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Heat Stability of Ractopamine in Different Matrices Evaluated by High Performance Liquid Chromatography
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Ractopamine（RAC）為選擇性beta-adrenergic agonists類藥物，若食入過量殘留於畜體中之RAC可產生心搏過速、心悸、骨骼肌震顫、不安等中毒現象。由於一般飲食主要是以烹煮過後的肉為主，而目前仍無關於RAC熱穩定性的研究報告。因此，本研究以高效能液相層析儀搭配紫外光偵測器分析組織中之RAC，以探討RAC在不同加熱方式（水浴、微波及高壓滅菌）、不同加熱時間（100 ℃水浴加熱15、30、60及120分鐘）及不同基質中（包括水、醬油、牛肉、豬肉、豬肝、豬腎、豬肺、牛肉／豬肉加醬油）之熱穩定性，藉此評估烹煮對組織中RAC結構穩定性的影響。實驗結果顯示，RAC在水中以不同加熱方式加熱後，以高壓滅菌釜加熱之降解率最高，微波加熱後最低，但降解率皆低於13.1 %。在不同加熱時間下，各基質中RAC之降解率皆隨加熱時間增加而增加，且呈線性相關，R2值皆在0.9以上。RAC在各基質間之降解率差異明顯，在液體基質中，加熱120分鐘後降解率在水中約為4.9 %，於醬油中可達35.5 %。在肉基質（牛肉及豬肉）中，加熱120分鐘後牛肉之降解率為24.4 %，在豬肉中卻有40.9 %。加入醬油烹煮後，豬肉與牛肉之降解率為28.7 %。同一物種（豬）不同組織（肌肉、肝臟、腎臟及肺臟）間之降解率介於34.1-46.4 %，且以豬肺中之降解率最高，相較於豬肝及豬腎有顯著之差異（p<0.05），其餘豬組織間則並無明顯之差異。綜合以上結果可知，不同基質對RAC降解率之影響確有不同，且RAC之熱穩定性相當高，一般加熱方式並無法完全破壞組織中殘留的RAC。
Heat stability of veterinary drug is an important issue to food safety due to its potential harmful consequences to consumers. Ractopamine (RAC) is a beta-adrenergic agonists which residue in food can cause tachycardia, hypotension, skeletal muscle trembling and disturbance in human. Since most food are cooked before eating, it is important to understand the effect of cooking on RAC to give more accurate estimatation of consumer exposure to RAC. The purposes of this study were to evaluate the heat stability of RAC in different heating processes (water bath, microwaving and autoclave), different heating length (100 ℃ in water bath for 15, 30, 60 and 120 min) and different matrices (including water, soy sauce, beef, pork, swine liver, swine kidney, swine lung and beef/ pork in soy sauce). High performance liquid chromatrography with UV detection was used for drug analysis. Results showed that the degradation of RAC in water was highest after autoclaving (13.1%) and lowest after microwaving. In general, RAC concentration reduced as heating time increased, and showed linear relationship (R2 >0.9). Differential degradation in different matrices was evident. In liquid matrices, RAC decreased minimally in water, but decreased up to 35.5 % when heating in soy sauce. In meat matrices (beef and pork), degradation were higher in pork (40.9 %) than in beef (24.4 %), but after heating with soy sauce, the degradation were similar in pork and beef both at 28.7 %. Degradation of RAC in swine tissues (muscle, liver, kidney and lung) ranged from 34.1 to 46.4 % and was highest in lung with significant difference (p<0.05) to liver and kidney, suggesting that degradation of RAC were different in different matrices. In conclusion, RAC is considered heat stable in water, but degradation varies in different matrices. Overall, heating can not be relied on to completely degraded RAC.
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