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標題: 雙道固床工下游沖刷之室內試驗研究
Laboratory Investigation of Scouring Downstream of Two Grade-Control Structures
作者: 吳紋瑩
Wu, Wen-Ying
關鍵字: 雙道固床工;grade-control structures;局部沖刷;變量流;local scour;unsteady flow
出版社: 土木工程學系所
引用: 1.何淑君(2009),「透水框架群應用於固床工下游沖刷保護之研究」,碩士論文,國立中興大學土木工程研究所。 2.張凱博(2010),「變量流作用下之固床工沖刷室內試驗研究」,碩士論文,國立中興大學土木工程研究所。 3.彭明正(2008),「變量流作用下非均勻橋墩之局部沖刷量測與模擬」,碩士論文,國立中興大學土木工程研究所。 4.彭思顯(1994),「投潭水作用下局部沖刷之動態研究」,碩士論文,國立中興大學土木工程研究所。 5.盧昭堯、賴進松及林詠彬(2008),「河道固床工破壞機制與減沖促淤新工法研擬」,經濟部水利署水利規劃試驗所委託研究計畫成果報告。 6.Briaud, J. L., Chen, H. C., Kwak, K. W., Han, S.-W. and Ting, F. C. K. (2001) “Multiflood and multilayer method for scour rate prediction at bridge piers” J. Geotech. Geoenviron. Eng., ASCE, vol. 127(2), 114-125. 7.Breusers, H. N. C. (1966) “Conformity and time scale in two-dimensional local scour” Proc. Symposium on model and prototype conformity: 1-8, Hydraulic research Laboratory Poona (also Delft Hydraulic, Delft, Publication 40). 8.Breusers, H. N. C. and Raukivi, A. J. (1991) “Scouring” A. A. Balkema, 123-142. 9.Chang, W. Y., Lai, J. S. and Yen, C. L. (2004) “Evolution of scour depth at circular bridge piers” J. Hydraul. Eng., 130(9), 905-913. 10.Dey, S. and Sarkar, A. (2006) “Scour downstream of an apron due to submerged horizontal jets” J. Hydraul. Eng., ASCE, vol. 132(3), 246-257. 11.Farhoudi, J. and Smith, K. V. H. (1985) “Local Scour Profiles Downstream of Hydraulic Jump” J. Hydraul. Res., 23(4), 343-358. 12.Gaudio, R., Marion, A. and Bovolin, V. (2000) “Morphological effects of bed sills in degrading rivers” J. Hydraul. Res., 38(2), 89-96. 13.Gaudio, R. and Marion, A. (2003) “Time evolution of scouring downstream of bed sills” J. Hydraul. Res., 41(3), 271-284. 14.Hoffmans, G. J. C. M. (1990) “Concentration and flow velocity measurements in a local scour hole” Report 4-90, Faculty of civil Engineering, Hydraulic and Geotecnical Engineering Division, Delft Univercity of Technology, Delft. 15.Hoffmans, G. J. C. M. anf Verheji, H. J. (1997) “Scour manual” Balkema, Rotterdam, The Nethelands. 16.Lenzi, M. A., Marion, A., Comiti, F. and Gaudio, R. (2003) “Local scouring at grade-control structures in alluvial mountain rivers” Water Resour. Res., 39(7), 1176. 17.Lenzi, M. A., Marion, A., Comiti, F. and Gaudio, R. (2002) “Local scouring in low and high gradient streams at bed sills” J. Hydraul. Res., 40(6), 731-739. 18.Lu, J. Y., Hong, J. H., Chang, K. P. and Lu, T. F. (2012) “Evolution of scouring process downstream of grade-control structures under steady and unsteady flows” Hydrological Processes doi: 10.1002/hyp.9318. 19.Meftah, M. B. and Mossa, M. M. (2006) “Scour holes downstream of bed sills in low-gradient channels” J. Hydraul. Res., 44(4), 497-509. 20.Melville, B. W. and Coleman, S. E. (2000) “Bridge Scour” Water Resources Publications, LLC., 193-196. 21.Oliveto, G. and Hager, W. (2005) “Further results to time-dependent local scour at bridge elements” J. Hydraul. Eng., 131(2), 97-105. 22.Oliveto, G., Comuniello, V. and Onorati, B. (2008) “Temporal development of local scour downstream of positive-step stilling basins” River flow 2008, vol. 2, 1673-1678. 23.Pagliara, S. (2007) “Influence of sediment gradation on scour downstream of block ramps” J. Hydraul. Eng., 133(11), 1241-1248. 24.Shields, A. (1936) “Anwendung der ahnlichkeitsmechanik und turbulenz forschung auf die geschiebebewegung” Mitteil. Preuss. Versuchsanst. Wasser, Erd, Schiffsbau, Berlin, Nr.26. 25.Tregnaghi, M., Marion, A. and Coleman, S. (2009) “Scouring at bed sills as a response to flush floods” J. Hydraul. Eng., 135(6), 466-475. 26.Zanke, U. (1978) “Zusammenhange zwischen stromung und sediment transport” Mitt. Des Franzius Instituts der Univ. Hannover, Nr. 47,Nr. 48 (in German).
定量流沖刷模擬方面,第一道固床工下游沖刷坑之形態,並加入Lu等人 (2012)多階式固床工沖刷之試驗資料,一併進行分析比較。此外,第二道固床工下游平衡沖刷坑型態,考慮福祿數等參數為影響因子,並與Gaudio-Marion (2003)適用於亞臨界流況之推估模式進行比較,以提升模式之實用性。

River bed elevations of many rivers in the west of Taiwan have lowered down seriously and caused the exposures of pier foundations for the past few decades. The management bureaus often build grade-control structures to stabilize the river beds and reduce the scouring of pier foundations. There is an urgent need for the research of scouring downstream of grade-control structures.
A series of experiment on the grade-control structures was conducted with different sand sizes and slopes for four kinds of flow discharges under steady and unsteady flow conditions. The mechanism of the edge failures downstream of the grade-control structures and the shapes of the scour holes were investigated. Moreover, the evolution of the scouring process was simulated. The scour downstream of the second grade-control structure was considered as a live bed scour due to the upstream sediment supply.
In regard to the steady flow scour simulation, the shapes of equilibrium scour holes downstream of the first grade-control structure were analyzed with our measured data and Lu et al.’s (2012) laboratory data for the stepped grade-control structure. For the scour holes downstream of the second grade-control structure, the Froude number was considered as an influencing factor. Also, the model was compared with Gaudio and Marion’s (2003) model for subcritical flow in order to increase the practicality of the model.
By analyzing experimental data with steady flows, a scheme is proposed to calculate the temporal variation of scour depth with unsteady flows for four different types of scouring hydrograph. In general, the evolution of the scour depth for an unsteady flow can be simulated by the superposition of the simulated scour evolution curves for the steady flows. The temporal variation of scour depth during the typhoon-induced floods can be quickly estimated based on the proposed scheme.
其他識別: U0005-2407201215101900
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