Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/10649
標題: 蔡元培負笈德國及其所受影響之初探
The Exploration of the Effect of Ts'ai Yan-P'ei's Germany Advancement Study.
作者: 劉芷綾
Chih-ling, Liou
關鍵字: 蔡元培;德國
出版社: 歷史學系
摘要: 
史家們對所欲研究的歷史,某部分是受當前生活的刺激而引發;是為解決當代人們所關心的問題,而求諸於過去的歷史。這種以現實意識為出發點的研究取向,同樣觸動著筆者。環顧當下的台灣社會,充斥著各式各樣的改革, 而其中影響程度最深遠的,無疑是「教育改革」,而處在這「教改」氛圍下的筆者不禁反思,自我是在何種教育改革的理念下被形塑?在視歷史為一延續的前提下,進而上溯至清末民初的「教改」時期。試想中國從傳統的科舉過渡到現代教育的歷程是如何進行的?而在這樣的「教改」歷程中,又有誰是居功厥偉?為中國教育的轉型奠定重要的基礎。於是筆者將目光焦點鎖定在蔡元培-這位民國建立後的首任教育總長,他是畢身不遺餘力推行教育改革的教育家,其教育理念與制度,一直到今日仍被奉行著。
本文在內容安排上,以當時中國社會脈絡、及蔡元培留學期間的德國社會環境為主軸,加以蔡元培的個人生命經歷與整個社會文化的歷史過程為輔。欲以蔡元培這一「個體」為例,證明「社會環境」的變遷,是足以影響處在社會環境中的「人」;而處在社會中的「人」對社會改變所做的回應,又會反過來改變社會;進而闡明「社會」與「人」二者互為因果的關係。筆者認為,唯有將蔡元培此一「個體」,放在其所處的社會和文化的脈絡下,才足以說明其思想的真正形貌。
當時的中國,為一內憂外患交雜的局面,當以「器物改革」為要的「自強運動」,在甲午戰的試煉下宣告失敗後,知識份子在亡國的壓力,及西方社會達爾文思潮的引進下,提出「保國保種」的呼聲,欲由保種以達保國。因此,改革的焦點便從先前重器物和政治制度層面,轉到「保種」,也就是「國民」本身。於是有嚴復提出「開民智、鼓民力、新民德」、有蔡鍔鼓吹鍛鍊國民體魄的「軍國民運動」,及梁啟超改革國民道德修養的「新民說」等。而同樣身處於亡國壓力下的蔡元培,則在這一波改革「國民」的風潮中,體認到教育的重要,但不同於當時國家主義下的教育改革,他關心的是由下而上、以改造人心為要的方式。為了吸取更多教育救國的經驗和知識,四十歲的蔡元培,以翰林學士的身分,於光緒三十三年(1907)自費到德國去。
在德國萊比錫(Leipzig)大學的蔡元培,雖對當時德國社會的矛盾與對立無表意,但對其社會架構下的文化環境,則有深刻的體認。因在課堂上接觸康德﹙Immanuel Kant, 1724-1804﹚的美學理論,又在課餘閒暇時四處參訪美術館、博物館與戲劇院,使其無形中對美學產生興趣。於是,在課堂中不斷接觸美學理論與平日耳孺目染的美景美音相結合下,使蔡元培漸感美學的重要性。回國後,便把美學思想應用到實際的教育上,即積極提倡美育。如在任中央教育總長時,首將美育同智育、德育、體育、群育一同納入教育的五育中;並陸續創辦音樂、美術專門學校;組織各種美學研究會等,並在他積極的推動與影響下,許多師範學校、中小學都開設藝術課程;尚有中華美育會的成立、及《美育》雜誌的創刊。此外,更有不少學者也身體力行,發表文章、出版刊物,或四處講演來共同傳播美育思想,因而開闊了關於美育問題的討論。可說,美育思想到蔡元培這時候,形成了一個完整的體系。
除了美學外,蔡元培也吸取德國在教育上的理念與制度,尤其受洪堡德﹙Wilhelm von Humboldt, 1767-1835﹚的影響為大。洪堡德於十九世紀初年所提倡的學術自由、推崇教育的目的在追求真理、致力於使研究成為教育的一部分,並在大學與政府的關係上,力保大學的獨立自主等理念,則為二十世紀的蔡元培所認同,並實際應用於中國的教育改革上。不同於當時中國盛行的國家主義教育思想,以教育為達成政治目的手段,蔡元培以洪堡德的教育理念為尊,認為教育不應只為促進物質繁榮和國家強大而服務,應以人的道德精神需求為目的,強調教育是去中心主義,以重視學生個別的需求、發展學生個別潛能為主。而這些教育觀點的具體落實,則以其改革北京大學最著名。有些理念,仍可見於今日的台灣,如大學法的第一條「大學應受學術自由之保障,並在法律規定範圍內,享有自治權」,則為其倡導學術自由及教授治校理念的展現。
蔡元培對中國教育的遺澤為何?便是他一向秉持的、在中德文化中吸收消融的理想-美育與德育。他認為人不該因追求物質層面而忘掉精神層面,即環境的美與人類精神領域的擴展。觀察現下的台灣,似乎因經濟的長足發展,使人忽略到相伴而來、潛滋暗長的文化失調,而這種失調,則使台灣社會的道德基礎受到嚴重的侵蝕,造成今天道德價值的日趨混亂、社會風氣的日益敗壞。但大家似乎只知道問題的嚴重性卻不思考解決問題的急迫性。在當下「缺德」的環境下,則蔡元培的「歌德」及其所信仰的理念顯得格外重要。我想應重拾蔡元培的理念,以了解在經濟進步的表面,精神層面的美育與德育的重要性。回歸到教育改革上,則希望在重視升學成績的功利教育下,能留意到社會問題的嚴重性,而重返人格道德教育與美育的灌輸與培養,才是教改的根本。

Some historians stimulated by the present life choose their topics to study for solving the problems that contemporary people care about. Such research approach also touches me a lot. Take a look at our society filled with all kinds of reforms. The most influential reform, undoubtedly, is the “educational reform”. Under this kind of atmosphere of educational reform makes me wonder in which kind of educational reform idea I am modified. Regarding history as continuity, I trace back to the late Qing Dynasty to think how the traditional education of imperial examination transferred to the modern education form nowadays. When figuring out who settled the important foundation for this transition of Chinese education, I focus on Ts'ai Yüan-P'ei, who was not only the first premier of educational department of the Republic of China but also an educationist who was eager to pursue educational reform in his whole life. In fact, some of his educational theories and systems are still followed till today.
