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The Prevalence of Psittacine Beak and Feather Disease(PBFD) and Viral Genomic Sequences Analysis of imported parrots in Taiwan in 2010
Huang, Yuan -Tzu
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鸚鵡喙羽病（Psittacine beak and feather disease, PBFD）為一鸚鵡之重要疾病，其臨床病變包括漸進性羽毛發育不良、脫落甚至引發免疫抑制，部分鳥種會出現喙部及爪部之發育異常；此疾病是由鸚鵡喙羽病病毒（ Beak and feather disease virus， BFDV）所引起，BFDV為環狀病毒（Circoviridae）科環狀病毒屬（Circovirus）之一員（Perry et al., 1981）。台灣於2002-2005年間，檢測來自臨床病例之籠飼鸚鵡之陽性率為41.2% (68/165)，首次顯現出台灣鸚鵡於此疾病之概況（Hsu et al., 2006）。之後於2007-2008年間，以台灣各地鸚鵡繁殖場與臨床病例作為樣本來源，PBFDV整體陽性率為31.8% (408/1285) （Kuan et al., 2009）。有鑒於台灣並非鸚鵡原產國，於鸚鵡疾病之傳播方面，推測與進口鸚鵡息息相關，本實驗基於此，以進口鸚鵡族群作為調查基礎，針對PBFDV之ORFV1 (Rep) 序列設計一引子對，利用PCR之方式對其糞便樣本進行檢測。採樣來源為2010年六月至九月間，三批不同梯次之進口鸚鵡，其分別的陽性率為：六月批次59.96% (45/79)、七月批次90.48% (57/63)、九月批次72.58% (45/62)，整體陽性率為72.06% (148/204)。依據鳥種區分為新世界與舊世界兩大族群，新世界鳥種陽性率為82.56% (71/86)，舊世界鳥種陽性率為64.41% (76/118)，兩者之間的危險勝算比為（odds ratio，OR）為2.62，顯示在台灣進口鸚鵡族群中，新世界鳥種與舊世界鳥種之陽性率並無太大之差異。而將進口鸚鵡之陽性率與台灣先前繁殖場及臨床病例為主之陽性率做比較，進口鸚鵡的陽性率明顯高於其他鸚鵡（OR=5.29），顯示進口鸚鵡在台灣的確為PBFDV傳播上一個重要之途徑來源。而在基因序列分析部份，此次分離出1株全長（Poi-TW03_HYT），4株ORF C1序列（Tan-TW02_HYT、 Poi-TW03_HYT 、Tan-TW04_HYT及Poi-TW05_HYT），結果並未找到與台灣現有序列具有明顯統一性之病毒株。
Psittacine beak and feather disease (PBFD) is a progressive symmetric feather dystrophy, which is caused by a circular, single-strand DNA virus belonging to Circoviridae Circovirus. In Taiwan, one of the previous studies based on clinical cases revealed that positive rate was 41.2% (68/165) during 2002-2005 (Hsu et al., 2006), and another one based on clinical cases, bird parks and independent breeding facilities during 2007-2008 that positive rate was 31.8%(408/1285)( Kuan et al., 2009). Since that Taiwan is not one of the countries of origin for parrots, the imported parrots should be an important pathway for the transmission of PBFDV. In this study, we collected the samples from imported parrots during JUN to SEP in 2010 in Taiwan, and tested the samples with the PCR to monitor the PBFDV. As the results, the positive rate was 59.96% (45/79) in JUN, 90.48% (57/63) in JUL and 72.58% (45/62) in SEP; the total positive rate was 72.06% (148/204). On the basic of the source (new world and old world), the positive rate were 82.56% (71/86) in new world genera and 64.41% (76/118) in old world genera. The odds ratio (OR) was 2.62 between the two sources, it showed that different sources was not significantly associated with the positive rate in imported parrots. The OR between imported parrots and captive parrots in Taiwan was 5.29, showed that the imported parrots is really an important pathway for the transmission of PBFDV. In our study, we separated a complete sequence of PBFDV (Poi-TW03_HYT) and four ORF C1 sequences of PBFDV (Tan-TW02_HYT, Poi-TW03_HYT, Tan-TW04_HYT and Poi-TW05_HYT); alignment of the isolates with the sequences from GeneBank and the previous studies in Taiwan.Tan-TW02_HYT and Tan-TW04_HYT show the species differences, but Poi-TW03_HYT and Poi-TW05_HYT were clustered with the different species. The established phylogenetic tree did not support the existence of specific genotypes in Taiwan.
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