Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item:
Production of Hydrogen Energy from Magnesium Scraps and its Life Cycle Assessment
|關鍵字:||Magnesium scraps;鎂合金廢料;Recycling;Hydrogen generation;Catalyst;life cycle assessment;回收;氫氣生產;觸媒;生命週期評估||出版社:||材料工程學系所||引用:||1.Naiyi Li, “Magnesium advances and applications in North America automotive industry”, Mater. Sci. Forum, 488-489 (2005), pp. 931-935. 2.B.L. Mordike and T. Ebert, “Magnesium properties-applications-potential”, Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 302(2001), pp. 37-45. 3.東健司, “日本最新鎂合金國家型鍛造開發計劃之架構及發展動向”, 日本最新鎂合金國家型鍛造開發計劃研討會, 社團法人台灣鎂合金協會, 新竹, (2006)。 4.H. Westengen, “Recycling”, in “Magnesium technology”, edited by H.E. Friedrich and B.L. Mordike, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, Germany (2006), pp. 633-664. 5.M.R. Dahm, “Preparation of secondary magnesium for use in hot metal desulfurization”, International Symposium of 4th on Recycling of Metals and Engineered Materials, edited by D.L. Jr. Donald, J.C. Daley and R.L. Stephens, TMS, Warrendale (2000), pp. 1333-1340. 6.陳錦修, “鎂合金在汽車工業之應用”, 工業材料雜誌, 186 (2002), pp.148-152。 7.Magnesium and Magnesium Alloys, edited by M.M. Avedesian and H. Baker, ASM Specialty Handbook, ASM International, Materials Park, Ohio (1999), pp. 226-248. 8.A.A. Luo, “Magnesium: current and potential automotive applications”, JOM-US, 54 (2002), pp. 42-48. 9.E. Aghion, B. Bronfin and D. Eliezer, “The role of the magnesium industry in protecting the environment”, J. Mater. Process. Techno., 117 (2001), pp. 381-385. 10.E. Aghion and B. Bronfin, “Magnesium alloys development towards the 21st century”, Mater. Sci. Forum, 350-351 (2000), pp. 19-28. 11.Magnesium and Magnesium Alloys, edited by M.M. Avedesian and H. Baker, ASM Specialty Handbook, ASM International, Metals Park, Ohio (1999), p.5. 12.R.L. Edgar, “Global overview on demand and applications for magnesium alloys”, in “Magnesium alloys and their applications”, edited by K.U. Kainer, Wiley VCH Verlag GmbH, Germany (2000), pp. 3-8. 13.R.E. Brown, “Magnesium recycling yesterday, today, tomorrow”, International Symposium of 4th on Recycling of Metals and Engineered Materials, edited by D.L. Jr. Donald, J.C. Daley and R.L. Stephens, TMS, Warrendale (2000), pp. 1317-1329. 14.G. Hanko, H. Antrekowitsch and P. Ebner, “Recycling automative magnesium scrap”, JOM-US, 54 (2002), pp. 51-54. 15.A. Javaid, E. Essadiqi, S. Bell and B. Davis, “Literature review on magnesium recycling”, in “Magnesium Technology 2006”, edited by A.A. Luo, N.R. Neelameggham and R.S. Beals, TMS, San Antonio (2006), pp. 7-12. 16.H. Antrekowitsch and G. Hanko, “Recycling of different types of magnesium scrap”, in “Magnesium Technology 2002”, edited by H.I. Kaplan, TMS, Seattle (2002), pp. 43-48. 17.M.R. Dahm, “Preparation of secondary magnesium for use in hot metal desulfurization”, International Symposium of 4th on Recycling of Metals and Engineered Materials, edited by D.L. Jr. Donald, J.C. Daley and R.L. Stephens, Minerals, Metals & Materials Society, Warrendale (2000), pp. 1333-1340. 18.H.S. Tathgar, P. Bakke, T.A. Engh, “Impurities in magnesium and magnesium based alloys and their removal”, in “Magnesium alloys and their applications”, edited by K.U. Kainer, Wiley VCH Verlag GmbH, Germany (2000), pp. 767-779. 19.U.M.J. Boin, “Wide open gap of magnesium recycling”, Metall., 55 (2001), pp. 283-286. 