功率在350 mA時，較沒有粗化結構增加 40%。
(三) 我們利用氧化銦鍚(indium tin oxide; ITO)當電流分佈層及歐姆接觸層，增加發光二極體電流均勻分佈能力，鍍在具有高濃度碳摻雜的磷化鎵接觸層之四元發光二極體(具砷化鎵吸收基板)，以提高發光亮度。而外部量子文效率在20 mA時，可達3.24 %，比不具有GaP:C/ITO結構高出70 %的效率。
Recently, the research and application of compound semiconductors are more look at attentively and are also one of the focal technical items that Taiwan industry wants to develop. Among them, the AlGaInP light-emitting diode (LED) applied on large scale in communication, illumination, traffic lamps, etc has been know very well where its luminescence wavelength covers from red to yellow-green between visible optical spectra.
In this dissertation, we have developed several fabrication processes to improve the light output of the AlGaInP LED. First, a 1-mm2 AlGaInP LED sandwiched by ITO omni-directional reflector (ODR) and current-spreading layer is presented. The vertical-conducting bottom ODR consists of p-GaP, dispersive dot-contacts of Au/AuBe/Au acting as ohmic contacts, an intermediate low-refractive-index layer of indium-tin-oxide (ITO), and a silver layer. A Si substrate, which acted as a heat sink, was bonded to the ODR-covered LED structure using a metal-to-metal bonding process. The maximum output power of the ODR-LED was 304 mW at 650 mA, and the output power did not saturate up to a 650-mA injection current. An external quantum efficiency of 31.8% at 100 mA was obtained, which could be attributed to the use of a highly reflective ODR enabling better light extraction through the surface of the ODR-LED. Secondly, AlGaInP LEDs with textured surfaces provide a substantial improvement in light output power over the conventional structures. An AlGaInP ODR-LED with a two-dimensional “wavelike” surface was fabricated using the photolithography technique followed by an anisotropic etching process to texture the surface. Although there was a slight increase in the forward voltage and dynamic resistance (due to the current-crowding effect), the output power from LEDs with textured surface can be enhanced by 40% at 350 mA as compared with that of the LED sample without surface texturing. Moreover, the heavily carbon-doped GaP (³ 1 ´ 1019 cm-3) contact layer has been developed for the distributed-Bragg-reflector-enhanced absorbing-substrate AlGaInP LEDs using the indium tin oxide (ITO) as the current-spreading layer and transparent ohmic contact. The external quantum efficiency of the AlGaInP LED with the GaP:C/ITO structure can achieve 3.24% at 20 mA, representing a 78% efficiency improvement over the that of the LED sample without GaP:C/ITO structures.
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