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Studies on the Pollution of Lead Copper and Cadmium in Ruminant
Accompanied by the common awareness of the environmental protection and public hygiene in Taiwan, the pollution of the water sources and soils were increasingly received more serious concerns in recent years. The objective of this investigation were to document the variation of heavy metal cations levels in contaminants and their residue effect in animal tissue.
The average levels of Lead(Pb), Copper(Cu)and Cadmiun(Cd) of different sampling specimen from the dairy herds in Taiwan werw measured and classified under various criteria: The concentrations of lead, copper and cadmium detected, respectively, were following. In raw milk: 11.29±5.66ng/ml, 42.53±13.38ng/ml, 0.29±0.17ng/ml. In Winter raw milk: 11.56± 4.04 ng/ml, 41.84±4.37 ng/ml, 0.14±0.12ng/ml. In Summer raw milk: 10.34±1.15 ng/ml, 43.66±6.61 ng/ml, 0.007±0.01 ng/ml. The concentrations of these pollutants in soils were 23.43 μg/g(17.3~28.9μg/g), 29.12μg/g(22.8~39.6μg/g) and 0.04 μg/g(0.02~0.07μg/g), respectively, compared the roughages samples. Which were 3,218.52±1,362.98ng/g, 27,759±11,738ng/g and 325.11±111.33 ng/g. The concentrations of feeds and cow serum were 910.96±508.64ng/g and 2.54±2.38ng/ml, 27,565±10 , 170ng/g and 856.36±172.29ng/ml, and 216.11±60.34ng/g and 0.58±0.22ng/ml, respectively. From the results of drinking water and the marketing milk samples contamination, the concentration of copper were 6.17±7.08ng/ml but those of the other two heavy metals were below detectable levels.
According to the results described above, copper is the highest pollutant (36.4~50.2ng/ml) in raw milk of the sampl ing herds in Taiwam. The second is lead contamination (9.6~10 .7ng/nil). The Cadmium shows the lowest level in these milk specimen (0.2~0.4ng/ml). Only a trace amount of these 3 major metal were detected from the marketing milk samples. Which are all under the safty allowance.
No significant difference were observed among the sampling areas except for the copper level. However, the lead and copper were significant higher in milk and soils, and the cadmium level in summer raw milk than that of in winter ra milk. Most of the polluted dairy farms and pasture ranges are located alone the country road and the highway. It was possibly related to the roughages, feeds and soils, although the real sources of pollution has yet uncertained.
As to the contamination in tissue of goat, the main contaminated organs are liver, skeletal system and kidney. Experimentally, 1,000ppm of lead acetate can induce intra- nuclear inclusion body in hepatic cells. Vacuolization, necrosis, regeneration, binuclear and giant nuclear cell are found in liver section. There have no significant contamination both in the muscular tissue and milk been detecte.
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