20.C.E.M. Meskers, A. Kvithyld, M.A. Reuter and T.A. Engh, “Thermal decoating of magnesium – a first step towards recycling of coated magnesium”, in “Magnesium Technology 2006”, edited by A.A. Luo, N.R. Neelameggham and R.S. Beals, TMS, San Antonio (2006), pp. 33-38. 21.G. Hanko, S. Griesser and T. Angerer, “Recovery of organically coated magnesium pressure diecastings”, Aluminium, 81 (2005), pp. 202-208. 22.K.W. Chang, private communication, production manager, Pinda Tech. Co. Ltd (2005), Taoyuan, Taiwan. 23.G. Song, B. Jonhannesson, S. Hapugoda and D.H. StJohn, “Galvanic corrosion of magnesium alloy AZ91D in contact with an aluminium alloy, steel and zinc”, Corros. Sci., 46 (2004), pp. 955-977. 24.H. Bommer, “Characterization of the corrosion behavior and solutions of the corrosion protection of Mg alloys” in “Magnesium alloys and their applications”, edited by B.L. Mordike and K.U. Kainer, Werkstoff-Informationsgesellschaft mbH, Germany (1998), pp. 79-90. 25.H.P. Godard, W.B. Jepson, M.R. Bothwell and R.L. Kane, “The Corrosion of Light Metals”, John & Son, New York (1967), p.267. 26.G.L. Makar and J. Kruger, “Corrosion studies of rapidly solidified magnesium alloys”, J. Electrochem. Soc., 137 (1990), pp. 414-421. 27.B.A. Shaw, “Corrosion resistance of magnesium alloys” in “Corrosion: Fundamentals, Testing, and Protection”, edited by S.D. Cramer and B.S. Jr. Covino, volume 13A, ASM handbook, Materials Park, OH (2003), pp. 692-693. 28.M. Pourbaix, “Atlas of Electrochemical Equilibrium in Aqueous Solution ”, 2nd edition, National Association of Corrosion Engineers, Texas, (1974), p.139-145. 29.O. Lunder, J.E. Lein, T.Kr. Aune and K. Nisancioglu, “The role of magnesium-aluminum (Mg17Al12) phase in the corrosion of magnesium alloy AZ91”, Corrosion, 45 (1989), pp. 741-748. 30.R. Ambat, N.N. Aung and W. Zhou, “Studies on the influence of chloride ion and pH on the corrosion and electrochemical behaviour of AZ91D magnesium alloy”, J. Appl. Electrochem., 30 (2000), pp. 865-874. 31.W.M. Chan, F.T. Cheng, L.K. Leung, R.J. Horylev and T.M. Yue, “Corrosion behaviour of magnesium alloy AZ91 and its MMC in NaCl solution”, Corrosion Review, 16 (1998), pp. 43-52. 32.H. Altun and S. Sen, “Studies on the influence of chloride ion concentration and pH on the corrosion and electrochemical behaviour of AZ63 magnesium alloy”, Mater. Des., 25 (2004), pp. 637-643. 33.C.B. Baliga and P. Tsakiropoulos, “Development of corrosion resistant magnesium alloys. Part 2. Structure of corrosion products on rapidly solidified Mg-16Al alloys”, Mater. Sci. Technol., 9 (1993), pp. 513-519. 34.O. Lunder, T.Kr. Aune and K. Nisancioglu, “Effect of manganese additions on the corrosion behavior of mould-cast magnesium ASTM AZ91”, Corrosion, 43 (1987), pp. 291-295. 35.W.S. Loose, “Corrosion and Protection of Magnesium”, edited by L.M. Pidgeon, J.C. Mathes and N.E. Woldmen, ASM Int., Materials Park, Ohio (1946), pp. 173-260. 36.J.E. Hills, “The effects of heavy metal contamination on magnesium corrosion performance”, Light Metal Age, 6 (1983), pp. 25-29. 37.J.D. Hanawalt, C.E. Nelson and J.A. Peloubet, “Corrosion studies of magnesium and its alloys”, Trans. AIME., 147 (1942), pp. 273-299. 38.G. Song and A. Atrens, “Understanding magnesium corrosion- a framework for improved alloy performance”, Adv. Eng. Mater., 5 (2003), pp. 837-858. 39.O. Lunder, J.H. Nordlien and K. Nisancioglu, “Corrosion resistance of cast Mg-Al alloys”, Corros. Rev., 15 (1997), pp. 439-469. 