Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item:
標題: 銲接工法對鋼骨鋼筋混凝土柱火害行為之研究
Effect of Welding Method on the Fire Behavior of Concrete Filled Box Columns
作者: 官道峰
Guan, Dao-Feng
關鍵字: 全滲透銲;complete penetration weld;半滲透銲;填充型箱型鋼柱;火害;partial penetration weld;concrete-filled box column;in fire
出版社: 土木工程學系所
引用: 參考書目 1.Abrams, M. S. (1973). “Compressive Strength of Concrete at Temperatures to 1600°F,” Research and Development Bulletin RD016, Portland Cement Association. 2.Abrams, M.S. (1977), “Performance of Concrete Structures Exposed to Fire,” Research and Development Bulletin RD060, Portland Cement Association. 3.ACI Committee 213(2003). “Guide for Structural Lightweight-Aggregate Concrete,”. 4.Alnajim, A. (2004). “Modelisation et simulation du comportement du beton sous hautes temperatures par une approche thermo-hygro-mecaniique couplee application a des situations accidentelles,”. 5.Anderberg, Y. (1997). “Spalling phenomena of HPC and OC,” Proc., In Workshop on Fire Performance of High-Strength Concrete, NIST Spec. Publ. 919, L. T. Phan, N. J. Carino, D. Duthinh, and E. Garboczi, (eds), National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Md., pp. 69-73. 6.ASTM E1529-00, “Standard Test Methods for Determining Effects of Large Hydrocarbon Pool Fires on Structural Members and Assemblies,”. 7.Bažant, Z.P. (1997). “Analysis of pore pressure: thermal stresses and fracture in rapidly heated concrete,” Proc, In Workshop on Fire Performance of High-Strength Concrete, NIST Spec. Publ. 919, L. T. Phan, N. J. Carino, D. Duthinh, and E. Garboczi, (eds), National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Md., pp. 155-164. 8.Bazant, Z.P. and Tsubaki, T. (1980). “Non-linear creep buckling of reinforced-concrete columns,” Journal of the structural division-ASCE, 106(11): pp. 2235-2257. 9.Behan, J.E. and Oconnor, C. (1982). “Creep buckling of reinforced-concrete columns,” Journal of the structural division-ASCE, 108(12): pp. 2799-2818. 10.Bilodeau, A., Kodur, V.K.R., and Hoff, G.C. (2004). “Optimization of the type and amount of polypropylene fibres for preventing the spalling of lightweight concrete subjected to hydrocarbon fire,” Cement & Concrete Composites, Vol. 26, pp. 163-174. 11.BSI (1985). “Structural Use of Concrete, BS 8110,” British Standards Institution, UK. 12.Castillo, C. and Durrani, A.J. (1990). “Effect of transient high temperature on high-strength concrete,” ACI Mater J., 87(1), pp.47-53. 13.Chan, S.Y.N., Luob, X., andSunb, W. (2000). “Effect of high temperature and cooling regimes on the compressive strength and pore properties of high performance concrete,” Construction and Building Materials, No. (14), pp. 261-266. 14.Collet, Y. (1977). “Etude des proprietes du beton soumis a des temperatures elevees entre 200 net 900°C,” Annales des Travaux Publics Beiges, No. 4, pp. 332-338. 15.Commission of the European Communities (1990). “Eurcode 2, Design of Concrete Structure, Part 1.2: Structural Fire Design,”. 16.Design of Concrete Structures for Buildings (1984), Canadian Standards Association, CSA Standard CAN3-A23.3, Rexdale, Ontario. 17.Japanese Industrial Standards Handbook, JIS A1340(1975). “Method of fire resistance tests for structural parts ofbuildings,” Japanese Standards Assoc., Tokyo,Japan, pp. 335-339. 18.EC2 (1993). “Eurocode 2: Design of Concrete Structures. ENV 1992-1-2: General Rules – Structural Fire Design,” European Committee for Standardization, Brussels, Belgium. 19.EC3 (1995). “Eurocode 3: Design of Steel Structures. ENV 1993-1-2: General Rules – Structural Fire Design,” European Committee for Standardization, Brussels, Belgium. 20.Eurocode 2 (2002). “Design of concrete structures. prEN 1992-1-2 part 1.2: General rules – Structural fire design, European Committee for Standardization,” Brussels. 21.Furumura, F. and Ave, T. (1984). “Creep buckling of steel columns at high temperatures: Part I Development of Creep Buckling Test Apparatus,” Journal of Structural and Construction Engineering, Transactions of the Architectural Institute of Japan, Vol. 344, pp. 164-173. 22.Hammer, T.A. (1995). “Compressive Strength and E-modulus at Elevated Temperatures,” Report 6.1, High Strength Concrete phase 3, SINTEF-report no STF70 A95023, Trondheim, pp. 16. 