About this thesis, to demonstrate the interaction between man and environment, I tried to arrange Ts'ai in the social environment of China and Germany and adding his personal life in order to complement. Take Ts'ai as an example to prove that the transformation of social environment will influence the man and vice versa. This is what I mean the interaction between man and environment.
So, at first, I tried to deal with the social environment in China. In the late nineteenth century, China was in the hot water of domestic troubles and foreign invasion. After failing the Sino-Japanese War, the Self-strengthening Movement was proven in vain, so lots of intellectuals under the pressure urged to find other ways to save the country. It was the ideas of Social Darwinism introduced from the West that stimulated intellectuals to bring up the new reformational declaration. It was “save the nation, save the race”. From saving the race to saving the nation, the focus of the reformation is charged from the aspect of implements and political systems into that of “save the race”. Therefore the people became the highlight. Under this wave of reforming people, Ts'ai concerned about the education of the people. Unlike other nationalists, he thought that the process of educational reformation must be done bottom up and stress on changing the ideas of people. In order to learn more knowledge and direct experiments, Ts'ai, the forty-year-old scholar, came to Germany at his own cost in 1907.
Studying in University of Leipzig, Ts'ai got in touch with the aesthetic theory of Immanuel Kant. In addition, he usually took part in the drama performances or visited the museums as long as he had free time. Due to the immersion in the knowledge of aesthetics and beautiful scenery of Leipzig, Ts'ai gradually realized the importance of aesthetics. When coming back to China, he put his ideas into practice, such as the promotion of aesthetics and aesthetic education. Influenced by him, not only schools have art courses but numerous institutes and magazines of aesthetics were held. We can say that in Ts'ai's time, the ideas of aesthetic education in China became complete.
Besides aesthetics, Ts'ai also absorbed the idea and system in Germany, especially from Wilhelm von Humboldt. Embracing Humboldt's ideas, Ts'ai regarded education as a way to accomplish each moral need rather than to sacrifice for the nation. Obeying this conviction, his most famous contribution is the reformation of Beijing University. Even in Taiwan today, some of his faiths are still seen in our educational system, like the first rule of Law-University saying, “the university should be guaranteed by academic freedom, and enjoyed by autonomy within the range of legal provisions.”
After invariably seeking economical prosperity, the social problems and cultural imbalance raise rapidly in Taiwan. It is time for us to return to Ts'ai's persuasion by relying on aesthetics and ethics which are Ts'ai's remains. About the “educational reformation”, we must put more emphasis on the aesthetic and moral education to alter the difficult and miserable conditions.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/10649
Appears in Collections:歷史學系所

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