40.G. Song, “Recent progress in corrosion and protection of magnesium alloys”, Adv. Eng. Mater., 7 (2005), pp. 563-586. 41.O. Lunder and K. Nisancioglu, “Electrochemical behaviour of intermetallic phases in Mg-Al cast alloys”, 10th European Corrosion Congress, edited by C. Josep and M.A. Donald, Inst. Mat., UK (1993), pp. 1249-1254. 42.R. S. Busk, “Magnesium products design”, Marcel Dekker Inc., New York (1987), p. 519. 43.G. Song and A. Atrens, “Corrosion mechanism of magnesium alloys”, Adv. Eng. Mater., 1 (1999), pp. 11-33. 44.J.A. Turner, “Sustainable hydrogen production”, Science, 305 (2004), pp. 972-974. 45.D. Sperling and J.S. Cannon, “The hydrogen energy transition”, Elsevier, US, (2004), pp. 235-239. 46.C.J. Winter, “Electricity, hydrogen－competitors, partners?”, Int. J. Hydrogen Energy, 30 (2005), pp. 1371-1374. 47.S. Dunn, “Hydrogen futures” toward a sustainable energy system”, Int. J. Hydrogen Energy, 27 (2002), pp. 235-264. 48.A.B. Stambouli and E. Traversa, “Fuel cell, an alternative to standard sources of energy”, Renew. Sust. Energ. Rev., 6 (2002), pp. 297-306. 49.B.C.H. Steele and A. Heinzel, “Materials for fuel-cell technologies”, Nature, 414 (2001), pp. 345-352. 50.C.M. White, R.R. Steeper and A.E. Lutz, “The hydrogen-fueled internal combustion engine: a technical review”, Int. J. Hydrogen Energy, 31 (2006), pp. 1292-1305. 51.F. Barbir, “Fuel cell and hydrogen economy”, J. Mater. Res., 11 (2005), pp. 105-113. 52.J.J. Romm, “The hype about hydrogen”, Island Press, US, (2005), pp. 67-88. 53.J. Han, I.S. Kim and K.S. Choi, “High purity hydrogen generator for on-site hydrogen production”, Int. J. Hydrogen Energy, 27 (2002), pp. 1043-1047. 54.L.F. Brown, “A comparative study of fuels for on-board hydrogen production for fuel-cell-powered automobiles”, Int. J. Hydrogen Energy, 26 (2001), pp. 381-397. 55.J.M. Ogden, M.M. Steinbugler and T.G.. Kreutz, “A comparison of hydrogen, methanol and gasoline as fuels for fuel cell vehicles: implications for vehicle design and infrastructure development”, J. Power Sources, 79 (1999), pp. 143-168. 56.J. Ogden, “High hopes fro hydrogen”, Scientific American, 295 (2006), pp. 94-101. 57.M.L. Wald, “Questions about a hydrogen economy”, Scientific American, 290 (2004), pp. 66-73. 58.S.C. Amendola, S.L. Sharp-Goldman, M.S. Janjua, N.C. Spencer, M.T. Kelly, P.J. Petillo and M. Binder, “A safe, portable, hydrogen gas generator using aqueous borohydride solution and Ru catalyst”, Int. J. Hydrogen Energy, 25 (2000), pp. 969-975. 59.S.C. Amendola, S.L. Sharp-Goldman, M.S. Janjua, M.T. Kelly, P.J. Petillo and M. Binder, “An ultrasafe hydrogen generator: aqueous, alkaline borohydride solutions and Ru catalyst”, J. Power Sources, 85 (2000), pp. 186-189. 60.P. Krishnan, T.H. Yang, W.Y. Lee and C.S. Kim, “PtRu-LiCoO2－an efficient catalyst for hydrogen generation from sodium borohydride solutions”, J. Power Sources, 143 (2005), pp. 17-23. 61.Y. Kojima, K.I. Suzuki, K. Fukumoto, M. Sasaki, T. Yamamoto, Y. Kawai and H. Hayashi, “Hydrogen generation using sodium borohydride solution and metal catalyst coated on metal oxide”, Int. J. Hydrogen Energy, 27 (2002), pp. 1029-1034. 62.C. Wu, H. Zhang and B. Yi, “Hydrogen generation from catalytic hydrolysis of sodium borohydride for proton exchange membrane fuel cells”, Cataly. Today, 98 (2004), pp. 477-483. 