23.Hoff, N.J. (1957). “Buckling at High Temperatures,” Journal of the Royal Aeronautical Society, Vol. 61, pp. 756-774. 24.Holman, J.P. (1997). “Heat Transfer,” 8/E, McGraw-Hill, Inc. 25.Huang, Z., and Platten, A. (1997). “Non-linear finite element analysis of planar reinforced concrete members subjected to fires,” ACI Structural Journal, Vol. 94, No. 3, pp. 272–82. 26.Huang, N.C. (1976). “Creep buckling of imperfect columns,” Journal of Applied Mechanics, Vol. 43, pp. 131-136. 27.Huang, Z.F., and Tan, K.H. (2003). “Rankine approach for fire resistance of axially-and-flexurally restrained steel columns,” Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Vol. 59, pp. 1553-1571. 28.Huang, Z.F., Tan, K.H. and Ting, S.K. (2006). “Heating rate and boundary restraint effects on fire resistance of steel columns with creep,” Engineering Structures, Vol. 28, No. 6, pp. 805-817. 29.Inwood, M. (1999). “Review of NZS 3101 for high strength and lightweight concrete exposed to fire,” Fire Engineering Research Report 99/10. University of Canterbury, New Zealand. 30.Kalifa, P., Menneteau, F.D., and Quenard, D. (2000). “Spalling and pore pressure in HPC at high temperatures,” Cement and Concrete Research, Vol. 30, pp. 1915-1927. 31.Kodur, V.K.R., and Sultan, M.A. (1998). “Structural Behavior of High Strength Concrete Columns Exposed to Fire,” International Symposium on High Performance and Reactive Powder Concrete, Sherbrooke, QC, pp.217-232. 32.Kodur, V.K.R., and McGrath, R. (2001). “Performance of High Strength Concrete Columns under Severe Conditions,” Proceedings Third International Conference on Concrete under Severe Conditions, Vancouver, BC, Canada, pp.254-268. 33.Kodur, V.K.R., Wang, T.C., and Cheng, F.P. (2004). “Predicting the Fire Resistance Behavior of High Strength Concrete Columns,” Cement & Concrete Composites, Vol. 26, No. 2, pp.141-153. 34.Lie, T.T. and Allen, D.E. (1972). “Calculation of the fire resistance of reinforced concrete columns,” Division of Building Research, National Research Council of Canada, Technical Paper No. 378, Ottawa, NRCC 12797. 35.Lie, T.T., and Harmathy, T.Z. (1972). “Numerical Procedure to Calculate the Temperature of Protected Steel Columns Exposed to Fire,” Fire Study No.28, Division of Building Research, National Research Council of Canada, NRCC12535, Ottawa. 36.Lie, T.T., and Irwin, R.J. (1993). “Method to Calculate the Fire Resistance of Reinforced Concrete Columns with Rectangular Cross Section,” ACI Structural Journal, Vol. 90, No. 1, pp. 52-60. 37.Lie, T.T. and Kodur, V.K.R. (1996). “Fire Resistance of Steel Columns Filled with Bar-Reinforced Concrete,” ASCE Journal of Structural Engineering, Vol. 122, No. 1, pp. 30-36. 38.Metha, P.K. (1986). “Concrete-Structure, Material and Properties,” Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, J. J. 39.Mustapha, K.N. (1994). “Parametric study of the behavior of reinforced concrete columns in fire,” Ph.D. thesis, Aston University. 40.Nippon Steel Corporation (1992). “Use of Fr Steel: Design of steelframes to eliminate Fire Protection,” No. AC313. 41.Phan, L.T. (1996). “Fire Performance of High-Strength Concrete: A Report of the State-of-the-Art,” NISTIR 5934. 42.Phan, L.T. (1996). “Fire Performance of High-Strength Concrete: A Report of the State-of-the-Art,” NISTIR 5934, Building and Fire Research Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland. 43.Phan, L.T., and Carino, N.J. (1998). “Review of mechanical properties of HSC at elevated temperature,” Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, American Society of Civil Engineers, Vol. 10, No. 1, pp. 58-64. 44.Phan, L.T., and Carino, N.J. (2001). “Mechanical Properties of High Strength Concrete at Elevated Temperatures,” NISTIR 6726, Building and Fire Research Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland. 45.Phan, L.T., Lawson, J.R., andDavis, F.L., “Effects of elevated temperature exposure on heating characteristics, spalling, and residual properties of high performance concrete”, Materials and Structures, Vol. 34, pp.83-91 (2001). 