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標題: 台灣本土型與外來型豬瘟病毒遺傳與致病力之比較
Comparison of genetics and pathogenicity between the historical and new invaded classical swine fever viruses in Taiwan
作者: 林育如
Lin, Yu-Ju
關鍵字: classical swine fever;豬瘟病毒;historical strain;invaded strain;pathogenicity;本土型;外來型;致病力
出版社: 獸醫學系暨研究所
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豬瘟 (classical swine fever; CSF) 為豬隻之高度傳染性及高致死性的病毒性疾病,本病的爆發往往造成重大的經濟損失。台灣田間分離的豬瘟病毒主要分成二型,本土型(3.4基因亞型)與外來型(2.1基因亞型)。本土型的豬瘟病毒分佈,只限於日本南方到台灣地區,且爆發病例只出現在1996年前。
為瞭解二型病毒之遺傳特性,因此本研究針對本土型豬瘟病毒(3.4基因亞型),以參考病毒株94.4/IL/94/TWN進行全長定序。基因體全長具有12,296個核苷酸,可轉譯成3,898個氨基酸,基因體前後包含有5端非轉譯區 (5′UTR) 372核苷酸及3端非轉譯區 (3′UTR) 227核苷酸。台灣地區的3.4基因亞型與同一基因亞型的日本神奈川株(1974年)及沖繩株(1986年)核苷酸的相似度維持在94.2~97.5% ; 然而與1.1基因亞型的強毒株 (ALD/64/Jap)及2.1基因亞型的病毒株 (TD/96/TWN) 的相似度只有72.5~80.8%。以NS5B核苷酸相對應位置11,157~11,565的基因片段進行演化分析,可將豬瘟病毒區分成三個基因亞型。94.4/IL/94/TWN參考株為第一株完成全長定序的3.4基因亞型病毒株。

Classical swine fever, formerly referred to as hog cholera, is a highly contagious and fatal disease of pigs. Outbreaks of this disease caused significant economic losses in the pig industry all over the world. Classical swine fever viruses in Taiwan have been classified into two subgroups (3.4 and 2.1). Outbreaks caused by 3.4 viruses were reported in Taiwan prior to 1996 and mainly distributed in the geographic area ranging from southern Japan to Taiwan.
To identify genetic differences, the complete sequence of 94.4/IL/94/TWN, one of the reference strains of subgroup 3.4, was determined. The genome contains 12,296 nucleotides, encoding 3,898 amino acids flanked by a 372-nt region at the 5' untranslated region (UTR) and a 227-nt region at the 3'-UTR. Similarities of nucleotides among 3.4 viruses isolated from Taiwan and Japan (Kanagawa/74; Okinawa/86) maintained in 94.2 to 97.5%; however, comparing to subgroup 1.1 (ALD/64/Jap) and 2.1 (TD/96/TWN) only showed about 72.5 to 80.8% similarity, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis based on positioning from 11,157 to 11, 565 nt (NS5B) revealed that CSFVs were divided into three major lineages similar to previous studies using E2 or NS5B regions. Strain 94.4/IL/94/TWN is the first completely genome sequenced in subgroup 3.4 viruses.
Until now, however, no genetic determinant of virulence is defined. We speculate that the dramatic change(s) of genotypes in field outbreaks may be caused by the difference(s) in viral replication rate or virulence. Kinetics of viral replication with different genotypes were evaluated in vitro and in vivo. The results indicated that the invaded strain had a higher virus titer at the later stage of infection in vivo; however, both strains replicated well and display similar kinetics in PK-15, PAM and ST cells.
In order to clarify the virulence in phenotypes between historical and invaded strains, a new pathological (gross and histopathology) score was introduced. The avirulent vaccine strain (lapinized virus strain, LPC) and highly virulent strain (ALD) were used as disease indicators. The pathological lesions caused by both strains did present significant differences at various time points postinfections. Even though it is distinguishable for their virulent ability, by comparing to LPC and ALD strains, both 94.4/IL/94/TWN and PT/96/TWN viruses should be defined as moderate virulent strains.
Based on the results, the virulence of CSFV might be determined by its replication ability in animals. In this study, we did not specifically intend to explain viral virulence; whereas, we established a new pathological score to evaluate the virulence differences and phenotypes in pigs infected by various virus strains.
其他識別: U0005-2008200818272000
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