63.J.H. Kim, H.L. Lee, S.C. Han, H.S. Kim, M.S. Song and J.Y. Lee, “Production of hydrogen from sodium borohydride in alkaline solution: development of catalyst with high performance”, Int. J. Hydrogen Energy, 29 (2004), pp. 263-267. 64.S.U. Jeong, R.K. Kim, EA. Cho, H.J. Kim, S.W. Nam, I.H. Oh, S.A. Hong and S.H. Kim, “A study on hydrogen generation from NaBH4 solution using the high-performance Co-B catalyst”, J. Power Sources, 144 (2005), pp. 129-134. 65.H. Dong, H. Yang, X. Ai and C. Cha, “Hydrogen production from catalytic hydrolysis of sodium borohydride solution using nickel boride catalyst”, Int. J. Hydrogen Energy, 28 (2003), pp. 1095-1100. 66.B.H. Liu, Z.P. Li and S. Suda, “Nickel- and cobalt-based catalysts for hydrogen generation by hydrolysis of borohydride”, J. Alloy. Compd., 415 (2006), pp. 288-293. 67.J. Wakefield, “The ultimate clean fuel: a start-up contemplates nonpolluting cars powered by an ingredient of soap”, Scientific American, 286 (2002), pp. 36-37. 68.J.H. Wee, “A comparison of sodium bororhydride as a fuel for proton exchange membrane fuel cells and for direct borohydride fuel cells”, J. Power Sources, 155 (2006), pp. 329-339. 69.T. Hiraki, M. Takeuchi, M. Hisa and T. Akiyama, “Hydrogen production from waste aluminum at different temperatures, with LCA”, Mater. Trans., 46 (2005), pp. 1052-1057. 70.L. Soler, J. Macanás, M. Munoz and J. Casado, “Aluminum and aluminum alloys as sources of hydrogen for fuel cell application”, J. Power Sources, 169 (2007), pp. 144-149. 71.M.H. Grosjean, M. Zidoune, J.Y. Huot and L. Roué, “Hydrogen generation via alcoholysis reaction using ball-milled Mg-based materials”, Int. J. Hydrogen Energy, 31 (2006), pp. 1159-1163. 72.M.H. Grosjean, M. Zidoune, L. Roué and J.Y. Huot, “Hydrogen production via hydrolysis reaction from ball-milled Mg-based materials”, Int. J. Hydrogen Energy, 31 (2006), pp. 109-119. 73.S.S. Sergev and S.A. Black, “Supercorroding alloys for generating heat and hydrogen gas”, The Proceedings of the Intersociety Energy Conversion Engineering Conference, (1977), pp. 973-980. 74.L. Marmo, D. Cavallero and M.L. Debernardi, “Aluminum dust explosion risk analysis in metal workings”, J. Loss Prev. Process Ind., 17 (2004), pp. 449-465. 75.K. Uehara, H. Takeshita and H. Kotaka, “Hydrogen gas generation in the wet cutting of aluminum and its alloys”, J. Mater. Process. Technol., 127 (2002), pp. 174-177. 76.J.M. Olivares-Ramírez, M.L. Campos-Cornelio, J.U. Godínez, E. Borja-Arco and R.H. Castellanos, “Studies on the hydrogen evolution reaction on different stainless steels”, Int. J. Hydrogen Energy, (2007) doi: 10.1016/j.ijhedene.2006.03.017. 77.S.S. Martínez, W.L. Benítes, A.A.Á. Gallegos and P.J. Sebastián, “Recycling of aluminum to produce green energy”, Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells, 88 (2005), pp. 237-243. 78.S.S. Martínez, L.A. Sánchez, A.A.Á. Gallegos and P.J. Sebastián, “Coupling a PEM fuel cell and the hydrogen generation from aluminum waste cans”, Int. J Hydrogen Energy, (2007), doi: 10.1016/j.ijhydene.2006.03.015. 79.W.H. Wu, C.C. Lin and C.C. Yang, “Fabrication and corrosion behaviour of platinum-coated titanium electrodes from low temperature molten salt electrolytes”, J. Appl. Electrochem., 34 (2004), pp. 525-531. 80.M. Pushpavanam and S.R. Natarajan, “Platinum plated titanium for industrial electrolyses”, Bull. Electrochem., 7 (1991), pp. 309-311. 