46.Phan, L.T., and Carino, N.J. (2002). “Effects of test conditions and mixture proportions on behavior of high-strength concrete exposed to high temperatures,” ACI Materials Journal, American Concrete Institute, Vol. 99, No. 1, pp. 54-66. 47.Phan, L.T., and Carino, N.J., “Code Provisions for High Strength Concrete Strength-Temperature Relationship at Elevated Temperatures”, Building and Fire Research Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology, 100 Bureau Drive, Mailstop 8611, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899-8611. 48.Purkiss, J.A. (1996). “Fire safety engineering, designing of structures,” Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann. 49.Sadaoui, A. and Khennane, A. (2009). “Effect of transient reep on the behaviour of reinforced concrete columns in fire,” Engineering Structures, Vol. 31, No. 9, pp. 2203-2208. 50.Sakumoto, Y., Okada, T., Yoshida, M., Tasaka, S. (1994). “Fire resistance of concrete-filled, fire resistant steel tube column,” Journal of Material in Civil Engineering, Vol. 6, No. 2. 51.Sanjayan, G. and Stocks, L.J. (1993). “Spalling of high-strength silica fume concrete in fire,” ACI Mater J., Vol. 90, No. 2, pp. 170-173. 52.Schneider, U. (1983). “Behavior of concrete at high temperatures,” RILEM-Committee 44-PHT. 53.Schneider, U. (1985). “Properties of materials at high temperatures-Concrete,” RILEM-Committee 44-PHT Department of Civil Engineering, University of Kassel. 54.Schneider, U. (1988). “Concrete at High Temperatures – A General Review,” in Fire Safety Journal, Elsevier, Vo.13, No.1, pp. 55-68. 55.Tan, K.H., Ting, S.K., Huang Zhanfei (2002). “Visco-elasto-plastic analysis of steel frames in fire,” ASCE Journal of Structural Engineering, Vol. 128, No. 1, pp. 105-114. 56.Terro, M.J. (1998). “Numerical modelling of the behavior of concrete structures in fire,” ACI Structural Journal, Vol. 95, No. 3/4, pp. 183–93. 57.Ishida, T., Maekawa, K. and Kishi, T. (2007). “Enhanced modeling of moisture equilibrium and transport in cementitious materials under arbitrary temperature and relative humidity history,” Cement and Concrete Research, Vol. 37, pp. 565-578. 58.The Concrete Society (1978). “Assessment of Fire Damaged Concrete Structures and Repair by Gunite,” Report of a Concrete Society Working Party, London, pp. 28. 59.Tovey, A.K. (1986). “Assessment and Repair of Fire Damaged Concrete Structures-an Update,” ACI, Special Publication Sp-92, Evaluation and Repair of Fire Damaged to Concrete, Edited by T. Z. Harmathy. 60.Vinogradov, A.M. (1985). “Nonlinear effect in creep buckling analysis of columns,” ASCE Journal of Engineering Mechanics, Vol. 111, No. 6, pp. 757-767. 61.Zeiml, M., Leithner, D., Lackner, R., and Mang, H.A. (2006). “How do polypropylene fibers improve the spalling behavior of in-situ concrete?,” Cement and Concrete Research, Vol. 36, pp. 929-942. 62.Zeng, J.L., Tan, K.H. and Huang, Z.F. (2003). “Primary creep buckling of steel columns in fire,” Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Vol 59, pp. 951-970. 63.方朝俊(2000),「火害對耐火鋼構件銲接及栓接行為之影響」,碩士論文,國立台灣科技大學,台北。 64.日本建築基準法令集(平成11 年版),社團法人日本建築學會 65.王慶雲(2002),「應用高強度混凝土之鋼骨鋼筋混凝土耐震行為」,碩士論文,國立中央大學土木工程研究所,台北。 66.何奇鈺(2008),「鋼結構用防火被覆材料之熱傳特性研究研究」,碩士論文,國立成功大學航空太空工程學系暨研究所,台北。 67.李玉生、楊國珍等(2010),「高溫下內灌混凝土耐火鋼箱型鋼柱之軸向受力行為研究」,內政部建築研究所協同研究報告。 68.沈進發、陳舜田、沈得縣(1998),「混凝土結構物火害後現場勘查之程序」,結構工程,第十三卷,第二期,43-59頁。 69.沈得縣、陳舜田、沈進發(1999),「各國火害後混凝土結構物安全評估程序介紹」,建築物火害及災後安全評估法研討會論文集,43-70頁,台北,台灣。 70.沈家豪(2010),「鋼骨鋼筋混凝土柱塑性轉角容量之研究」,碩士論文,國立台灣科技大學營建工程系暨研究所,台北。 71.吳敏洽(1987),「受熱後混凝土內部之力學性質變化」,國立中興大學,碩士論文(指導教授顏聰)。 72.高金盛、沈進發、陳舜田(1994),「混凝土火害溫度之綜合評估」,第二屆結構工程研討會論文集(I),49-59頁,南投日月潭,台灣。 73.陳舜田(1996),「火害工程研究」,結構工程,第十一卷,第一期,39-46頁。 74.陳舜田(1999),「國內外火害工程研究簡介」,建築物火害及災後安全評估法研討會論文集,31-42頁,台北,台灣。 75.陳韋夷(2009),「鋼柱在高溫環境下之潛變挫屈研究」,國立成功大學土木工程研究所碩士論文。 76.陳誠直、趙文成等(2010),「含混凝土箱型鋼柱火害下軸向受力行為之研究」,內政部建築研究所委託研究報告。 77.最新建築技術規則(1999),詹氏書局,台北,第51-62頁。 78.鄭錦銅(1987),「混凝土在高溫下之熱傳及微觀結構變化」,國立中興大學,碩士論文(指導教授顏聰),民國76年。 79.劉玉雯,「鋼筋混凝土高溫作用後握裹行為之微觀研究」,國立中興大學,碩士論文(指導教授顏聰)。 80.蕭琦賢(2002),「鋼鐵材料在火場中耐高溫之行為研究」,碩士論文,國立台灣科技大學營建工程系暨研究所,台北。 81.詹富傑(2004),「軸力及雙向彎矩作用下之鋼骨鋼筋混凝土柱耐震行為」,碩士論文,國立中央大學土木工程研究所,台北。 82.中華民國國家標準CNS 12514 (2010),「建築物構造部分耐火試驗法」,經濟部標準檢驗局。 83.李鎮宏(2009),「火災熱傳遞與鋼結構安全性能評估之分析研究」,內政部建築研究所自行研究成果報告。


