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標題: 美國詹森總統時期之黑人民權運動—以詹姆斯‧法默與種族平等會議為例
The Civil Rights Movement in Johnson's Administration- A Case Study of James Farmer and the Congress of Racial Equality
作者: 邱傳翔
Chuan-Siang, Ciou
關鍵字: Civil Rights Movement;美國黑人民權運動;Lyndon Johnson;James Farmer;Congress of Racial Equality;詹森;詹姆斯‧法默;種族平等會議
出版社: 歷史學系所
引用: 一、西文書目 1、檔案資料 Laura J. Bock Papers, 1961-1969. CU-314. Holding in Bancroft Library, University of California at Berkeley. Public Papers of the Presidents of the United States: John F. Kennedy, 1963. Washington D. C.: Government Printing Office, 1963. Public Papers of the Presidents of the United States: Lyndon B. Johnson, 1963-1964, Vol. 1. Washington D. C.: Government Printing Office, 1964. Public Papers of the Presidents of the United States: Lyndon B. Johnson, 1965, Vol.1. Washington D. C.: Government Printing Office, 1965. Congressional Quarterly Service, 4th ed. Revolutionary in Civil Rights. Washington D.C., 1968. The Papers of the Congress of Racial Equality, 1941-1967. Sanford, North Carolina: Microfilming Corporation of America, 1980, microfilm. Holding in Doe Memorial Library, University of California at Berkeley. U.S. National Advisory Commission on Civil Disorders. Report of the National Advisory Commission on Civil Disorders. Washington D.C.: Government Printing Office,1968. 2、專書 Bell, Inge Powell. CORE and the Strategy of Nonviolence. New York: Random House, 1968. Bornet, Vaughn D. The Presidency of Lyndon B. Johnson. Lawrence, K.S.: University Press of Kansas, 1983. Branch, Taylor. Parting the Waters: America in the King Years, 1954-63. New York: Touchstone Book, 1989. Burns, James. Roosevelt: The Soldier of Freedom. New York: Harcourt Inc., 1970. Carson, Clayborne and David J. Garrow, Gerald Gill, Vincent Harding, Darlene Clark Hine, ed. The Eyes on the Prize Civil Rights Reader: Documents, Speeches, and Firsthand Accounts from the Black Freedom Struggle, 1954-1990. New York: Penguin Books, 1991. Colaiaco, James A. Martin Luther King, Jr.: Apostle of Militant Nonviolence. New York: St. Martin Press, 1988. Dalfiume, Richard M. Desegregation of the U.S. Armed Forces: Fighting on Two Fronts, 1939-1953. Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 1969. Dallek, Robert. Lone Star Rising: LBJ and His Times, 1908-1960. New York: Oxford University Press, 1991. Divine, Robert ed. The Johnson Years, Vol. 1. K.S.: University Press of Kansas, 1987. Evans, Rowland and Robert Novak. Lyndon B. Johnson: The Exercise of Power. London: George Allen and Unwin LTD., 1967. Farmer, James. Freedom When? New York: Random House, 1965. Farmer, James. Lay Bare the Heart: An Autobiography of the Civil Rights Movement. New York: Arbor Books, 1985. Foner, Philip S. ed. The Voice of Black America: Major Speeches by Negroes in the United States, 1797-1971. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1972. Furer, Howard B. ed. Lyndon B. Johnson, 1908-: Chronology- Documents- Bibliographical Aids. New York: Oceana Publications, Inc., 1971. Garrow, David J. Bearing the Cross: Martin Luther King, Jr. and the Southern Christian Leadership Conference. New York: Perennial Classics, 1986. Goldfield, David R. Promised Land: The South Since 1945. Illinois: Harlan Davidson, Inc., 1987. Goldman, Eric F. The Tragedy of Lyndon Johnson. New York: Knopf, 1969. Goodwin, Doris Kearns. Lyndon Johnson and the American Dream. New York: Harper & Row, 1976. Hampton, Henry and Steve Fayer. Voices of Freedom: An Oral History of the Civil Rights Movement from the 1950s through the 1980s. New York: Bantam Books, 1990. Heaps, Willard A. Riots, U.S.A., 1765-1970. New York: Seabury Press,1970. Hodgson, Godfrey. America in Our Time. New York: Vintage, 1976. Isserman, Maurice and Michael Kazin. America Divided: The Civil War of the 1960s. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000. Johnson, Lyndon B. The Vantage Point: Perspectives of Presidency,1963-1969. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1971. King, Martin Luther Jr. Stride Toward Freedom. New York: Harper & Row Publishers, 1958. Levy, Peter B. ed. Let Freedom Ring: A Documentary History of the Modern Civil Rights Movement. New York: Greenwood Publishing Group, Inc., 1992. Meier, August and Elliott Rudwick, Francis L. Broderick, ed. Black Protest Thought in the Twentieth Century. New York: The Bobbs-Merrill Company, Inc., 1971. Meier, August and Elliott Rudwick. CORE: A Study in the Civil Rights Movement, 1942-1968. Illinois: University of Illinois, 1973. Meier, August and Elliott Rudwick ed. Along the Color Line: Explorations in the Black Experience. University of Illinois Press, 1976. Mendelson, Wallace. Discrimination: Based on the Report of the United States Commission on Civil Rights. N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1962. Morgan, Edmund. American Slavery-American Freedom: The Ordeal of Colonial Virginia. New York: Norton, 1975. Morris, Aldon D. The Origins of the Civil Rights Movement: Black Communities Organizing for Change. New York: The Free Press, 1984. Peck, James. Freedom Ride… New York: Simon and Schuster, Inc., 1962. Schulman, Bruce J. Lyndon B. Johnson and American Liberalism: A Brief Biography with Documents. New York: Bedford Books of St. Martin’s Press, 1995. Sorensen, Theodore C. selected. “Let the World Go Forth”: the Speeches, Statements, and Writings of J. F. Kennedy. New York: Delacorte Press, 1988. Sowell, Thomas. Ethnic America: A History. New York: Basic Books, Inc., 1981. Sunquist, James L. Politics and Policy, The Eisenhower, Kennedy and Johnson Years. Washington D.C.: The Brookings Institution, 1969. Takaki, Ronald. A Different Mirror: A History of Multicultural America. New York: Little, Brown and Company, 1999. Thompson, Kenneth W. ed. The Johnson Presidency: Twenty Intimate Perspectives of Lyndon B. Johnson. M.D.: University Press of America, 1986. Weisbort, Robert. Freedom Bound: A History of American Civil Rights Movement. New York: W. W. Norton & Company, Inc., 1990. White, William S. The Professional: Lyndon B. Johnson. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1964. Williams, Juan. Eyes on the Prize: America’s Civil Rights Years, 1954-1965. New York: Penguin Books, 1987. Woodward, Comer Vann. The Strange Career of Jim Crow. New York: Oxford University Press, 1974. Ziegler, Benjamin Munn. ed. Desegregation and the Supreme Court. Boston: D.C. Health and Company, 1958. 3、期刊與學位論文 Powell, Ingeborg Breitner. Ideology and Strategy of Direct Action: A Study of the Congress of Racial Equality. Doctor of Philosophy(Sociology)Dissertation, University of California, Berkeley, 1965. Schmeidler, Emilie. Shaping Ideas and Actions: CORE, SCLC and SNCC in the Struggle for Equality, 1960-1966. Doctor of Philosophy(Sociology)Dissertation, University of Michigan, 1980. Stern, Mark. “John F. Kennedy and Civil Rights: From Congress to the Presidency,” Presidential Studies Quarterly, Vol. 19, No.4, 1989, pp. 797-820. Stern, Mark. “Presidential Strategies and Civil Rights: Eisenhower, The Early Years, 1952-54,” Presidential Studies Quarterly Vol. 19, No.4, 1989, pp. 769-796. 二、中文書目 1、專書 王波著,《肯尼迪總統的黑人民權政策研究》,上海:上海人民出版社,2002。 王曾才著,《西洋近世史》,台北:正中書局,1976。 伍啟元著,《美國世紀:1901—1990》,台北:台灣商務印書館,1992。 麥禮謙著,《從華僑到華人—二十世紀美國華人社會發展史》,香港:三聯書店,1992年。 劉緒貽著,《20世紀30年代以來美國史論叢》,北京:中國社會科學出版社,2001。 Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr.著,馬曉宏譯,《美國的分裂:種族衝突的危機》(The Disuniting of America,台北:正中書局,1994年。 David Burner著,許綬南譯,《60年代》(Making Peace with the 60s),台北:麥田出版,1998。 Diane Ravitch編,林本樁等譯,《美國讀本:感動過一個國家的文字》(The American Reader-Words that Moved A Nation),北京:三聯書店,1995。 Gerald N. Rosenberg著,高忠義譯,《落空的期望—最高法院與社會改革》(The Hollow Hope),台北:商周出版,2003。 Mark V. Tushnet著,蘇希亞譯,《人,生而平等:馬歇爾大法官與美國民權法的創制》(Making Civil Rights Law: Thurgood Marshall and the Supreme Court, 1936-1961),台北:商周出版,2002。 