81.L. Zhang and T. Dupont, “State of the art in the refining and recycling magnesium”, Mater. Sci. Forum, 546-549 (2007), pp. 25-36. 82.H. Westengen, “Recycling”, in “Magnesium technology”, edited by H.E. Friedrich and B.L. Mordike, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, Germany (2006), pp. 633-664. 83.K.S. Tseng, G.L. Sheu and S.T. Huang, “Management and Recycle of Magnesium Alloy Scraps in Die Casting Factory”, Mater. Sci. Forum, 488-489 (2005), 49-52. 84.C.Y. Cho, K.H. Wang and J.Y. Uan, “Evaluation of a new hydrogen generating system: Ni-rich magnesium alloys catalyzed by platinum wire in sodium chloride solution”, Mater. Trans., 46 (2005), pp. 2704-2708. 85.F. Chen, H.S. Chu, C.Y. Soong and W.M. Yan, “Effective schemes to control the dynamic behavior of the water transport in the membrane of PEM fuel cell”, J. Power Sources, 140 (2005), pp. 243-249. 86.G.J.M. Janssen and M.L.J. Overvelde, “Water transport in the proton-exchange-membrane fuel cell: measurement of the effective drag coefficient”, J. Power Sources, 101 (2001), pp. 117-125. 87.D.A. Jones, “Principles and prevention of corrosion”, 2nd edition, Prentice-Hall Inc., US, (1996), pp. 168-173. 88.D.R. Lide, “Handbook of chemistry and physics”, 73rd edition, CRC Press, US, (1992), pp. 4-71. 89.E. Ghali, W, Dietzel and K.U. Kainer, “General and localized corrosion of magnesium alloys: A critical review”, J. Mater. Eng. Perform., 13 (2004), pp. 7-23. 90.I. Nakatsugawa, H. Takayasu, K. Araki and T. Tsukeda, “Electrochemical corrosion studies of thixomolded AZ91D alloy in sodium chloride solution”, Mater. Sci. Forum, 419-422 (2003), pp. 845-850. 91.Z.T. Xia and S.H. Chan, “Feasibility study of hydrogen generation from sodium borohydride solution for micro fuel cell applications”, J. Power Sources, 152 (2005), pp. 46-49. 92.M.H. Grosjean, M. Zidoune and L. Roué, “Hydrogen production from highly corroding Mg-based materials elaborated by ball milling”, J. Alloy. Compd., 404-406 (2005), pp. 712-715. 93.H.D. Holland, “The chemical evolution of the atmosphere and oceans”, Princeton Univ. Press, US, (1984), pp. 442-465. 94.J.D. Burton, “The composition of sea water”, Chem. Ind., 14 (1977), pp. 550-557. 95.I.A. Taub, W. Roberts, S. LaGambina and K. Kustin, “Mechanism of dihydrogen formation in the magnesium- water reaction”, J. Phys. Chem. A, 106 (2002), pp. 8070-8078. 96.K. Sopian and W.R.W. Daud, “Challenge and future developments in proton exchange membrane fuel cells”, Renew. Energy, 31 (2006), pp. 719-727. 97.S.M. Haile, “Fuel cell materials and components”, Acta. Mater., 51 (2003), pp. 5981-6000. 98.D.A. Jones, “Principles and prevention of corrosion”, 2nd edition, Prentice-Hall Inc., US, (1996), pp. 86-98. 99.H.H. Uhlig and R.W. Revie, “Corrosion and corrosion control”, 3rd edition, John Wiley & Sons Inc., US, (1985), pp. 40-59. 100.M.G. Fontana, “Corrosion engineering”, 3rd edition, McGraw-Hill Inc., US, (1986), pp. 463-474. 101.Guideline for life cycle assessment: a code of practice, SETAC (Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry), (1993), Washington DC. 102.A Technical Framework for Life-Cycle-Assessment, SETAC (Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry), (1990), Washington DC. 103.Environmental management- Life cycle assessment- Principles and framework, ISO 14040, ISO (International Organization for Standardization), (1997), Geneva. 