現今多數建築設計規範對結構防火保護均明文規定該國可接受的消防安全最低要求。建築物遭受火害之際,主要構造之柱、樑、牆、樓地板及屋頂部分至少應具有規定的防火時效,以確保其結構的穩定,使得居住人員可以安全撤離,且消防人員得以在火場內安全執行任務。換言之,建築物發生火災時,其樑、柱、牆及樓板等結構組件應具有在高溫下能負荷重量、遮擋火焰與高熱之耐火性能,以防止構體突然倒塌,並且能夠抑制火勢之延燒與擴大。鋼骨鋼筋混凝土柱(Steel Reinforced Concrete Column)擁有諸多優點,近年來已廣泛應用於全球各項建設。為推廣應用混凝土填充型箱型柱(Concrete Filled Box Column,或簡稱CFBC)於國內營建業,本研究旨在探討銲接工法(全滲透銲及半滲透銲)對CFBC火害行為的影響。

本研究製作兩支實尺寸CFBC試體,以探討銲接工法對其耐火時效的影響。試體CP1是以全滲透銲方式組銲,試體PP1則以半滲透銲銲方式組銲。試體斷面尺寸為500 mm × 500 mm,其長度為4350 mm,並填充混凝土。試體係採用四片鋼板組銲而成,鋼材屬SN 490B等級,其厚度為22 mm。試體兩端設有加勁鋼板,以傳遞設定載重,並避免影響其熱負載能力。此外,於柱試體受熱段四個不同高度斷面埋設K型熱電偶,以測析其表面至內部核心的溫度分佈。柱試體係於高溫實驗爐中進行定載升溫之火害試驗,即先對其施加0.28倍設計斷面極限強度的載重,再依CNS 12514標準升溫曲線加熱至設定的實驗終止條件。另方面,亦建構數值分析模式,以預測高溫下柱試體表面至內部核心的溫度分佈情形,並與試驗值作一比較。

