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標題: 以基板轉移技術進行氮化銦鎵共振腔發光二極體之研製與特性研究
Fabrication and Characterization of InGaN Resonant-Cavity Light-Emitting Diodes Prepared by Wafer Transfer Technologies
作者: 黃詩詠
Huang, Shih-Yung
關鍵字: GaN;氮化鎵;resonant-cavity;light-emitting diodes;laser lift-off;ion-implantation;共振腔;發光二極體;雷射剝離;離子佈植
出版社: 材料科學與工程學系所
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本論文主要是以基板轉移技術研製並分析氮化銦鎵綠光共振腔發光二極體 (Resonant-Cavity Light-Emitting Diodes; RCLEDs)。我們採用二種下反射鏡一者為介電質分散式布拉格反射鏡(Distributed Bragg Reflectors; DBRs))另一者為金屬鏡面,並與介電質之上反射鏡形成介電質與混和式鏡面之共振腔發光二極體,並比較其特性差異。我們亦採用離子佈值於p-GaN內形成高阻值的電流侷限層,並且藉由分析不同佈值濃度,獲得適用於氮化銦鎵綠光共振腔發光二極體之理想佈值濃度,而且藉此改變其光學特性以提昇元件特性。然後,我們採用基板轉移結合電鍍技術,成功製作出垂直導電氮化銦鎵綠光共振腔發光二極體,進而提升元件光電特性。
在介電質共振腔發光二極體元件特性方面,發光波長在525 nm時,腔模態寬度為5 nm,共振腔的品質因子為105,電激發光共振頻譜的半高寬從48 nm降至35 nm並且獲得穩定的共振波峰,此一共振特性之提升主要來自於良好的共振腔效應所致。在混和式共振腔發光二極體元件特性方面,有相似於介電質共振腔發光二極體之元件特性,然而,當兩種型式之共振腔發光二極體相比較時,由於DBRs相較於金屬鏡面具極少之光吸收率,導致具全介電質共振腔發光二極體有相對較高之光輸出功率。
另外,我們採用基板轉移結合電鍍技術,成功的將平行導通共振腔發光二極體(RCLED/sapphire)之共振波峰紅移率從0.14 nm/℃降為垂直導通共振腔發光二極體(RCLED/Cu)之0.03 nm/℃,而光對溫度的衰減率從9 % (RCLED/sapphire)降為3 % (RCLED/Cu),當操作電流為100 mA時,RCLED/Cu有高達155 MHz的頻率響應,並且在長度為100公尺的塑膠光纖,傳輸速率為100 MHz下,獲得較高的雜訊容許量。

In this dissertation, the fabrication of the InGaN green resonant-cavity light-emitting diodes (RCLEDs) was demonstrated using a combination of wafer bonding and laser lift-off (LLO) techniques. Two types of the RCLED structure were designed and evaluated. In the first one (all dielectric), both the top and bottom mirrors were fabricated using the dielectric distributed Bragg reflectors (DBRs). In the second type (hybrid), the metallic reflector was used as the bottom mirror and the dielectric DBR as the top mirror. For the all dielectric DBR RCLED sample, a cavity mode width of approximately 5 nm (emission peak at 525 nm) was obtained with a quality factor of 105. The full width at half maximum of the electroluminescence (EL) spectrum can be reduced from 48 to 35 nm and a stable EL emission peak is also achieved with less red shift. The improvement of the resonant properties can be attributed to the superior resonant-cavity effect. Although the both types of RCLEDs have similar characteristics, the all dielectric DBR RCLED sample shows the superior light output power because the dielectric DBR has lower light absorbency as compared with that of the metallic mirror.
To improve the directionality and output power of the RCLED samples, hydrogen implantation into the p-GaN epitaxial layer to form a current confinement layer with a high resistive region was attempted. The effect of implantation dose (1013 -1015 ions/cm2) on the performance of InGaN green RCLED was investigated. It was found that the 1014 ions/cm2 implanted device shows the best light emission directionality and output power. The results indicate that a tailored implantation concentration can effectively control the lateral current flow path to improve the directionality. This will increase the probability of the carrier recombination and change the optic characteristic, resulting in the enhancement of light output.
To further enhance the RCLED performance, the vertical-conducting InGaN green RCLEDs were fabricated using a combination of LLO and copper electroplating techniques. It was found that the RCLED on a copper heat sink can effectively reduce the red shift of peak emission wavelength (i.e. 0.14nm/℃ for RCLED/sapphire sample and 0.03 nm/℃ for RCLED/Cu sample). The light output power of RCLED/Cu and RCLED/sapphire samples decay by 3% and 9% under the ambient temperature from 25 to 85 ℃, respectively. For the RCLED/Cu sample, the superior frequency response of 155 MHz was achieved under a driving current of 100 mA. As compared with the RCLED/sapphire sample, the RCLED/Cu sample also exhibits the higher amount of noise that can be tolerated at a transmission rate of 100MHz for a 100-m long POF (NA=0.5) under a 100-mA driving current.
Based on these results, it is confirmed that the conventional problems encountered in fabricating InGaN RCLEDs, i.e. the high cost and growth difficulties of the epitaxial DBRs for wide high-reflectivity stopbands and high-reflectivity DBRs, can be overcome. By combining the electroplating technique, the RCLEDs on copper substrates present the superior operation properties for optic communication applications. Moreover, both the emission directionality and fiber-coupled power can be greatly improved by the ion implantation technique. An optimum implantation concentration for the InGaN RCLED process was also demonstrated. These indicate that the performance of InGaN RCLEDs can be further improved and have high potential for advanced fiber communication applications.
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