104.A Standard on Goal and Scope Definition and Inventory analysis, ISO 14041, ISO (International Organization of Standardization), (1998), Geneva. 105.A Standard on Life-Cycle-Impact-Assessment, ISO 14042, ISO (International Organization of Standardization), (2000), Geneva. 106.A Standard on Life-Cycle-Interpretation, ISO 14043, ISO (International Organization of Standardization), (2000), Geneva. 107.S.M. Lu, private communication, plant manager, Pinda Tech. Co. Ltd (2006), Taoyuan, Taiwan. 108.S. Dutta, “Technology assessment of advanced electrolytic hydrogen production”, Int. J. Hydrogen Energy, 15 (1990), pp. 379-386. 109.A. Yuji and T. Tadayoshi, “Proposal for a new system for simultaneous production of hydrogen and hydrogen peroxide by water electrolysis”, Int. J. Hydrogen Energy, 29 (2004), pp. 1349-1354. 110.C.A. Schung, “Operational characteristics of high-pressure, high-efficiency water-hydrogen-electrolysis”, Int. J. Hydrogen Energy, 23 (2006), pp. 2329-2336. 111.S. Ashley, “On the road to fuel-cell cars”, Scientific American, 292 (2005), pp. 50-57. 112.M.L. Neelis, H.J. van der Kooi and J.J.C. Geerlings, “Exergetic life cycle analysis of hydrogen production and storage systems for automotive applications”, Int. J. Hydrogen Energy, 29 (2004), pp. 537-545. 113.C. Koroneos, A. Dompros, G. Roumbas and N. Moussiopoulos, “Advantage of the use of hydrogen fuel as compared to kerosene”, Resour. Conserv. Recy., 44 (2005), pp. 99-113. 114.A. Utgikar, T. Thiesen, “Life cycle assessment of high temperature electrolysis for hydrogen production via nuclear energy”, Int. J. Hydrogen Energy, 31 (2006), pp. 939-944. 115.B. Arnason and T.I. Sigfusson, “Iceland as a future hydrogen economy”, Int. J. Hydrogen Energy, 25(2000), pp. 389-394. 116.R.H. Petrucci, W.S. Harwood and F.G. Herring, “General chemistry: principles and modern application” Prentice-Hall Inc., US, (2002), pp.287-289. 117.D.L. Albright and J.O. Haagensen, “Life cycle inventory of magnesium”, IMA Annual World Conference, International Magnesium Association, Toronto, Canada (1997). 118.B. Kiefer, G. Deinzer, J.O. Haagensen and K. Saur, “Life cycle engineering study of automotive structural parts made of steel and magnesium”, SAE paper no. 982225, (1997). 119.G. Deinzer, B. Kiefer, J.O. Haagensen and H. Westengen, “Life cycle inventory of magnesium-comparison of steel and magnesium in a car cross beam”, in “Magnesium alloys and their applications”, edited by B.L. Mordike and K.U. Kainer, Werkstoff-Informationsgesellschaft mbH, Germany (1998), pp. 119-124. 120.J.T. Houghten, Y. Ding, D.J. Griggs, M. Noguer, P.J. Van der Linden, X. Dai, K. Maskell and C.A. Johnson, “Climate change 2001: The Scientific Basis”, Cambridge University Press, UK (2001) pp. 385-391. 121.P.R. Hornsby and C.L. Watson, “Magnesium hydroxide- a combined flame retardant and smoke suppressant filler for thermoplastics”, Plast. Rubber Process. Appl., 6 (1986), pp. 169-175. 122.M. Shigeo, I. Takeshi and A. Hitoshi, “Fire-retarding polypropylene with magnesium hydroxide”, J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 25 (1980), pp. 415-425. 123.S.S. Sergev, “Supercorroding galvanic cell alloys for generation of heat and gas”, US Patent 4264362, Apr. 28, 1981. 124.S.A. Black, “Development of supercorroding alloys for use as timed releases for ocean engineering applications”, Report form Gov. Rep. Announce. Index (U.S.), 79 (1979), pp. 101-141. 