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Research on the Production of Lightweight Aggregate Utilizing Coal Bottom Ash
本實驗是以底灰燒製輕質骨材，主要根據底灰的物理性質、化學成分及礦物組成，並於不同溫度(1100~1250 ℃) 及燒製時間(5~10 min) 等燒製條件下進行試燒。依底灰的基本性質及試燒結果，選用適當之燒製條件，並研擬配方，進行燒製底灰輕質骨材。依燒製所得底灰輕質骨材的骨材物理性質(顆粒密度、吸水率、體積膨脹率與孔隙率等) ，選定較合適之燒製條件及配方，進行大量燒製，以測定底灰輕質骨材之工程性質(鬆單位重、筒壓強度與氯離子含量等)。
依實驗結果顯示，底灰須經細化後，方能造粒及燒製，而助熔劑含量不宜過高 (≦26％)，過高則易過火，不利於製作燒結型輕質骨材，僅能作為降低熔點的輔助摻料，用於改善熔點高及膨脹性差的輕質骨材原料。此外，底灰中的含碳量對骨材物性有很大影響，碳經燃燒分解後，可提供孔隙及膨脹所需之氣體，使骨材達質輕的效果。據由上述的分析，以底灰研製輕質骨材為可行的方式，而燒脹及燒結所得之底灰輕質骨材，顆粒密度約介於1037~1901 kg/m3之間，24小時吸水率約介於0.1％~18.3％之間，筒壓強度約介於3.5~23.5 MPa，滿足一般輕質骨材應用之要求。
The purpose of this study is utilizing the coal bottom ashes (CBA) to produce lightweight aggregates (LWA). According to the physical properties, chemical components and mineral constituents of the CBA, a series of attempts are made to sintering the CBA with various sintering temperature (1100－1250 ℃) and time (5~10 min). From the results of attempts on sintering and essential properties of CBA , the burning conditions and mix proportions are preliminarily determined to produce LWA. Further, based on the physical properties of LWA (particle density, 24 hrs water absorption, bloating index, and pore content etc.), the sintering conditions and mix proportions appropriate for producing LWA are selected. Finally, perform the mass production of LWA and evaluate the corresponding mechanical properties of LWA. (loose weight, strength of particles and chloride ion content etc.)
The experimental results show that the CBA should be ground for granulation and production and the content of the fluxing should not be too high (≦26%) for manufacturing the agglomerate lightweight aggregate. The fluxing is considered as a kind of adjuvant admixture, which can reduce the melting point and amend the expansion of the raw material. Besides, the content of the carbon in CBA will greatly affect the properties of aggregates. After sintering, the carbon can provide pores and gases for aggregates during the process of expansion, and reduce the weight of aggregates. Draw from the above mentioned, lightweight aggregates are able to be made form CBA successfully with the values lying between 1037－1901 kg/m3 for the particle density, 0.1%－18.3% for the 24 hrs water absorption, and 3.5－23.5MPa for the bulk strength, and which can achieve the requirements of the general applications of lightweight aggregates.
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