Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/10687
標題: 銲接工法對鋼骨鋼筋混凝土柱火害行為之研究
Effect of Welding Method on the Fire Behavior of Concrete Filled Box Columns
作者: 官道峰
Guan, Dao-Feng
關鍵字: 全滲透銲;complete penetration weld;半滲透銲;填充型箱型鋼柱;火害;partial penetration weld;concrete-filled box column;in fire
出版社: 土木工程學系所
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摘要: 
摘要

關鍵詞:全滲透銲、半滲透銲、填充型箱型鋼柱、火害

一、研究緣起
現今多數建築設計規範對結構防火保護均明文規定該國可接受的消防安全最低要求。建築物遭受火害之際,主要構造之柱、樑、牆、樓地板及屋頂部分至少應具有規定的防火時效,以確保其結構的穩定,使得居住人員可以安全撤離,且消防人員得以在火場內安全執行任務。換言之,建築物發生火災時,其樑、柱、牆及樓板等結構組件應具有在高溫下能負荷重量、遮擋火焰與高熱之耐火性能,以防止構體突然倒塌,並且能夠抑制火勢之延燒與擴大。鋼骨鋼筋混凝土柱(Steel Reinforced Concrete Column)擁有諸多優點,近年來已廣泛應用於全球各項建設。為推廣應用混凝土填充型箱型柱(Concrete Filled Box Column,或簡稱CFBC)於國內營建業,本研究旨在探討銲接工法(全滲透銲及半滲透銲)對CFBC火害行為的影響。

二、研究方法及過程
本研究製作兩支實尺寸CFBC試體,以探討銲接工法對其耐火時效的影響。試體CP1是以全滲透銲方式組銲,試體PP1則以半滲透銲銲方式組銲。試體斷面尺寸為500 mm × 500 mm,其長度為4350 mm,並填充混凝土。試體係採用四片鋼板組銲而成,鋼材屬SN 490B等級,其厚度為22 mm。試體兩端設有加勁鋼板,以傳遞設定載重,並避免影響其熱負載能力。此外,於柱試體受熱段四個不同高度斷面埋設K型熱電偶,以測析其表面至內部核心的溫度分佈。柱試體係於高溫實驗爐中進行定載升溫之火害試驗,即先對其施加0.28倍設計斷面極限強度的載重,再依CNS 12514標準升溫曲線加熱至設定的實驗終止條件。另方面,亦建構數值分析模式,以預測高溫下柱試體表面至內部核心的溫度分佈情形,並與試驗值作一比較。

三、重要發現
兩支配置剪力釘之無防火被覆混凝土填充型箱型柱進行定載火害升溫試驗,直至試驗達到終止條件。試驗過程中,複合式試驗爐係依CNS 12514標準升溫曲線控制爐溫。除銲接方式外,兩支柱試體擁有相同的材料特性,並承受同樣的定載重。如所預期,柱試體於試驗初期呈現出膨脹伸長,但隨後則發生壓縮現象。柱試體的變形起因於諸多因素,如載重、熱膨脹及潛變。載重及熱膨脹於試驗初期較顯著,潛變則於試驗後期階段較為明顯。定載火害升溫試驗結果顯示,試體CP1(全滲透銲方式組銲)之耐火時效為55分鐘,而試體PP1(半滲透銲方式組銲)之耐火時效則為51分鐘。由此觀之,在0.28倍設計斷面極限強度的載重作用下,銲接工法對CFBC耐火時效的影響並不顯著。此外,所建構數值分析模式可合理預測試體於各時間歷程的橫截面溫度分佈。

Effect of welding method on the fire behavior of concrete filled box columns
ABSTRACT

Keywords: complete penetration weld, partial penetration weld, concrete-filled box column, in fire

1. Background
Nowadays the requirements of structural fire protection contained in most building codes represent the minimum levels of fire safety deemed acceptable to their countries. In order to provide sufficient time for occupants on the floors above the fire floor to reach an area of safety; to support the fire separations necessary to control the overall size of the fire and prevent conflagration; and to minimize potential damage to adjacent properties, most codes normally require that load bearing elements and assemblies (walls, columns and beams) have a fire resistance rating at least equivalent to that required for the supported assembly (floor or roof). Steel reinforced concrete columns have been used on various building projects with great advantage throughout the world in recent years. To promote the applications of concrete filled box columns (CFBC) in the domestic building and construction industry, this study aims to examine the fire behavior of CFBC fabricated by complete penetration weld and partial penetration weld, respectively.

2. Research method and process
A series of two full-size experiments were carried out to consider the effect of welding method on the fire resistance of CFBC. CP1 specimen was fabricated by complete penetration weld while PP1 specimen was fabricated by partial penetration weld. The tested columns were all square section 500 mm � 500 mm with 4350 mm hige and were filled with plain concrete. All of the steel sections of the specimens were fabricated from steel plate of 22 mm wall thickness. These plates were joined by longitudinal fillet welds at the vertices. Each of the CFBC had end plates welded to them in order to transfer the load, and end stiffeners were also introduced to ensure that end conditions did not affect the failure resistance of thermal load. Besides, the temperature from the specimen''s surface to the inner central core was measured with type K thermocouples located at different depths in four sections of the column. The columns were subjected to a constant compressive load, during the whole test, of 4969 kN. This load was controlled by a load cell of 19.6 MN, located on the head of the piston of a jack. The applied load corresponded to 28% of the design value of buckleing resistance of the column at room temperature. Thermal load was applied on the columns in form of CNS 12514 time-temperature curve in a natural gas-fired large-scale laboratory furnace untill the set experiment termination condition was reached. On the other hand, a numerical model was established for predicting temperature distribution at surface and inner portions of the CFBC at elevated temperatures, and thus making a comparison with the experimental values.

3. Important discoveries
Two concrete-filled box columns with shear studs were tested to failure by exposing the columns to fire. No external fire protection was provided for the steel. During the test, the column was exposed to heating controlled in such a way that the average temperature in the furnace followed, as closely as possible, the standard time-temperature curve of CNS 12514. These two columns had similar characteristics except welding method and were subjected to similar load levels. As expected, the columns expand in the initial stages and then contract leading to failure. The deformation in these columns results from several factors such as load, thermal expansion and creep. The effect of load and thermal expansion is significant in the early stages, while the effect of creep becomes pronounced in the later stages. Results from the fire tests indicate that the fire resistance of CP1 specimen is about 55 minutes, as compared to about 51 minutes for PP1 specimen. As a result, it can be concluded that under a lower load ratio of 0.28, the effect of welding method on the fire resistance of CFBC is not significant. Inaddition, the established numerical model was able to reasonably predict the temperature distribution in time history on the specimen cross section.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/10687
其他識別: U0005-2808201301004500
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