兩支配置剪力釘之無防火被覆混凝土填充型箱型柱進行定載火害升溫試驗,直至試驗達到終止條件。試驗過程中,複合式試驗爐係依CNS 12514標準升溫曲線控制爐溫。除銲接方式外,兩支柱試體擁有相同的材料特性,並承受同樣的定載重。如所預期,柱試體於試驗初期呈現出膨脹伸長,但隨後則發生壓縮現象。柱試體的變形起因於諸多因素,如載重、熱膨脹及潛變。載重及熱膨脹於試驗初期較顯著,潛變則於試驗後期階段較為明顯。定載火害升溫試驗結果顯示,試體CP1(全滲透銲方式組銲)之耐火時效為55分鐘,而試體PP1(半滲透銲方式組銲)之耐火時效則為51分鐘。由此觀之,在0.28倍設計斷面極限強度的載重作用下,銲接工法對CFBC耐火時效的影響並不顯著。此外,所建構數值分析模式可合理預測試體於各時間歷程的橫截面溫度分佈。

Effect of welding method on the fire behavior of concrete filled box columns

Keywords: complete penetration weld, partial penetration weld, concrete-filled box column, in fire

1. Background
Nowadays the requirements of structural fire protection contained in most building codes represent the minimum levels of fire safety deemed acceptable to their countries. In order to provide sufficient time for occupants on the floors above the fire floor to reach an area of safety; to support the fire separations necessary to control the overall size of the fire and prevent conflagration; and to minimize potential damage to adjacent properties, most codes normally require that load bearing elements and assemblies (walls, columns and beams) have a fire resistance rating at least equivalent to that required for the supported assembly (floor or roof). Steel reinforced concrete columns have been used on various building projects with great advantage throughout the world in recent years. To promote the applications of concrete filled box columns (CFBC) in the domestic building and construction industry, this study aims to examine the fire behavior of CFBC fabricated by complete penetration weld and partial penetration weld, respectively.

2. Research method and process
A series of two full-size experiments were carried out to consider the effect of welding method on the fire resistance of CFBC. CP1 specimen was fabricated by complete penetration weld while PP1 specimen was fabricated by partial penetration weld. The tested columns were all square section 500 mm � 500 mm with 4350 mm hige and were filled with plain concrete. All of the steel sections of the specimens were fabricated from steel plate of 22 mm wall thickness. These plates were joined by longitudinal fillet welds at the vertices. Each of the CFBC had end plates welded to them in order to transfer the load, and end stiffeners were also introduced to ensure that end conditions did not affect the failure resistance of thermal load. Besides, the temperature from the specimen''s surface to the inner central core was measured with type K thermocouples located at different depths in four sections of the column. The columns were subjected to a constant compressive load, during the whole test, of 4969 kN. This load was controlled by a load cell of 19.6 MN, located on the head of the piston of a jack. The applied load corresponded to 28% of the design value of buckleing resistance of the column at room temperature. Thermal load was applied on the columns in form of CNS 12514 time-temperature curve in a natural gas-fired large-scale laboratory furnace untill the set experiment termination condition was reached. On the other hand, a numerical model was established for predicting temperature distribution at surface and inner portions of the CFBC at elevated temperatures, and thus making a comparison with the experimental values.

3. Important discoveries
Two concrete-filled box columns with shear studs were tested to failure by exposing the columns to fire. No external fire protection was provided for the steel. During the test, the column was exposed to heating controlled in such a way that the average temperature in the furnace followed, as closely as possible, the standard time-temperature curve of CNS 12514. These two columns had similar characteristics except welding method and were subjected to similar load levels. As expected, the columns expand in the initial stages and then contract leading to failure. The deformation in these columns results from several factors such as load, thermal expansion and creep. The effect of load and thermal expansion is significant in the early stages, while the effect of creep becomes pronounced in the later stages. Results from the fire tests indicate that the fire resistance of CP1 specimen is about 55 minutes, as compared to about 51 minutes for PP1 specimen. As a result, it can be concluded that under a lower load ratio of 0.28, the effect of welding method on the fire resistance of CFBC is not significant. Inaddition, the established numerical model was able to reasonably predict the temperature distribution in time history on the specimen cross section.
其他識別: U0005-2808201301004500
Appears in Collections:土木工程學系所

Files in This Item:
File SizeFormat Existing users please Login
nchu-102-7100062112-1.pdf4.14 MBAdobe PDFThis file is only available in the university internal network    Request a copy
Show full item record

Google ScholarTM


Items in DSpace are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.