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Effect of Gallol-PEG Surfactants on Rheological Behaviors of Aqueous Nickel Nanoparticle Suspensions
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就添加不同尾端鏈結長度的Gallol-PEG界面活性劑的鎳漿料而言，固定漿料的固含量(φ)在20 vol.%，添加Gallol-PEG550的漿料黏度在剪切速率範圍 γ = 1-1000 s-1都低於未添加分散劑鎳漿料，而添加Gallol-PEG1100的漿料黏度也類似。將不同固含量(φ= 10-40 vol.%)的水系奈米鎳懸浮體，個別添加2 wt.%的Gallol-PEG550作為分散劑時，在剪切速率範圍 γ = 1-1000 s-1，其流變行為都呈剪切變薄特徵。吾人以既有經驗模式計算懸浮體的降伏強度，並理論預測其碎形次元(Df)約在2.05-2.11，顯示反應極限凝塊聚集(RCLA)機制。
吾人進一步利用Vold模式評估支配粒子間的凡得瓦爾吸引力，並比較前述不同Gallol-PEG分子與鎳粒子間之吸引位能的關係。發現材料的Hamaker常數和吸附層厚度明顯影響粒子間的吸引位能值。在僅考慮凡得瓦爾吸引位能和靜電排斥位能的情況，吾人估計鎳膠體粒子間之總位能與固含量間之關係，在所用之分散劑中，添加Gallol-PEG1100的漿料之總位能具較小的吸引力(較大的排斥力)，預期將對鎳膠體系統提供最佳的穩定分散性。以實驗驗證，在固含量40 vol.%時，添加Gallol-PEG1100的漿料黏度卻稍大於添加Gallol-PEG 550情況，推測可能是帶有較厚吸附層的粒子，在極小的面分離距離內難以剪切流動，而導致漿料黏度上升所致。
Nickel nanoparticles disperse in deionized water and tailor-made Gallol-PEG molecules are added as a dispersant for this research. Gallol-PEG surfactants were synthesized through the esterification between gallic acid and poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether (PEG-Me), and the chain length of the tail group structure can be adjusted by varying the molecular weight of monomer. Analysis from Zeta potential confirms that the adsorption happens between the anchoring head group and the surface of the Nickel particles. Moreover the adsorption isotherms illustrate that Gallol-PEG molecules with different molecular weights all show that the adsorption behaves as Langmuir-type monolayer on the particle surface, and the maximum saturated adsorption and the surface coverage of surfactants are determined.
In terms of Ni inks with different tail length of Gallol-PEG surfactants, the viscosity of ink containing Gallol-PEG550 is less than the one without a surfactant over a shear-rate range 1-1000 s-1 at 20 vol. % solid concentration of the inks. The viscosity of ink within Gallol-PEG1100 shows similar results as well. The rheological behavior of aqueous nickel nanoparticle suspensions show shear thinning phenomena with different solid concentrations φ = 10-40 vol.%) and with 2 wt.% Gallol-PEG550 over a shear-rate range 1-1000 s-1. Different empirical models were used to evaluate the yield stress of the suspension, giving a fractal dimension (Df) of around 2.05-2.11. This indicates that the mechanism is dominated by the reaction-limited cluster-cluster aggregation (RCLA).
The Vold model was used to investigate the van der Waald force between particles and to determine the relationship between different Gallol-PEG molecules and Nickel particles. The Hamaker constant of materials and the adsorbed layer thickness significantly affect the attractive potential between particles. In view of the van der Waals attractive potential and electrostatic repulsive potential, the relationships between the total potential energy of interparticles and solid concentrations were estimated. The total potential of the ink containing Gallol-PEG1100 has smaller attractive force among all dispersant, expected to provide enough dispersive stability for suspension system. Under a solid concentration of 40 vol.%, the ink viscosity with Gallol-PEG1100 is greater than that with Gallol-PEG550, to presume that the particle with thicker adsorbed layer at the extreme small separated distance between nanoparticles is hardly to shear flow, in order to increase the viscosity of the ink.
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