Theodore C. Sorensen著,復旦大學世界經濟研究所譯,《肯尼迪》(Kennedy),上海市:上海譯文出版社,1981年。 Vincent N. Parrillo, John Stimson and Ardyth Stimson著,周兵等譯,《當代社會問題》(Contemporary Social Problems),北京:華夏出版社,2002年。 2、期刊與學位論文 王心揚,〈美國新社會史的興起及其走向〉,《新史學》,第6卷,第3期(1995年),頁155-184。 李少儀,〈1960年代美國黑權運動理論的探討〉,淡江大學歷史研究所碩士論文,1976年6月。 邱傳翔,〈美國黑人爭取民權歷程試探—以1961年「自由乘客運動」為例〉,《中興史學》,第11期(2005年),頁163-184。 姬紅,〈美國城市黑人聚居區的形成、現狀及治理〉,《世界民族》,第6期(2001年),頁44-52。 徐濟明,〈奴隸貿易與早期資本主義的發展〉,《世界歷史》,第1期(1983年2月),頁67-76。 陳奕平,〈第一次世界大戰期間及二十年代美國黑人大遷徙運動〉,《美國研究》,第4期(1999年),頁109-125。 陳靜瑜,〈美國聯邦最高法院與黑人民權運動發展之析論〉,《興大歷史學報》,第7期(1997年6月),頁135-156。 陳靜瑜,〈美國社會史研究的新趨向-以黑人和外來移民史的研究為例〉,《興大歷史學報》,第6期(1996年),頁149-160。 賀允宜,〈種族歧視教育與美國民權運動:「布朗控訴投俾卡教育局案」〉,《政大歷史學報》,第19期(2002年5月),頁365-406。 張立平,〈林登‧約翰遜與民權法案〉,《美國研究》,第2期(1996年),頁110-132。 董小川,〈美利堅民族認同問題探究〉,《東北師大學報》,第1期(2006年),頁48-56。 羅榮渠,〈美國的分裂與統一〉,《社會科學論壇》,第6期(2005年9月),頁5-22。 謝國榮,〈二戰對美國民權運動的影響〉,《世界歷史》,第3期(2005年),頁13-21。 熊偉民,〈20世紀30年代美國的和平主義運動〉,《史學月刊》,第12期(2003年),頁67-72。 魏淑芬,〈金恩(Martin Luther King, 1929-1968)民權運動對美國黑人地位之影響〉,輔仁大學歷史學研究所碩士論文,2001年6月。 三、網路資料 (1) 美國人口普查報告: U.S. Census Bureau, Census 2000 Redistricting Data (Public Law 94-171), Summary File, Table PL1; 1990 Census of Population, General Population Characteristics (1990 CP-1).,參閱日期:2005年10月7日。,參閱日期:2005年10月8日。 (2) NAACP大事年表:,參閱日期:2005年6月19日。 (3) LBJ圖書館口述史料:,參閱日期:2006年8月31日。 (4)喬治‧華盛頓大學國家安全局檔案—東京灣事件與越戰:,參閱日期:2007年6月18日。 (5) LBJ圖書館口述史料—詹姆斯‧法默(James Farmer): ① Transcript, James Farmer Oral History InterviewⅠ, 10/1969, by Harri Baker, Internet Copy, LBJ Library.,參閱日期:2006年9月10日。 ② Transcript, James Farmer Oral History InterviewⅡ, 7/20/1971, by Paige Mullhollan, Internet Copy, LBJ Library.,參閱日期:2006年9月10日。 (6) 美國國會圖書館—「自由搭乘運動」路線圖:,參閱日期:2007年1月12日。

The 1960's in the United States was an era that all voices could be expressed and a crucial time for the African-Americans. In 1963, after the assassination of J. F. Kennedy, Lyndon B. Johnson succeeded as President. The rapid growth of the civil rights movement during 1963-1969 was a result of the Johnson administration's constructive actions. The pass of the Civil Rights Act by the Congress represented the government's amelioration of racial issues and reactions to the calls of the civil rights movement as well as an emblem of breakdown of racial segregation in the nation. In the age of civil rights movement, Congress of Racial Equality (CORE), an age-old and one of the “Big Four” civil rights organizations, was the first to bring the non-violent approach into civil rights movement. James Farmer, a co-founder of CORE in 1942 and the first CORE national director from 1961 to 1966, played a critical role in non-violent method since the founding of CORE through the transformation of the ideas of non-violent in late 1960's. The Johnson administration's civil rights legislation and the enthusiastic civil rights organizations were both the main factors of the civil rights movement's unparalleled achievements.
In order to pass the Civil Rights Act, Johnson and the federation government established contacts with civil rights organizations. The civil rights organizations, in the meantime, expected to gain the rights, freedom and equality that they had been anxious for for so long under such amicable relationship. The relationship between CORE, Farmer and Johnson was established with such societal background. However, as Farmer and CORE opposed the government's Vietnam policy publicly, along with the growing difference of cognizance toward civil rights movement among CORE, Farmer and Johnson, the relationship finally faced its disruption.
This study explores the contributions of Johnson, CORE and Farmer to the civil rights movement and examines the connections and relationships among CORE, Farmer and Johnson.
其他識別: U0005-2606200712001500
Appears in Collections:歷史學系所

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