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標題: 修正型水筒模式於都市區域降雨-逕流之應用及分析
Application on Rainfall-Runoff Analysis for Urban area by Revision Tank Model
作者: 李皓鉞
Lee, Hao-Yue
關鍵字: urbanization;都市化;urban tank model;impervious surfaces area;rainfall-runoff simulations;都市水筒模式;不透水面積;降雨-逕流模擬
出版社: 土木工程學系
四段式水筒模式可依照地目使用類別之不同加以簡化,來動態模擬土地利用改變下的流量變化。本研究中參考日本文獻以及旱田水筒之型式 , 採用兩段式之簡易型水筒以模擬都市研究區域之內的降雨逕流之歷線及關係 , 並探討各項參數對於不透水面積增加之反應,以及其物理意義。由於單純觀測單一流域中都市化效應對於降雨逕流的影響 , 需要有長時間之實測雨量與流量資料 , 和各年份之詳細精準之地文資料 , 但往往不可得。所以在此選定位於台中縣大雅鄉都市計畫區之中兩個不同都市化比例之流域作為觀測之研究地區 , 以互相比較模式參數和不透水面積之間的關係。
於參數自動化率定法之中, Multi-Start Powell 法已經被証實於四段式水筒 16參數的率定上有良好的成效。因此 , 本研究中亦使用將搜尋參數轉化成求解非線性函數最小化問題作為主軸的Multi-Start Powell法作為模式中物理性參數的率定方式 , 以代替傳統以試誤法作為參數搜尋的方式。
以都市研究區域內的實際觀測之雨量和流量資料 , 作為模式的輸入值和率定參數的依據。在得到一組最佳之參數之後 , 進行降雨-逕流模擬 。由結果可知以Multi-Start Powell法不僅可以迅速精確的得到參數 , 而在降雨-逕流之模擬也有不錯的表現。在得知流域內的不透水面積比例後 , 再對於都市水筒各參數作一相關之物理意義之探討和分析 , 並以中央氣象局所提供之台中地區長時期的雨量觀測資料 , 設計出不同迴歸週期之單峰降雨,配合率定出之參數值,利用都市水筒模式模擬都市流域不透水面積增加下之洪峰極端值,進一步評估洪患影響程度。

Four sections of types-Tank model may defer to the land use category differently to perform and simplify , simulating land utilization change current capacity change dynamically. In this research , refer to the Japan literatures and the type of urban tank model . We adopt two sections of types-Tank model to simulate run-off hydrograph and relation in urban region.
Discusses each parameter response regarding the impervious surfaces area increasing, and its Physics significance . Because observations urbanizations responses for influence of run-off in simple catchment's need long time actual rainfall and current capacity data , and various years detailed fine physically materials. But often may not result in anything.
So we choose the two catchments of the two different urbanization proportions in Da-Ya township, Taichung county. In order to compare with the relationship of model parameters and impervious surfaces area.
In parameter automatic rating methods, Multi-Start Powell method had been proved that it had excellent effects in rating for sixteen parameters of four sections of types Tank model. Therefore, in this paper will use nonlinear function and smallest question solution of the Multi-start Powell method to explore the parameters of tank model. Replaces the tradition to try method to take the parameter search by try error ways.
To use the actual observation of the rainfall and current capacity material in urban areas , as pattern input value and rating parameter basis. After obtains group of best parameters, carries on rainfall-runoff simulations . We know by the result that Multi- start Powell method would not only be rapid precisely obtains the parameter, but also had good performances in rainfall-runoff simulations.After know the catchments the impervious surfaces area proportion , again makes discussion of and the analysis of physics significance the correlation regarding various parameters of urban tank model, and adopt Taichung district magistrate by the central weather bureau the time rainfall observed data. Designs the different return periods of the single peak rain cases . To coordinate rating leaves the parameter values, use urban tank model to simulate the flood peak extreme values in impervious surfaces area increasing. Further appraises the flood influences.
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