125.http://gysd.ngo.org.tw/files/0904_post1.pdf 126.http://www.greensupplyline.com/showArticle.jhtml;jsessionid =AD4B0KTSRK2MGQSNDLQCKHSCJUNN2JVN?articleID=192200252 127. 127.J. Wolf, “Liquid-hydrogen technology for vehicles”, MRS Bull., 27 (2002), pp. 684-687. 128.S. Satyapal, J. Petrovic and G. Thomas, “Gassing up with hydrogen”, Scientific American, 296 (2007), pp. 80-87. 129.R.D. McCarty, “Hydrogen: its technology and implications, hydrogen properties”, vol. 3, CRC Press, US, (1975). 130.物質・材料研究機構(NIMS, National Institute of Materials Science), “鉱物資源使用カテゴリーの特性化係数(礦物資源使用範疇之特性化係數)”, Report, Mar. 2004, pp. 97-117. 131.K. Halada and K. Ijima, Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on EcoBalance, Nov. 14-16, (2006), pp. 481-484. 132.K. Halada and K. Ijima, “Total materials requirement of industrial materials”, 第1回日本LCA学会研究発表会講演要旨集, Dec. 2005, pp.58-59. 133.K. Halada, K. Ijima, N. Katagiri and T. Okura, “Approximate estimation of total materials requirement of metals”, J. Japan Inst. Metals, 65 (2001), pp. 564-570.||摘要:||
本研究首先使用金屬觸媒(白金鈦網)是以正向固定荷重(6 ± 0.5 kg)和旋轉磨擦(6 ± 0.5 kg、8 ± 1 rpm)的方式與鎂廢料試片緊密接觸，形成伽凡尼耦合(galvanic couple)。將其置入於5 wt.%氯化鈉水溶液中，即可在無需耗費額外能量之下，進行電解水反應而迅速產出氫氣。實驗結果顯示，白金鈦網以固定荷重方式之平均氫氣產生速率約為302.3 ml min-1 (g of catalyst)-1；而以旋轉磨擦的方式其產氫速率約為432.4 ml min-1 (g of catalyst)-1。利用固定荷重的方式產出氫氣，當反應時間增長時，伴隨氫氣產出所生成的副產物-氫氧化鎂會逐漸阻隔於金屬觸媒(白金鈦網)與鎂廢料試片之間，造成氫氣產量不再繼續增加。而使用旋轉磨擦方式，則在長時間(8000 sec)的製氫反應，仍能維持穩定的產氫量。而白金鈦網表面所披覆的白金會有少許損耗(約為0.0278 g)。經由氣相層析儀鑑定實驗所產出的氣體成份乃為氫氣和水氣，而氫氣純度約為97.2 mol.%。此外，在反應時間50 min內，當氯化鈉水溶液濃度約為3.5 wt.%，其產出氫氣總累積量會達到最大值。
為了使金屬觸媒能與鎂合金廢料之接觸方式無須藉由任何外力輔助，將會使用金屬觸媒(白金鈦網和AISI 304不鏽鋼網)以沾黏半固態鎂合金廢料方式進行耦合。實驗結果顯示藉由較高溫度的半固態鎂廢料(580 ± 5 °C)在凝固過程中所形成的收縮，可將其兩者緊密接觸。若將其置於3.5 wt.%氯化鈉水溶液中，在50 min時間內，使用白金鈦網和AISI 304不鏽鋼網為觸媒，其平均產氫量分別約為28.2 ± 5.7 liter和16.1 ± 7.8 liter。而此兩種金屬觸媒皆能催化每1 g的鎂合金廢料產出約1 liter的氫氣量。此外，白金鈦網和AISI 304不鏽鋼網分別經過10次及5次以上重複使用，仍具有催化鎂合金廢料產出氫氣的效果。實驗過程中所產出的氫氣將導入質子交換型燃料電池，轉換為電能形式呈現。使用白金鈦網(重複使用第4次，共20片)為觸媒，在50 min內可產出11.3 liter的氫氣量，計算總發電功率約為498.1 Wh (1.79 MJ)。而使用AISI 304不鏽鋼網(第1次使用，共20片)約有10.4 liter氫氣產量，其總發電功率約為424.4 Wh (1.53 MJ)。
為了更進一步地瞭解本研究使用鎂合金廢料轉換為氫氣能源對於環境所造成之影響與衝擊，將藉由生命週期評估(Life cycle assessment)之系統化架構，從能源使用量、製氫過程中污染物排放量等方面進行綜合評析。而評估分析結果亦與目前鎂合金廢料處理方式(重新回收廢料製成符合ASTM B93規範標準之鎂錠)及其他製氫方式(利用金屬粉末以及電解水法)進行分析比較。評估結果顯示本研究中採用白金鈦網和AISI 304不鏽鋼網為觸媒，在製造1 kg氫氣之能源使用量，其分別約為35.1 MJ或34.9 MJ。而能源使用量主要集中於產氫試片的製作過程。此外，使用純鋁或純鎂金屬粉末為產氫來源，製造1 kg 氫氣之能源使用量約為11804 MJ或6240 MJ。主要由於製作金屬粉末需經長時間研磨，導致能源使用量陡增。另外，電解水製氫方式的能源使用量亦高於本研究。並於製氫過程中會有能量耗損(約15 %)，而在製氫與電力供給等過程會釋放汙染物(例如CO2、SO2和NOx等)。相較於目前回收鎂廢料製程(重製為符合標準之鎂錠)，若回收1 kg鎂廢料的能源用量僅約為151 MJ 或164 MJ。而本研究僅需2.8 MJ (kg of Mg scraps)-1。
Due to excellent properties such as high specific strength, excellent vibration damping property and good EMI (electromagnetic interference), Mg alloys has an increasingly number of uses in transportation vehicle (e.g., door frame, engineering covering, oil pan, wheel, etc.) and the outer shell of 3C electronic products (e.g., the upper cover and base seat of notebook computer, the outer covering of personal mobile communication tool, etc.). Recycling of Mg scraps (i.e., post-consumed or end-of-life Mg products) has become increasingly important. This study proposes a new method for generating H2 gas in aqueous NaCl by the hydrolysis of Mg scraps. The experimental findings of this study not only indicate a method for generating hydrogen but also promote the recycling of the Mg scraps.
Pt-coated Ti net (i.e., ~ 2.5 μm of platinum film being electroplated on the surface of Ti net) was adopted as a catalyst to promote the hydrolytic reaction of an Mg sample in aqueous NaCl (5 wt.%) to generate H2 without extra supply of power. Two experiments were conducted and the volumes of H2 generated were compared. In one of the experiments, the Pt-coated Ti net was statically loaded on the top surface of the Mg sample, with a loading force of 6 ± 0.5 kg. In the other, the Pt-coated Ti net was ground against the surface of the Mg sample (6 ± 0.5 kg, 8 ± 1 rpm). When a Pt-coated Ti net was statically loaded (6 ± 0.5 kg) on the Mg sample, the average H2 generation rate of about 302.3 ml min-1(g of catalyst)-1 was measured. The curve of cumulative volume of generated H2 reached a plateau after the hydrolysis reaction proceeded a certain time. Mg(OH)2 passive layer which prevented contact between the catalyst (Pt/Ti net) and the Mg sample was the major reason leading to the plateau. When the Pt-coated Ti net was ground (6 ± 0.5 kg, 8 ± 1 rpm) onto the Mg sample surface, more H2 gas was produced than was generated by static loading. The cumulative volume of H2 gas generated was almost linearly proportional to the reaction time. The average H2 generation rate was calculated to be 432.4 ml min-1(g of catalyst)-1. No Mg(OH)2 passive layer formed on the Mg sample surface, because the Pt-coated Ti net ground against the sample, removing the Mg(OH)2 layer. A little of the Pt had been consumed (~ 0.0278 g). The generated gas was analyzed by GC (gas chromatography). Only hydrogen and water vapor were detected. The purity of the hydrogen was analyzed to be around ~ 97.2 % mole fraction. Additionally, the maximum volume of generated H2 was observed in 3.5 wt.% aqueous NaCl.
In order to improve the H2 generation efficiency of the Mg scraps, platinum-coated Ti (Pt-Ti) net and AISI 304 stainless steel (S.S.) net were dipped in the semi-solid Mg scraps. The average cumulative volume of generated H2 in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution at 25 ˚C using Mg scraps/Pt-Ti samples and Mg scraps/S.S. samples was about 28.2 ± 5.7 liter and 16.1 ± 7.8 liter. The generated H2 volume per one gram of Mg scraps consumption was 1.0 ± 0.1 liters from Mg scraps/Pt-Ti samples, which was similar to the result by using Mg scraps/S.S. samples (1.1 ± 0.1 liters). In addition, both of these two metallic net catalysts showed a good durability of more than 5 experimental cycles to be re-used for H2 generation. The generated H2 in this study was converted into the electrical energy by fuel cell. A set of used Pt-coated Ti nets (20 pieces, the 4th time of use) was applied to be the catalyst metal, the cumulative H2 volume was about 11.3 liters in 50 min. The power generated was about 1.79 MJ (498.1 Wh) during the H2 generation. New AISI 304 stainless steel nets (20 pieces) were used as the catalyst. The cumulative H2 volume within 50 min was about 10.4 liters. The generation of power was about 1.53 MJ (424.4 Wh).
The systematic analytical method of life cycle assessment (LCA) was carried out to investigate the environmental impacts of proposed H2 production process. The H2 production processes from metallic materials (i.e., Al powders, Mg powders) and the recycling process of Mg scraps were considered for comparison with LCA method. The energy requirement using Mg scraps/Pt-Ti couples to generate 1 kg of H2 was about 35.1 MJ. Around 34.9 MJ was needed by applying Mg scraps/S.S. couples to produce 1 kg of H2. The main energy consumption resulted from the preparation of Mg scraps/Pt-Ti and Mg scraps/S.S. couples. Moreover, the energy requirement of 1 kg H2 production by Al and Mg powders was about 11804 MJ and 6240 MJ. The energy requirements for generating 1 kg of H2 are mainly because of the energy being consumed to prepare the metallic powders. In addition, the energy requirement for producing 1 kg H2 by electrolysis water method (235 MJ or 243 MJ) was much higher than that of present study. Also, the H2 production process by this method, the air pollutants such as CO2, SO2 and NOx was released. From the viewpoint of recycling process of Mg scraps, the energy requirement and pollutant released of present study and conventional process were compared. The proposed process in present study for the recycle of 1 kg Mg scraps was about 2.9 MJ. The energy requirement for recycling 1 kg Mg scraps is about 151 MJ or 164 MJ in conventional processes.
|Appears in Collections:||材料科學與工程學系|
Show full item record
TAIR Related Article
Items in DSpace are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.